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3X 



r^ 




GEORGE FOX'S 
JOURNAL 



3S. 6d. Isblster^s Standard Abridgments 8s. 6d. 

net. net. 

I. JOHN WESLEY'S JOURNAL 

[i2tA Thousand 

IL GEORGE FOX'S JOURNAL 

[Just Published 
Other Volumes in Preparation 



I 



GEORGE FOX'S 



ABRIDGED BY 

PERCY LIVINGSTONE PARKER 

WITH 

AN INTRODUCTION 

BY 

W>^OBERTSON NICOLL, M.A., LL.D. 

AND 

VARIOUS APPRECIATIONS 



/ 

V)>ROBE 




LONDON 

ISBISTER AND COMPANY LIMITED 

ij TAVISTOCK STREET COVENT GARDEN 

1903 



IT" ^ 

S EDITOR'S NOTE 

nK The warm reception given by the Public and the Press 

to my abridgment of John Wesley's "Journal," pub- 
lished last year, suggested that an*^bridgment of George 
Fox's " Journal " would be equally welcome. 

The late Rev. Hugh Price Hughes, in the introduc- 
tion which he kindly wrote for that edition of Wesley's 
"Journal," pointed out the equal value of Fox's 
" Journal." > 

"He who desires to understand the real histdry of 
the English people during the seventeenth, eighteenth, 
and nineteenth centuries," he wrote, " should read most 
carefully three books : George Fox's * Journal,' John 
Wesley's * Journal,' and John Henry Newman's 
'Apologia pro Viti Sui.' " 

Then he added : " Has not Carlyle said that George 
Fox making his own clothes is the most remarkable 
event in our history ? George Fox was the very incarna- 
tion of that Individualism which has played, and will yet 
play, so great a part in the making of modern England. 
If you want to understand *the dissidence of Dissent and 
the Protestantism of the Protestant religion,' read the 
Journal of George Fox." 

Fox's " Journal " suffers even less than Wesley's by 
abridgment, but it is difficult to say which is the more 
interesting. 

To-day, when our courts are hearing pleas for liberty 
of conscience, when men are passively resisting the 



vi EDITOR'S NOTE 

payment of rates because they conscientiously object to 
the Act for which the rates are levied, there is a special 
interest in reading Fox's " Journal." 

Fox was almost an habitue of the courts of his day, 
and his life was one long struggle with those who sought 
to make him do those things which were against his con- 
science to do. So expert did he become in fighting his 
cases that, he frequently cornered the judges who tried 
him. 

Fox was the classic passive resister. He let the law 
take its course when it bade him do things which he 
could not do. Even when the King " pardoned " the 
offences for which he was in prison, he refused to accept 
such pardon because it would seem to admit that he was 
guilty. Not till he was unconditionally released without 
any favour would he leave the prison. 

Certain things " struck at " his heart. He could not 
raise his hat to any man : that was not true honour. He 
could not take the oath : he had been bidden not to 
swear. He could not worship God in a " steeple- 
house " : men had made a building stand for Christ's 
Church. He claimed liberty to worship God when, 
where, and how he pleased. These things brought him 
constantly into conflict with the authorities, and because 
he passively resisted the law he endured long months 
and years of imprisonment under conditions which were 
simply terrible, and which he vividly describes in the 
*« Journal." 

Incidentally the " Journal " shows how Friends were 
distrained on for tithes, how they bore the spoiling of 
their goods, how unjustly goods were seized for the 
payment of small amounts. 

Fox has been called fanatical and obstinate, and perhaps 
he was both. But the obstinacy was splendid, and the 



EDITOR'S NOTE vii 

feinaticism gave him the fanatic's deadly certainty which 
enabled him to fight against terrible odds and to gather 
round him men and women who have won the admira- 
tion of all time. 

Behind the rugged man and his rugged ways was 
an eternal principle. The burden of Fox's message was 
this : " God is a Spirit, and they that worship him must 
worship him in Spirit and in truth " : this is the spiritual 
life : this is the only meaning of religion. " Thou 
hast made us for Thyself," said St. Augustme, " and 
our heart can find no rest until it rests in Thee." 
'* Old mass-houses," priests and liturgies to Fox were only 
machinery and scaffolding. Man he believed can find God 
for himself without their help, for God is within, and 
man cannot fly from Him though he seek the ends of the 
earth. This is the eternal element in Fox's message which 
will always find men however uncouth the prophet. 

Coleridge was of those who appreciated Fox's 
** Journal." In his ** Biographia Literaria," he says : 
<' There exist folios on the human understanding, and 
the nature of man, which would have a fax juster claim 
to their high rank and celebrity, if, in the whole huge 
volume, there could be found as much fulness of heart 
and intellect as bursts forth in many a simple page 
of George Fox." 

The first edition, folio, of Fox's "Journal" was 
"printed for Thomas Northcott " in 1694. It was 
prepared for the press by Thomas Ellwood, a man of great 
interest. He was one of the early fathers of Quakerism, 
and was intimately associated with Fox and William 
Penn. As a boy he used to play games in Lincoln's Inn 
Fields with Guli Springett, who became the wife of Penn 
— to Ellwood's disappointment. All three now rest 
together in the quiet burial-ground at Jordans. 



viii EDITOR'S NOTE 

Ellwood wrote an autobiography (published in 
Morley's Universal Libraty) which gives a very graphic 
picture of the life of his times and of the persecutions 
which the early Quakers endured. But he has greater 
claims to fame than these, for as a youth he was 
reader to Milton and even suggested to the blind 
poet the writing of " Paradise Regained." In the 
"History of Thomas Ellwood written by himself" we 
have several charming glimpses of Milton. This is 
how they met : 

"... John Milton, a gentleman of great note tot 
learning throughout the learned world, for the accurate 
pieces he had written on various subjects and occa- 
sions. 

"This person having filled a public station in the 
former times, lived now a private and retired life in 
London, and having wholly lost his sight, kept always a 
man to read to him, which usually was the son of some 
gentleman of his acquaintance, whom in kindness he 
took to improve in his learning. 

" Thus by the mediation of my friend, Isaac Penington 
[son of a Lord Mayor of London], with Dr. Paget [' a 
physician of note in London '], and of Dr. Paget with 
John Milton, was I admitted to come to him, not as a 
servant to him (which at that time he needed not), nor 
to be in the house mth him, but only to have the liberty 
of coming to his house at certain hours when I would, 
and to read to him what books he should appoint me, 
which was all the favour I desired. . . . 

" He received me courteously, as well for the sake of 
Dr. Paget, who introduced me, as of Isaac Penington, 
who recommended me, to both of whom he bore a good 
respect. And having inquired divers things of me with 
respect to my former progression in learnit^ he dismissed 



,. J 



EDITOR'S NOTE ix 

me, to provide myself with such accommodation as might 
be most suitable to my future studies. 

*' I went therefore and took myself a lodging as near 
to his house (which was then in Jewyn-street) as con- 
veniently as I could, and from thenceforward went every 
day in the afternoon except on the first days of the 
week, and sitting by him in his dining-room read to him 
in such books in the Latin tongue as he pleased to hear 
me read. 

" At my first sitting to read to him, observing that I 
used the English pronunciation, he told me, if I would 
have the benefit of the Latin tongue, not only to read 
and understand Latin authors, but to converse with 
foreigners, either abroad or at home, I must learn 
the foreign pronunciation. To this I consenting, he 
instructed me how to sound the vowels. . . . 

" I had before, during my retired life at my father's, 
by unwearied diligence and industry, so far irecovered 
the rules of grammar in which I had once been very 
ready that I could both read a Latin author and after 
a sort hammer out his meaning. But this change of 
pronunciation proved a new difficulty to me. It 
was now harder to me to read than it was before to 
understand when read. But 

Incessant pains 
The end obtains. 

And so did I, which made my reading the more accept- 
able to my master. He, on the other hand, perceiving 
with what earnest desire I pursued learning, gave me not 
only all the encouragement but all the help he could, 
for having a curious ear, he understood by my tone 
when I understood what I read and when I did not ; 
and accordingly would stop me, examine me, and open 
the most difficult passages to me. Thus went I on for about 



ElV.ood mote an WtobiograP"' \ ,ot gtW*"' 
Motley's UiiivetsiJUblitt?^ «*■* •", ite pws'"'"""^ 
PiMitte ot the He ol his times ^"^ °' be tos P"*'" 
"Weh the e«l, Q^kets endtBetl- *° „„th he «»^ 

'■"= «eve,i ^ ""»' ™"^ of »*°°' 

'"» 'Itey me, ."^^^'mioB BtoV** ^^ „„te to' 

•""^ te hart °'»' theieatt.ea'"" s„b)ecK »» 

'i Wrttten on ''"""^ „ in the 

tooJ,,„"" c»f - '^Im, «hich '""^ ,ho"o ' 
r>„.r'"'='0.>^ *^'^te ;' T/,i«10» )• „„e t» » . „ot),»»' 



I' 



1 

I 



'' '">»>"„1^'=^ »^_ <^^t>i* »' *C "»« ' J^hett I « * 
•^ t^^is house •l';^, he s*""" ^ 

•='fea.^^^« <"•"' \LsW' '^ ji'^ '' r> 




«l (ujlable lo nqr 
I nnl tberc6itc axf took Dmlf i l^pf ■ aw 
I to hk house («bich w tha in j n )iBwd| a a» 
I renieii:!)' >s ' ^dt nl ^ slAxIninf tor Hof 
I dar in ibc aftanoai acc^ s At fie« ^ <^ te 
I —t -■' --Tin- fjfii, n [)i| j.^ ^ iikJ M ^ 
in mi booh in Ur Um H^ a b }taK » W 

[ BCtOd. 

[ wdlheiitttiii I II i^tUm.ir^ 
Md OS ^I ^ ^ 

I iutnKled me hot a «Bj tfe ,^ 
*««i»liaial, ht 



to reacTit 

he entitled 

:st attention 

id returned 

the &vour 

Wl thought of 

Jd after some 

paid to him, 

Lost," but 

He made 

"^.e, (hen broke 

ibject. 

ihe city well 
11 he returned 
1 wail on him 
whenever any 
me his second 
in a pleasant 
'or you put it 
ae at Chalfont, 

ot'a " Journal " 
Fox's style is 



■'■Wl.thidiiiiiJe, 






ffllm&tfc^^ 



<^iM. 



prvt^ 



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hdji,^ 






X EDITOR'S NOTE 

six weeks' time, reading to him in the afternoons ; and 
exercising myself with my own books in my chamber in 
the forenoons I was sensible of an improvement . . . ." 

But ill-health compelled EUwood to go home for 
awhile. On his return he says : " I was very kindly 
rccdved by my master, who had conceived so good an 
opinion of me that my conversation I found was accept- 
able to him, and he seemed heartily glad of my recovery 
and return; and into our old method of study we fell 
again, I reading to him, and he explaining to me, as 
occasion required." 

One morning in the year 1662 Ellwood and others 
were arrested at a Quaker's meeting in London and taken 
to the Old Bridewell, and that seems to have ended the 
reading together but not the friendship, as this charmit^ 
story shows : 

" Some little time before I went to Aylesbury prison," 
writes EUwood, referring to a second arrest, "I was 
desired by my quondam master, Milton, to take a house 
for him in the neighbourhood where I dwelt that he 
might go out of the city for the safety of himself and his 
family, the pestilence then growing hot in London. 

"I took a pretty box for him in Giles Ctialfont [now 
a. sotall Milton museum] a mile from me, of which I 
gave him notice and intended to have waited on him 
and seen him well settled in it, but was prevented by 
that imprisonment. But now being released and returned 
home, I soon made a visit to him to welcome him into 
the country. 

"After some common discourses had passed between 
us he called for a manuscript of tus ; which being brought 
he delivered to me, bidding me take it home with me and 
read it at my leisure ; and when I had so done, return 
it to him with my judgment thereupon. 



EDITOR'S NOTE xi 

*' When I came home and had set myself to read it 
I found it was that excellent poem which he entitled 
' Paradise Lost.' After I had with the best attention 
read it through, I made him another visit and returned 
him his book, with due acknowledgment of the favour 
he had done me in communicating it to me. 

<< He asked me how I liked it and what I thought of 
it, which I modestly but freely told him, and after some 
further discourse about it, I pleasantly said to him, 
• Thou hast said much here of ** Paradise Lost," but 
what hast thou to say of " Paradise Found ? " ' He made 
me no answer, but sat some time in a muse, then broke 
off that discourse and fell upon another subject. 

<* After the sickness was over and the city well 
cleansed and become safely habitable again he returned 
thither. And when afterwards I went to wait on him 
there, which I seldom failed of doing whenever any 
occasions drew me to London, he showed me his second 
poem, called * Paradise Regained,' and in a pleasant 
tone said to me, * This is owing to you, for you put it 
into my head by the question you put to me at Chalfont, 
which before I had not thought of.' " 

Such was the man who first edited Fox's ** Journal " 
for the press. If Macaulay's criticism of Fpx's style is 
correct, Ellwood must have had a very tough task. 

Fox's * Journal,' says Macaulay, "before it was 
published, was revised by men of more sense and know- 
ledge than himself, and therefore, absurd as it is, gives 
no notion of his genuine style. . . . Nor can the most 
corrupt passage in Hebrew be more unintelligible to 
the unlearned than his English often is to the most 
acute and attentive reader." 

To prove his point Macaulay quotes fifteen lines from 
Fox which contain no full stops. They certainly lack 



xii EDITOR'S NOTE 

lucidity and would not have made Macaulay's reputation. 
The great historian's antipathy to Fox is very marked, 
and yet in recording his death he has to admit ttiat " an 
event had taken place which a historian, whose object it 
is to record the real life of a nation, ought not to pass 
unnoticed." 

Carlyle's appreciation of Fox, quoted on page xxvi, 
glows with admiration, but even he had a good-humoured 
growl at the lack of dates in the " Journal." 

" George," he says, " dates nothing ; and his facts 
everywhere lie round him like the leather-parings of his 
old shop." 

I have been compelled to delete no less than three 
quarters of the " Journal," But Fox was so voluminous 
and lengthy a correspondent that many of his letters can 
well be spared. He spared no one. The King of 
Poland, the Sultan of Turkey, the Dey of Algiers 
Cromwell and Charles II., judges, justices and chief 
constables, all received letters from him couched in 
the plainest of terms. 

But though I have abridged the " Journal," the 
portion here published sets forth a unique, massive 
figure of great physical bravery, of mighty moral 
courage, and of superb spiritual ins^ht. And so I 
hope that this edition of the ■' Journal " will find favour 
with all who admire those qualities and love a human 
document. 

Percv L. Parker. 



t 



INTRODUCTION 

BY W. ROBERTSON NICOLL, M.A., LL.D. 

George Fox's "Journal," of which an abridgment is now 
provided, was published in 1694, three years after the 
author's death. In a paper dated June 24, 1685, Fox 
named a committeeYor its revision, and it was transcribed 
for the press by Thomas EUwood. The original manu- 
script is not in autograph, and has been dictated to 
successive amanuenses. It is a book of undying 
interest, of the highest value, both as a historical record 
and as a religious classic. 

George Fox's powers are now as much beyond dispute 
as his character. Macaulay never was more unfortunate 
than in his judgment that there was no reason for placing 
George Fox morally and intellectually above Ludovick 
Muggleton or Joanna Southcote. This is on a level 
with his characterisation of St. Augustine's Confessions, 
as "written in the style of a field preacher." The 
characterisation was justly and severely criticised by 
Mr. Gladstone. 

Professor Huxley has testified to the great beauty of 
many passages in George Fox's works^ and Fox wrote 
nothing so valuable as his " Journal." It has throughout 
that refinement and distinction of expression common to 
the mystics and those deeply conversant with the Bible, 
and habitually occupied with great thoughts. 

The intense personal uprightness of George Fox 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

vindicates the story. His contemporaries testified to 
his manner, " civil beyond all forms of breeding," and 
to his " awful, living, reverent frame in prayer," To his 
heroic courage, his unfailing constancy, and his absolute 
carelessness of worldly aims, the whole record bears 
unbroken witness. 

Much stress has been laid by recent writers on the 
social work accomplished by Fox and his followers. The 
tribute is amply justified, but it should be noted that 
George Fox did not directly address himself to the solu- 
tion of social problems. He was consciously and directly 
a preacher of Christian truth. As such he could not but 
sympathise with all the oppressed, and we find him 
standing up for the slaves in the West Indies and for 
the rights of the Indians in Maryland, because these, 
along with himself, were partakers in the divine Light. 

He was not a politician. It may be doubted whether 
he saw much to choose between the Government of the 
Commonwealth and the Government of the Restoration. 
'I'be issues between monarchy and republicanism were 
trifling beside those with wliich he dealt habitually. It 
was as the apostle of religious liberty tiiat he did his 
most enduring work, and it is by his life-long stru^le 
for freedom that he makes his most potent appeal to this 
generation, 

George Fox carried out with faithful simplicity and 
decision his policy of passive resistance to the laws that 
interfered with the elementary rights of Christians. He 
and his followers treated repressive legislation as if it 
didliot^st. In their view it was beyond the rights of 
the State. Conventicle Acts they refused to obey. Fox 
said, " Now is the time for you to stand . , . go to your 
Meeting-house as at other times." "That which we 
suffer for, and for which our goods were spoiled, was but 



INTRODUCTION xv 

obedience to the Lord in his Power and in his Spirit, 
who was able to help and to succour, and we had no 
helper in the world but Him, ... Oh ! the havoc and 
the spoiling the priests made of our goods because we 
could not put into their mouths and give them tithes ; 
besides casting into prisons and laying great fines upon 
us because we could not swear." 

The Quakers were passive in their resistance. 
Again and a:gjaan Fox said to his foes : '' Here is gospel 
for them : here is my hair, here is my cheek, and here is 
my shoulder," turning it to them. The struggle was 
maintained with quiet boldness and undaunted confi- 
dence, without a thought of yielding. When Fox 
appeared before the judges he sometimes spoke so loudly 
that his voice drowned the court, but he did not speak in 
anger. " I am present ; here stand I for the Lord Jesus 
Christ, for His sake do I suffer, for Him do I stand this 
day, and if my voice were five times louder I should lift 
it up and sound it for Christ's sake for whose cause 
I stand this day before your judgment-seat." 

Sometimes the judges were " cool and loving," some- 
times they were fierce and abusive, but they could do 
nothing to break the resolution of Fox, and he went to 
gaol over and over again through a long course of 
years. His heart never failed him, because in his own 
sufferings " he was clear and innocent as a child," and 
moved often <Uo sing praises to the Lord in His 
triumphing power over all." For himself he carried 
through all a singular rest of heart. 

Sometimes, as he thought of the sufferings of his 
brethren, his mind was much clouded. When the perse- 
cution ceased for a little he would come from under 
<<the travails and sufferings that had lain with such 
weight upon him." He had but little reason to complain 



xvi INTRODUCTION 

of his followers. The world watched to see how the 
Quakers would stand, and they did stand, bearing up 
like men against frequent tempests of cruelty, oppression, 
and insult. The result was that while repressive laws 
impaired the continuity of corporate lite in other Noncon- 
formist sects, the Quakers were strengthened and estab- 
lished. 

George Fox died in something like the reality of 
triumph. He left the Friends in unity and in peace. 
He was assured that there were " many who cannot but 
suffer with the Lord's people that suffer." But his 
sacrifice was performed in faith, and he was not too 
careful about results. His own responsibility weighed 
with him chiefly. At the last meeting be attended 
he said he thought he felt the cold strike to his heart as 
he came out, yet he added : " I am glad I was here, now 
I am clear, I am fully clear." To those who came to 
visit bim in his last illness he said, " All is well. The 
Seed of God rules over all, and over Death itself." 
When he died his followers bore witness that " he was 
clear, he was fully clear," 

These pages are full of instruction and guidance to 
those who in this day have to take up again the battle 
for religious freedom. If that battle is fought with Fox's 
faith and patience and brave contempt of ill, it will end 
in a righteous peace. 

W. Robertson Nicoll. 



APPRECIATIONS OF FOX 

L— BY HIS WIFE 

It having pleased Almighty God to take away my dear 
husband out of this evil, troublesome world, who was 
not a man thereof, being chosen out of it ; who had his 
life and being in another region, and whose testimony 
was against the world, that the deeds thereof were evil, 
and therefore the world hated him : so I am now to give 
in my account and testimony for him, whom the Lord 
hath taken unto his blessed kingdom and glory. And 
it is before me from the Lord, and in my view, to give a 
relation, and leave upon record the dealings of the Lord 
with us from the beginning. 

He was the instrument in the hand of the Lord in 
this present age, which he made use of to send forth into 
the world, to preach the everlasting gospel, which had 
been hid from many ages and generations ; the Lord 
revealed it unto him, and made him open that new and 
living way, that leads to life eternal, when he was but a 
youth and a stripling. 

In the year 1652 it pleased the Lord to draw him 
towards us to Swarthmore, my dwelling-house, whither he 
brought the blessed tidings of the everlasting gospel, 
which I, and many hundreds in these parts, have cause to 
praise the Lord for. My then husband, Thomas Fell, was 
not at home at that time, but gone to the Welsh circuit, 

b 



xviii APPRECIATIONS OF FOX 

being one of the judges of assize; and oar house being 
a place open to entertain ministers and religious people 
at, one of Geoi^e Fox's friends brought him hither, 
where he stayed all aigbt The next day being a lecture, 
or a fast-day, he went to Ulverstone steeple-house, but 
came not in till people were gathered ; I and my chil- 
droi bad been a long time there before. And when 
they were singing before the sermon, he came in ; and 
when they had done singing, he stood up upon a seat or 
form, and desired that he might have liberty to speak ; 
and he that was in the pulpit said he might. And the 
Srst words that he spoke were as followeth : " He is not 
a Jew that is one outward ; neither is that circumcision 
which is outward : but he is a Jew that is one inward ; 
and that is circumcision whidi is of the heart." And so 
he went on and said how that Christ was the Light of the 
world, and lighteth every man that cometh into the 
world ; and that by this Light they might be gathered 
to God, &c. 

I stood up in my pew and wondered at his doctrine, 
for I had never heard such before. And then he weiit 
on and opened the Scriptures, and said, " the Sciipturea 
were the prophets' words, and Christ's and the apostle's 
words, and what, as they spoke, they enjoyed and pos- 
sessed, and had it from the Lord " : and said, " then 
what had any to do with the Scriptures, but as they 
came to the Spirit that gave them forth. You wilt say, 
Christ saith this, and the apostles say this ; but what 
canst thou say? Art thou a child of Light, and hast 
thou walked in the Light, and what thou speakest, is it 
inwardly from God ? " &c. This opened me so that it 
cut me to the heart ; and then I saw clearly we were all 
wrong. 

So I sat down in my pew again and cried bitterly ; and 



f I 



APPRECIATIONS OF FOX xix 

I crJled in my spirit to the Lo^d, " We are all thieves ; 
we are all thieves; we have taken the Scriptures in 
words, and know nothing of them in ourselves." So 
that served me, that I cannot well tell what he spoke 
afterwards ; but he went on in declaring against the false 
prophets, and priests, and deceivers of the people 

In 1669 I went to the West, towards Bristol, and there 
I stayed till George came over from Ireland, which was 
eleven years after my former husband's decease. And 
then he being returned, at Bristol he declared his inten- 
tions of marriage; and there also was our marriage 
solemnised. Within ten days after I came homewards, 
but my husband stayed up and down in the countries 
amongst Friends, visiting them. . . . 

Though the Lord had provided an outward habitation 
for him, yet he was not willing to stay at it, because it 
was so remote and far from London, where his service 
most lay. And my concern for God, and his holy, 
eternal truth, was then in the North, where God had 
placed and sent me, and likewise for the ordering and 
governing of my children and family ; so that we were 
very willing, both of us, to live apart for some years 
upon God's account, and his truth's service, and to 
deny ourselves of that comfort which we might have had 
in being together, for the sake and service of the Lord 
and his truth. And if any took occasion, or judged 
hard of us because of that, the Lord will judge them ; 
for we were innocent. And for my own part, I was 
willing to take many long journeys, for taking away all 
occasion of evil thoughts; and though I lived two 
hundred miles from London, yet have I been nine times 
there, upon the Lord and his truth's account; and of 
all the times that I was at London, this last time was 
most comfortable, that the Lord was pleased to give me 



XX APPRECIATIONS OF FOX 

strength and ability to travel that great journey, being 
seventy-six years of age, to see my dear husband, who 
was better in his health and strength than many times I 
had seen him before. I look upon it, that the Lord's 
special hand was in it, that I should go then, for he 
lived but about half a year after I left him; which 
makes me admire the wisdom and goodness of God, in 
ordering my journey at that time. 

Margaret Fox. 



II.— BY WILLIAM PENN 

George Fox was born in Leicestershire, about the 
year 1624. He descended of honest and sufficient 
parents, who endeavoured to bring him up, as they did 
the rest of their children, in the way and worship of 
the nation; especially his mother, who was a woman 
accomplished above most of her degree in the place 
where she lived. But from a child he appeared of 
another frame of mind than the rest of his brethren ; 
being more religious, inward, still, solid, and observing 
beyond his years, as the answers he would give, and the 
questions he would put upon occasion, manifested to 
the astonishment of those that heard him, especially in 
divine things. 

His mother taking notice of his singular temper, and 
the gravity, wisdom, and piety that very early shined 
through him, refusing childish and vain sports and com- 
pany, when very young, she was tender and indulgent 
over him, so that from her he met with little difficulty. 
As to his employment, he was brought up in country 
business ; and as he took most delight in sheep, so he 
was very skilful in them; an employment that very 
well suited his mind in several respects, both from its 
innocency and solitude; and was a just figiu-e of his 
after ministry and service. 

I shall not break in upon his own account, which is 
by much the best that can be given, and therefore desire. 



xxii APPRECIATIONS OF FOX 

what I can, to avoid saying anything of what is said 
already, as to the particular passages of his coming 
forth; but, in general, when he was somewhat above 
twenty, he left his friends, and visited the most retired 
and religious people in those parts; and some there 
were, short of few, if any, in this nation, who waited for 
the consolation of Israel night and day ; as Zacharias, 
Anna, and good old Simeon did of old time. To these 
he was sent, and these he sought out in the neighbour- 
ing counties, and among them he sojourned till his more 
ample ministry came upon him. 

Though the side of his understanding which lay 
next to the world, and especially the expression of 
it, might sound uncouth and unfashionable to nice 
ears, his matter was nevertheless very profound; and 
would not pnly bear to be often considered, but the 
more it was so, the more weighty and instructing 
it appeared. And as abruptly and brokenly as some- 
times his sentences would fall from him, about divine 
things, it is well known they were often as texts to 
many fairer declarations. And indeed it showed, 
beyond all contradiction that God sent him; that no 
arts or parts had any share in the matter or manner of 
his ministry; and that so many great, excellent, and 
necessary truths as he came forth to preach to mankind, 
had therefore nothing of man's wit or wisdom to 
recommend them ; so that as to man he was an original, 
being no man's copy. And his ministry and writings 
show they are from one that was not taught of man, nor 
had learned what he said by study. 

He had an extraordinary gift in opening the 
Scriptures. He would go to the marrow of things. 
But above all he excelled in prayer. The inwardness 
and weight of his spirit, the reverence and solemnity of 



APPRECIATIONS OF FOX xxiii 

his address and behaviour, and the fewness and fulness 
of his words, have often struck, even strangers, with 
admiration, as they used to reach others with consola- 
tion. The most awful, living, reverent frame I ever felt 
or beheld, I must say, was his in prayer. 

He was of an innocent life, no busy-body, nor self- 
seeker, neither touchy, nor critical ; what fell from him 
was very inoffensive, if not very edifying. So meek, 
contented, modest, easy, steady, tender, it was a 
pleasure to be in his company. He exercised no 
authority but over evil, and that everywhere and in all ; 
but with love, compassion, and long-suffering. A most 
merciful man, as ready to forgive, as unapt to take 
or give an offence. 

He was an incessant labourer. As he was unwearied, 
so he was undaunted in his services for God and 
his people ; he was no more to be moved to fear than to 
wrath. 



III.— BY THOMAS ELLWOOD 
First Editob of "The Journal" 

I KNEW him not till the year 1660; from that time 
to the time of his death I knew him well, conversed 
with him often, observed him much, loved him dearly, 
and honoured him tTuly; and upon good experience 
can say he was indeed a heavenly-minded man, zealous 
for the name of die Lord, and preferred the honour of 
God before all things, 

lie was vaUant for the truth, bold in asserting it, 
patient in suffering for it, unwearied in labouring in it, 
steady in his testimony to it; immovable as a rock. 
Dee[i he was in divine knowledge, clear in opening 
heavenly mysteries, plain and powerful in preaching, 
fervent in prayer. He was richly endued with heavenly 
wisdom, quick in discerning, sound in judgment, able 
and ready in giving, discreet in keeping counsel j a lover 
of righteousness, an encourager of virtue, justice, tem- 
perance, meekness, purity, chastity, modesty, humility, 
charity, and self-denial in all, both by word and 
example. 

Graceful he was in countenance, manly in person^e, 
grave in gesture, courteous in conversation, we^hty in 
conimumcation, instructive in discourse, free from affec- 
tition in speech or carriage ; a severe reprover of hard 
and obstinate sinners ; a mild and gentle admonisher of 
such as were tender, and sensible of their failings ; not 



n 



APPRECIATIONS OF FOX xxv 






apt to resent personal wrongs ; easy to forgive injuries ; 

but zealously earnest where the honour of God, the 

prosperity of truth, the peace of the church, were con- ] 

cerned ; very tender, compassionate, and pitiful he was i 

to all that were under any sort of affliction ; full of 

brotherly love, full of fatherly care; for, indeed, the 

care of the churches of Christ was daily upon him, the 

prosperity and peace whereof he studiously sought. 

Beloved he was of God ; beloved of God's people ; and 

(which was not the least part of his honour) the common 

butt of all apostates' envy ; whose good, notwithstanding, 

he earnestly sought. 



IV.— BY THOMAS CARLYLE 

I'KRKAPS the moat remarkable inddent in Modern 
History is ... an incident passed carelessly over l^ 
most Historians . . . namely, George Fox's making to 
himself a suit of t«atha-. 

This man, the first of the Quakers, and by trade a 
Shoemakei, vas one of those to whom, under ruder or 
l>uret form, the Divine Idea of the Universe is pleased to 
manifest itself; and across all the hulls of Ignorance 
and earthly Degradation shine through, in unspeakable 
Awfulness, unspeakable Beauty, on their souls : who 
therefore are righdy accounted Prophets, God-possessed, 
OT even Gods, as in some periods it has chanced. 

Sillily in his stall ; workii^ on tanned hides, amid 
pincers, paste-horns, rosin, swine-bristles, and a name- 
less flood of lublush, this youth had, nevertfadess, a 
Living Spirit belonging to him; also an antique, Id- 
spirtd Volume, through which, as through a window, 
ii i-ould look upwards, and (Uscem its celestial Home. 

The task of a daily pair of shoes, coapled even with 
siune prospect of victuals, and an honooiable Master- 
ship in Cordwainery, and pofaaps d>e post of Third- 
twrou^ in his hundred, as the crown of kmg, bithfiil 
!«wing — vats nowise satisfoctton enough to sotli a 
nund : but era anud the boring and hammmng came 
t.Mtes fram that &r country, came S{ttendouis and 
Vcttocs; for this poor Cordwaiim, «s we said, was a 



APPRECIATIONS OF FOX xxvii 

Man ; and the Temple of Immensity, wherein as Man 
he had been sent to minister, was full of holy mystery 
to him. . . • 

That Leicester shoe-shop, had men known it, was a 
holier place than any Vatican or Loretto-shrine. " So 
bandaged and hampered and hemmed in," groaned he, 
<' with thousand requisitions, obligations, straps, tatters, 
and tagrags, I can neither see nor move ; not my own 
am I, but the World's ; and Time flies fast, and Heaven 
is high, and Hell is deep : Man ! bethink thee, if thou 
hast power of Thought ! Why not ; what binds me 
here? Want, want 1 — Ha, of what ? Will all the shoe- 
wages under the Moon ferry me across into that far 
Land of Light? Only meditation can, and devout 
Prayer to God. I will to the woods : the hollow of a tree 
will lodge me, wild berries feed me ; and for Clothes, can- 
not I stitch myself one perennial suit of Leather ! " . . . 

Let some living Angelo or Rosa, with seeing eye 
and understanding heart, picture George Fox on that 
morning, when he spreads out his cutting-board for the 
last time, and cuts cowhides by unwonted patterns, 
and stitches them together into one continuous, all- 
including Case, the farewell service of his awl ! Stitch 
away, thou noble Fox : every prick of that little instru- 
ment is pricking into the heart of Slavery, and World- 
worship, and the Mammon-god. Thy elbows jerk as in 
strong swimmer-strokes, and every stroke is bearing thee 
across the Prison-ditch, within which Vanity holds her 
Workhouse and Rag-fair, into lands of true Liberty; 
were the work done, there is in broad Europe one 
Free Man, and thou art he ! — Sartor Resarfus, pp. 144, 

MS- 



.*-.-,.rf'. 



DATES CONCERNING GEORGE FOX 



PERSONAL 




NATIONAL 




Fox Bl.,« . . 


1624 


Sailing of th4 Pilgrim 




Lcavis Home . 


1643 


Fathtrt . 




Imt'viiiiiitd at NottiKg- 




Charles I. Became King 


1615 


ham-somitimi" . 


1649 


John Hampden Died 


1643 


Ditto III Dirty " almost 




Westminster Assembly 0} 




a year'' . 


1650-1 


Divines . 


1643 


Ditto at Carlist* . . 


1653 


CkarUs I. ExMUtd 


1649 


Stnl III LtttiuiiUm Jail. 


1655-6 




.649 


Sfcaks to CrommU. 




Cromwll Protector 


1653 


Hyde Park . 


1656 


Cromwell Died 


.658 


Fox Hi Scotland . 


1657 


Richard Cromwell Pro 




Last Glimfit of Crom- 




lector 


16S8 




1658 


Charles II. King . 


1660 


Jmf'yisanldiH Lancaster 




Act of Uniformity Re 




Jail—RekoMd by thi 




enacted 


1661 


Ki«p . . 


1660 


Conveniiele Act 


,664 


Sent lo Leiaster Jail . 


i66i 


Five Mile Act . 


1665 


hnpyiiontd in Lancaslir 




Milton's -Paradise Lost 








Published . 


1657 


{marly three years) . 


1663-6 


■■ Pilgrim-s Progress 




Fux i« Ireland . 


.669 


Written 




Fox Matrits Margaret 




Declaration of Indnlgtnc 




Fdl 


1669 


{made and anthdraam) 


1672 


Fox Sails for America 


I671 


TesfAct 


1673 


Sail to fforutter Jail 




Habeas Corpus Act 


,679 


{dsttiiatd nearly four- 




Moiimovth Insurrection 


. 1680 


(«« mwirti) . 


1673-4 


James II. King . 


1685 


Kesls m Swarthmort . 


1676 


The Bloody Circuit 


. 1685 


Sail, for Holland 


■677 


Declaration of Indulgence 


. 1687 


Fo.\ hies al6j . 


1690 


William and Mary . 


. .689 



FOX'S JOURNAL 

That all may know the dealings of the Lord with me, 
and the various exercises, trials, and troubles through 
which he led me, in order to prepare and fit me for the 
work unto which he had appointed me, and may thereby 
be drawn to admire and glorify his infinite wisdom 
and goodness, I think fit (before I proceed to set forth 
my public travels in the service of Truth) briefly to 
mention how it was with me in my youth, and how the 
work of the Lord was begun, and gradually carried 
on in me, even from my childhood. 

1624, — I was born in the month called July, 1624, at 
Drayton-in-the-Clay, in Leicestershire. My father's 
name was Christopher Fox: he was by profession 
a weaver, an honest man ; and there was a seed of 
God in him. The neighbours called him Righteous 
Christer. My mother was an upright woman ; her 
maiden name was Mary Lago, of the family of the 
Lagos, and of the stock of the martyrs. 

In my very young years I had a gravity and stayedness 
of mind and spirit, not usual in children; insomuch, 
that when I saw old men behave lightly and wantonly 
towards each other, I had a dislike thereof raised in 
my heart, and said within myself, " If ever I come 
to be a man, surely I shall not do so, nor be s^o 
wanton." 

A 



I 

I 



a FOX AS A YOUTH 1635 

When I came to eleven years of age, I knew pureness 
and righteousness ; for while a child I was taught how 
lo walk to be kept pure. The Lord taught me to be 
faithful in all things, and to act faithfully two ways, viz., 
inwardly to God, and outwardly to man ; and to keep to 
Vea and Nay in all things. For the Lord showed me, 
that though the people of the world have mouths full of 
deceit, and changeable words, yet I was to keep to Yea 
and Nay in all things ; and that my words should be 
few and savoury, seasoned with grace ; and that I 
might not eat and drink to make myself wanton, but for 
health, using the creatures in their service, as servants 
in their places, to the glory of Him that created them j 
they being in their covenant, and I being brought up 
into the covenant, and sanctified by the Word which 
was in the beginning, by which all things are upheld ; 
wherein is unity with the creation. 

But people being strangers to the covenant of life 
with God, they eat and drink to make themselves 
wanton with the creatures, wasting them upon their 
own lusts, and livii^ in all filthiness, loving foul ways, 
nnd devouring the creation ; and all this in the world, 
in the pollutions thereof, without God : therefore I was 
to shun all such. 

Fox Becomes a Shoemaker. 

Afterwards, as I grew up, my relations thought to 
make me a priest ; but others persuaded to the contrary : ■ 
whereupon I was put to a man, a shoemaker by trade, 
hut who dealt in wool, and was a grazier, and sold 
rattle ; and a great deal went through my hands. While 
I was with him he was blessed ; but after I left him he 
Ijroke, and came to nothing. I never wronged man or 
woman in all that time j for the Lord's power was with 



1643 HIS INNOCENCE AND HONESTY S 

me, and over me to preserve me. While I was in that 
service, I used in my dealings the word Verily, and 
it was common saying among people that knew me, 
"If George says Verily, there is no altering him." 
When boys and rude people would laugh at me, I let 
them alone, and went my way ; but people had generally 
a love to me for my innocence and honesty. 

Leaves Home* 

When I came towards nineteen years of age, being 
upon business at a fair, one of my cousins, whose 
name was Bradford, a professor, and having another 
professor with him, came to me and asked me to drink 
part of a jug of beer with them, and I, being thirsty, 
went in with them ; for I loved any that had a sense of 
good, or that sought after the Lord. When we had drunk 
each a glass, they began to drink healths, calling for 
more, and agreeing together that he that would not 
drink should pay all. I was grieved that any who made 
profession of religion should do so. They grieved me very 
much, having never had such a thing put to me before, 
by any sort of people ; wherefore I rose up to go, and 
putting my hand into my pocket, laid a groat on 
the table before them, and said, " If it be so, I will leave 
you." So I went away; and when I had done what 
business I had to do, I returned home, but did not 
go to bed that night, nor could I sleep, but sometimes 
walked up and down, and sometimes prayed and cried 
to the Lord, who said unto me, " Thou seest how young 
people go together into vanity, and old people into the 
earth ; thou must forsake all, both young and old, and 
keep out of all, and be a stranger unto all." 

Then at the command of God, on the ninth day ot 
the seventh month, 1643, 1 left my relations, and twoke 



4 TEMPTED TO DESPAIR 164+ 

05 ail familianC^ or fellovship with old or young. 
I passed to Lutterworth, where I stayed some time ; and 
thence to Northampton, where also I made some stay ; 
then to Newport-Pagnell, whence, after I had stayed a 
while, I went to Bamet, in the fourth month, called 
June, in 1644. As I thus travelled through the 
country, professors took notice, and sought to be 
acquainted with me; but I was afraid of them, for I 
was sensible they did not possess what they professed. 
Now during the time that I was at Bamet, a strong 
temptation to despair came upon me. Then I saw how 
Christ was tempted, and mighty troubles I was in ; 
sometimes I kept myself retired in my chamber, and often 
walked solitary in the chace, to wait upon the Lord. 

I wondered why these things should come to me ; 
and I looked upon mysell and said, " Was I ever so 
before ? " Then I thought, because I had forsaken my 
relations, I had done amiss against them ; so I was 
brought to call to mind all the time that I had thus 
spent, and to consider whether I had wronged any. 
But temptations grew more and more, and I was tempted 
almost to despair ; and when Satan could not effect his 
design upon me that way, he laid snares for me, and 
baits to draw me to commit some sin, whereby he m^ht 
take advantage to bring me to despair. I was about 
twenty years of age when these exercises came upon 
me ; and I continued in that condition some years, in 
great trouble, and fain would have put it from me, I 
went to many a priest to look for comfort, but found no 
comfort from them. 

From Barnet I went to London, where I took a 
lodging, and was under great misery and trouble there; 
for I looked upon the great professors of the city, and I 
saw all was dark and under the chain of darkness. I 



1644 RETURNS HOME AGAIN 6 

had an uncle there, one Pickering, a Baptist (and they 
were tender then), yet I could not impart my mind to 
him, nor join with them 3 for I saw all, young and old, 
where they were. Some tender people would have had 
me stay, but I was fearful, and returned homewards 
into Leicestershire again, having a regard upon my 
mind unto my parents and relations, lest I should 
grieve them ; who, I understood, were troubled at my 
absence. 

When I was come down into Leicestershire, my rela- 
tions would have had me marry, but I told them I was 
but a lad, and I must get wisdom. Others would 
have had me into the auxiliary band among the 
soldiery, but I refused ; and I was grieved that they 
proffered such things to me, being a tender youth. 
Then I went to Coventry, where I took a chamber for 
a while at a professor's house, till people began to be 
acquainted with me ; for there were many tender people 
in that town. After some time I went into my own 
country again, and was there about a year, in great 
sorrows and troubles, and walked many nights by 
myself. 

**My Great Persecutor/* 

Then the priest of Drayton, the town of my birth, 
whose name was Nathaniel Stevens, came often to me, 
and I went often to him ; and another priest sometimes 
came with him ; and they would give place to me to hear 
me, and I would ask them questions, and reason with 
them. And this priest Stevens asked me a question, 
viz.. Why Christ cried out upon the cross, " My God, 
my God, why hast thou forsaken me ? " and why he 
said, " If it be possible, let this cup pass from me ; yet 
not my will, but thine be done ? " I told him that at 



6 MISERABLE COMFORTERS 1645 

that time the sins of all mankind were upon him, and 
their iniquities and transgressions with which he was 
wounded, which he was to bear, and to be an offering 
for, as he was man, but he died not as he was God ; and 
so, in that he died for all men, and tasted death for 
every man, he was an offering for the sins of the whole 
world. This I spoke, being at that time in a measure 
sensible of Christ's sufferings, and what he went through. 
And the priest said, " It was a very good, full answer, 
and such a one as he had not heard." At that time he 
would applaud and speak highly of me to others ; and 
what I said in discourse to him on the week-days, he 
would preach on the first-days ; for which I did not 
like him. This priest afterwards became my great 
persecutor. 

Fox and the Priests* 

After this I went to another ancient priest at Man- 
cetter, in Warwickshire, and reasoned with him about 
the ground of despair and temptations; but he was 
ignorant of my condition; he bade me take tobacco and 
sing psalms. Tobacco was a thing I did not love, and 
psalms I was not in a state to sing ; I could not sing. 
Then he bid me come again, and he would tell me many 
things ; but when I came he was angry and pettish, for 
my former words had displeased him. He told my 
troubles, sorrows, and griefs to his servants; which 
grieved me that I had opened my mind to such a 
one. I saw they were all miserable comforters; 
and this brought my troubles more upon me. Then 
I heard of a priest living about Tamworth, who was 
accounted an experienced man, and I went seven miles 
to him ; but I found him only Uke an empty hollow 
cask. 



1 645 POX AND THE POOR 7 

I heard also of one called Dr. Cradock, of Coventry, 
and went to him. I asked him the ground of tempta- 
tions and despair, and how troubles came to be wrought 
in man ? He asked me, Who was Christ's father and 
mother ? I told him, Mary was his mother, and that 
he was supposed to be the Son of Joseph, but he was 
the Son of God. Now, as we were walking together in 
his garden, the alley being narrow, I chanced* in 
turning, to set my foot on the side of a bed, at 
which the man was in a rage, as if his house had been 
on fire. Thus all our discourse was lost, and I went 
away in sorrow, worse than I was when I came. 
I thought them miserable comforters, and saw they 
were all as nothing to me ; for they could not reach 
my condition. 

After this I went to another, one Macham, a priest in 
high account. He would needs give me some physic, 
and I was to have been let blood ; but they could not 
get one drop of blood from me, either in arms or head 
(though they endeavoured to do so), my body being, as 
it were, dried up with sorrows, grief and troubles, which 
were so great upon me that I could have wished I had 
never been born, or that I had been born blind, that 
I might never have seen wickedness or vanity; and 
deaf, that I might never have heard vain and wicked 
words, or the Lord's name blasphemed. When the time 
called Christmas came, while others were feasting and 
sporting themselves, I looked out poor widows from 
house to house, and gave them some money. When I 
was invited to marriages (as I sometimes was), I went to 
none at all, but the next day, or soon after, I would 
go and visit them ; and if they were poor, I gave 
them some money; for I had wherewith both to keep 
myself from being chargeable to others, and to administer 



THE TRUE MINISTRY 1646 

something to the necessities of those who were in 
need. 

About the beginning of the year 1 646, as I was going 
to Coventry, and approaching towards the gale, a con- 
sideration arose in me, how it was said that "all 
Christians are believers, both Protestants and Papists " ; 
and the Lord opened to me that, if all were believers, then 
they were all born of God, and passed from death to 
life, and that none were trae believers but such ; and 
though others said they were believers, yet they were 



University Training and the Ministry* 
At another time, as 1 was walking in a field on a first- 
day morning, the Lord opened unto me, " that being 
bred at Oxford or Cambridge was not enough to fit and 
qualify men to be ministers of Christ " ; and I wondered 
at it, because it was the common belief of people. But 
I saw it clearly as the Lord opened it to me, and was 
satisfied, and admired the goodness of the Lord who had 
opened this thing unto me that morning. This struck 
at priest Steven's ministry, namely, " that to be bred at 
Oxford or Cambridge was not enough to make a man fit 
to be a minister of Christ." So that which opened in 
me, I saw struck at the priest's ministry. But my 
relations were much troubled that I would not go with 
them to hear the priest; for I would get into the 
orchards, or the fields, with my Bible, by myself. I 
asked them. Did not the apostle say to believers, that 
" they needed no man to teach them, but as the anointing 
leacheth them ? " And though they knew this was 
Scripture, and that it was true, yet they were grieved 
because I could not be subject in this matter, to go to 
hear the priest with them, I saw that to be a true 



1646 GOD'S REAL TEMPLE 9 

believer was another thing than they looked upon it to 
be : and I saw that being bred at Oxford or Cambridge 
did not qualify or fit a man to be a minister of Christ : 
what then should I follow such for ? So neither these, 
nor any of the Dissenting people, could I join with, but 
was a stranger to all, relying wholly upon the Lord Jesus 
Christ. 

^Temples Made with Hands*'' 

At another time it was opened in me, "That God, 
who made the world, did not dwell in temples made with 
hands." This at first seemed a strange word, because 
both priests and people used to call their temples or 
churches, dreadful places, holy ground, and the temples 
of God. But the Lord showed me clearly, that he did 
not dwell in these temples which men had commanded 
and set up, but in people's hearts : for both Stephen and 
the apostle Paul bore testimony, that he did not dwell 
in temples made with hands, not even in that which he 
had once commanded to be built, since he put an end to 
it ; but that his people were his temple, and he dwelt in 
them. This opened in me as I walked in the fields to 
my relations' house. 

When I came there, they told me that Nathaniel 
Stevens, the priest, had been there, and told them 
" he was afraid of me, for going after new lights." I 
smiled in myself, knowing what the Lord had opened in 
me concerning him and his brethren; but I told not 
my relations, who though they saw beyond the priests, 
yet they went to he^r them, and were grieved because I 
would not go also. But I brought them Scriptures, and 
told them, there was an anointing within man to teach 
him, and that the Lord would teach his people himself. I 
had also great openings concerning the things written in 



^ :. 

&' 



^- 10 THREE SORTS OF DREAMS 1646 

I" • 

f the Revelations ; and when I spoke of them, the priests 

[ and professors would say that was a sealed book, and 

f^ would have kept me out of it : but I told them, Christ 

i could open the seals, and that they were the nearest 

. things to us j for the epistles were written to the saints 

I that lived in former ages, but the Revelations were 

written of things to come. 

I ** Friends/* 

1^ ■ After this, I met with a sort of people that held women 

U^ have no souls (adding in a light manner) no more than a 

^ goose. But I reproved them, and told them that was 

g; not right ; for Mary said, " My soul doth magnify 

the Lord, and my spirit hath rejoiced in God my 
Saviour." 

Removing to another place, I came among a people 
that relied much on dreams. I told them, except they 
could distinguish between dream and dream, they would 
confound all together; for there were three sorts of 
dreams ; multitude of business sometimes caused dreams, 
and there were whisperings of Satan in man in the night 
season ; and there were speakings of God to man in 
dreams. But these people came out of these things, and 
at last became Friends. 

Now though 1 had great openings, yet great trouble 
and temptation came many times upon me; so that 
when it was day I wished for night, and when it was 
night I wished for day : and by reason of the openings I 
had in my troubles, I could say as David did, " Day 
unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night showeth 
knowledge." When I had openings they answered one 
another, and answered the Scriptures ; for I had great 
openings of the Scriptures : and when I was in trouble, 
one trouble also answered to another. 









\ 
\ 



1647 A STRANGER ON THE EARTH 11 

About the beginning of the year 1647, I was moved 
of the Lord to go into Derbyshire, where I met with some 
friendly people, and had many discourses with them. 
Then passing further into the Peak-country, I met with 
more friendly people, and with some in empty, high 
notions. Travelling on through some parts of Leicester- 
shire and into Nottinghamshire, I met with a tender 
people, and a very tender woman, whose name was Eliza- 
beth Hooton ; and with these I had some meetings and 
discourses. But my troubles continued, and I was often 
under great temptations; I fasted much, and walked 
abroad in solitary places many days, and often took my 
Bible, and went and sat in hollow trees and lonesome 
places till night came on ; and frequently, in the night, 
walked mournfully about by myself : for I was a man of 
sorrows in the times of the first workings of the Lord in 
me. 

Fox **a Man of Sorrows*** 

During all this time I was never joined in profession 
of religion with any, but gave myself up to the Lord, 
having forsaken all evil company, and taken leave of father 
and mother and all other relations, and travelled up and 
down as a stranger in the earth, which way the Lord 
inclined my heart ; taking a chamber to myself in the 
town where I came, and tarrying sometimes a month, 
more or less in a place ; for I durst not stay long in any 
place, being afraid both of professor and profane, lest, 
being a tender young man, I should be hurt by convers- 
ing much with either. For which reason I kept myself 
much as a stranger, seeking heavenly wisdom and getting 
knowledge from the Lord; and was brought off from 
outward things, to rely wholly on the Lord alone. 

Though my exercises and troubles were very great, 



12 FOX'S SPIRITUAL CONFLICT 1647 

yet were they not so contbual but that I had some 
intermissions, and was sometimes brought into such a 
heavenly joy, that I thought I had been in Abraham's 
bosom. As I cannot declare the misery I was in, it was 
so great and heavy upon me ; so neither can I set forth 
the mercies of God unto me in all my misery. O, the 
everlasting love of God to my soul, when I was in great 
distress ! when my troubles and torments were great, 
then was his love exceedingly great. 

"I Heard a Voice." 

Now after I had received that opening from the Lord, 
that " to be bred at Oxford or Cambridge was not suffi- 
aent to fit a man to be a minister of Christ," I regarded 
the priests less, and looked more after the Dissenting 
people. Among them I saw there was some tenderness ; 
and many of them came ailerwards to be convinced, for 
they had some openings. But as I had forsaken the 
priests, so I left the separate preachers also, and those 
esteemed the most experienced people ; for I saw there 
was none among them all that could speak to my con- 
dition. When all my hopes in them and in all men 
were gone, so that I had nothing outwardly to help me, 
nor could I tell what to do ; then, O ! then I heard a 
voice which said, " There is one, even Christ Jesus, tliat 
can speak to thy condition " ; and when I heard it, my 
heart did leap for joy. 

Then the Lord let me see why there was none upon 
the earth that could speak to my condition, namely, that 
I might give Him all the glory; for all are concluded 
under sin, and shut up in unbelief, as I had been, that 
Jesus Christ might have the pre-eminence, who enlightens, 
and gives grace, and faith, and power. Thus when God 
doth work, who shall binder it 7 and this I knew experi- 



1647 "CHRIST GAVE ME HIS LIGHT *• 13 

mentally. My desires after the Lord grew stronger, and 
zeal in the pure knowledge of God, and of Christ alone, 
without the help of any man, book, or writing. For 
though I read the Scriptures that spoke of Christ and 
of God ; yet I knew Him not, but by revelation, as He 
who hath the key did open, and as the Father of Life 
drew me to his Son by his Spirit. Then the Lord 
gently led me along, and let me see his love, which was 
endless and eternal, surpassing all the knowledge that 
men have in the natural state, or can obtain from history 
or books; and that love let me see myself, as I was 
without him. I was afraid of all company, for I saw 
them perfectly where they were, through the love of God, 
which let me see myself. I had not fellowship with any 
people, priests, or professors, or any sort of separated 
people, but with Christ, who hath the key, and opened 
the door of Light and Life unto me. I was afraid of all 
carnal talk and talkers, for I could see nothing but 
corruptions, and the life lay under the burthen of 
corruptions. 

When I myself was in the deep, shut up under all, I 
could not believe that I should ever overcome; my 
troubles, my sorrows, and my temptations were so great, 
that I thought many times I should have despaired, I 
was so tempted. But when Christ opened to me, how 
He was tempted by the same devil, and overcame him 
and bruised his head, and that through him and his 
power, light, grace, and Spirit, I should overcome also, 
I had confidence in him ; so He it was that opened to 
me, when I was shut up, and had no hope nor faith. 
Christ, who had enlightened me, gave me his light to 
believe in ; he gave me hope, which he himself revealed 
in me, and he gave me His Spirit and grace, which I 
found sufficient in the deeps and in weakness. Thus, 



It HOW FOX OVERCAME 1647 

in the deepest miseries, and in the greatest sorrows and 
temptations, that many times beset me, the Lord in his 
mercy did keep me, 

"Two Thirsts in He." 

I found that there were two thirsts in me ; the one 
after the creatures, to get help and strength there; and 
the other after the Lord, the Creator, and bis Son Jesus 
Christ. I saw all the world could do me no good ; if I 
had had a king's diet, palace, and attendance, all would 
have been as nothing; for nothing gave me comfort, but 
the Lord by his power. I saw professors, priests, and 
people, were whole and at ease in that condition which 
was my misery ; and they loved that which I would have 
been rid of. But the Lord stayed my desires upon 
himself, frOm whom came my help, and my care was cast 
upon him alone. Therefore, all wait patiently upon the 
Lord, whatsoever condition you be in ; wait in the grace 
and truth that came by Jesus : for if ye so do, there is 
a promise to you, and the Lord God will fulfil it in you. 
Blessed are all they that do indeed hunger and thirst 
after righteousness, they shall be satisfied with it. I 
have found it so, praised be the Lord who fillelh with 
it, and satisfieth the desires of the hungry soul. 

^ain, I heard a voice which said, " Thou serptent 
thou dost seek to destroy the life, but canst not ; for the 
sword which keepeth the tree of life, shall destroy thee," 
So Christ, the Word of God, that bruised the head of the 
serpent, the destroyer, preserved me ; my inward mind 
being joined to his good Seed, that bruised the head of 
this serpent, the destroyer. This inward life sprung up 
in me, to answer all the opposing professors and priests, 
and brought Scriptures to my memory to refute them 
with. 



VT' 



1647 FOX SEES GOD'S LOVE 15 

At another time, 1 saw the great love of God, and I 
was filled with admiration at the infinitude of it ; I saw 
what was cast out from God, and what entered into 
God's kingdom ; and how by Jesus, the opener of the 
door, with his heavenly key, the entrance was given ; and 
I saw death, how it had passed upon all men, and 
oppressed the seed of God in man, and in me; and 
how I in the seed came forth, and what the promise 
was to. Yet it was so with me, that there seemed 
to be two pleading in me; questionings arose in 
my mind about gifts and prophecies ; and I was 
tempted again to despair, as if I had sinned against 
the Holy Ghost. I was in great perplexity and trouble 
for many days ; yet I gave up myself to the Lord 
still. 

In Great Perplexity* 

One day when I had been walking solitarily abroad, 
and was come home, I was wrapped up in the love of 
God, so that I could not but admire the greatness of his 
love. While I was in that condition, it was opened unto 
me by the eternal light and power, and I saw clearly 
therein, " that all was done, and to be done, in and by 
Christ ; and how he conquers and destroys this tempter, 
the Devil, and all his works,"and is above him ; and that 
all these troubles were good for me, and temptations for 
the trial of my faith, Wiiich Christ had given me." The 
Lord opened me, that I saw through all these troubles and 
temptations ; my living faith was raised, that I saw all 
was done by Christ, the life, and my belief was in Him. 
When at any time my condition was veiled, my secret 
belief was stayed firm, and hope underneath held me, as 
an anchor in the bottom of the sea, and anchored my 
immortal soul to its Bishop, causing it to swim above 




THE INVISIBLE SPIRIT 16+7 

the sea, the world, where all the raging waves, foul 
weather, tempests, and tetnptatioos are. 

" As the Light Appeared." 
But, O I then did I see my troubles, tri^, and temp- 
tations more clearly than ever I had done. As the light 
ai)peared, all appeared tliat is out of the light ; darkness, 
death, temptations, the unrighteous, the ungodly ; all was 
nianlfest and seen in the light. After this, a pure fire 
appeared in me ; then I saw how he sat as a refiner's fire 
and as fullers' soap ; — then the spiritual discerning came 
into me, by which I did discern my own thoughts, gtoans, 
and sighs ; and what' it was that veiled me, and what it 
was that opened me. That which could not abide in the 
patience, nor endure the fire, in the light I found it to be 
the groans of the flesh, that could not give up to the will 
of God ; which had so veiled me, that I could not be 
patient in all trials, troubles, and perplexities; — could 
not give up self to die by the cross, the power of God, 
that the living and quickened might follow him ; and 
tliat that which would cloud and veil from the presence 
of Christ — that which the sword of the Spirit cuts down, 
and which must die, might not be kept alive. 

I discerned also the groans of the Spirit, which opened 
me, and made intercession to God ; in which Spirit is the 
irue waiting upon God, for the redemption of the body 
and of the whole creation. By this Spirit, in which the 
true sighing is, I saw over the false sighings and groan- 
ings, By this invisible Spirit I discerned all the false 
hearing, the false seeing, and the false smelling which 
was above the Spirit, quenching and grieving it; and 
that all they that were there, were in confusion and 
deceit, where the false asking and praying is, in deceit, 
in that nature and tongue that takes God's holy name in 



\ 



1647 WHY FOX WAS TEMPTED l7 

vain, wallows in the Egyptian sea, and asketh, but hath 
not ; for they hate his light and resist the Holy Ghost ; 
turn grace into wantonness, and rebel against the Spirit ; 
and are erred from the faith they should ask in, and from 
the Spirit they should pray by. He that knoweth these 
things in the true Spirit, can witness them. 

** The Stccple-Housc*** 

I was still under great temptations sometimes, and my 
inward sufferings were heavy ; but I could find none to 
open my condition to but the Lord alone, unto whom I 
cried night and day. I went back into Nottinghamshire, 
and there the Lord showed me that the natures of those 
things, which were hurtful without, were within, in the 
hearts and minds of wicked men. The natures of dogs, 
swine, vipers, of Sodom and Egypt, Pharaoh, Cain, 
Ishmael, Esau, &c. ; the natures of these I saw within, 
though people had been looking without. I cried to the 
Lord, saying, " Why should I be thus, seeing I was never 
addicted to commit those evils?" and the Lord answered, 
** That it was needful I should have a sense of all condi- 
tions, how else should I speak to all conditions ! " and in 
this I saw the infinite love of God. I saw also that 
there was an ocean of darkness and death; but an infinite 
ocean of light and love, which flowed over the ocean of 
darkness. In that also I saw the infinite love of God, 
and I had great openings. 

And as I was walking by the steeple-house in Mans- 
field, the Lord said unto me, " That which people 
trample upon, must be thy food." And as the Lord spoke 
he opened it to me, that people and professors trampled 
upon the life, even the life of Christ ; they fed upon 
words, and fed one another with words ; but they 
trampled upon the life ; trampled underfoot the blood 

B 



I 



IS FOX IS TRANSFORMED 1647 

of the Son of God, which blood was my life, and lived 
ill their airy notions, talking of him. It seemed strange 
to me at first, that I should feed on that which the high 
professors trampled upon ; but the Lord opened it clearly 
Co me by his eternal Spirit and Power. 

A Prophecy of Fox's Work. 

Then came people from far and near to see me ; but 
I was fearful of being drawn out by them ; yet I was 
made to speak, and open things to them. There was 
one Brown, who had great prophecies and sights upon 
his death-bed of me. He spoke only of what I should 
be made instrumental by the Lord to bring forth. And 
of others he spoke, that they should come to nothing, 
which was fulfilled on some, who then were something 
in show. When this man was buried, a great work of 
the Lord fell upon me, to the admiration of many, who 
thought I had been dead ; and many came to see me 
for about fourteen days. I was very much altered in 
countenance and person, as if my body had been new 
moulded or changed. While I was in that condition, I 
had a sense and discerning given me by the Lord, 
through which I saw plainly, that when many people 
talked of God and of Christ, &c., the serpent spoke in 
them ; but this was hard to be borne. Yet the work 
of the Lord went on in some, and my sorrows and 
troubles began to wear off, and tears of joy dropped 
from me, so that I could have wept night and day with 
tears of joy to the Lord, in humility and brokenness of 
heart. 

I saw into that which was without end, things which 
cannot be uttered, and of the greatness and infinitude 
of the love of God, which cannot be expressed by words. 
For I had been brought through the very ocean of 



1648 **MANY CAME TO ME" 1^ 

darkness and death, and through and over the power of 
Satan, by the eternal, glorious power of Christ; even 
through that darkness was I brought, which covered over 
all the world, and which chained down all, and shut up 
all in death. The same eternal power of God, which 
brought me through these things, was that which after- 
wards shook the nations, priests, professors, and people. 
Then could I say I had been in spiritual Babylon, Sodom, 
Egypt, and the grave ; but by the eternal power of God 
I was come out of it, and was brought over it, and the 
power of it, into the power of Christ. I saw the harvest 
white, and the seed of God lying thick in the ground, as 
ever did wheat that was sown outwardly, and none to 
gather it ; for this I mourned with tears. 

A report went abroad of me, that I was a young man 
that had a discerning spirit ; whereupon many came to 
me, from far and near, professors, priests, and people. 
The Lord's power broke forth ; and I had great openings 
and prophecies ; and spoke unto them of the things of 
God, which they heard with attention and silence, and 
went away, and spread the fame thereof. Then came the 
tempter, and set upon me again, charging me, that I 
had sinned against the Holy Ghost ; but I could not 
tell in what. Then Paul's condition came before me, 
how, after he had been taken up into the third heavens, 
and seen things not lawful to be uttered, a messenger 
of Satan was sent to buffet him. Thus, by the power of 
Christ, I got over that temptation also. 

In the year 1648, as I was sitting in a friend's house in 
Nottinghamshire (for by this time the power of God had 
opened the hearts of some to receive the word of life 
and reconciliation), I saw there was a great crack to go 
throughout the earth, and a great smoke to go as the 
crack went ; and that after the crack there should be a 



20 FOX HAS A VISION 1648 

great shaking: this was the earth in people's hearts, 
which was to be shaken before the seed of God was 
raised out of the earth. And it was so ; for the Lord's 
power began to shake them, and great meetings we 
begun to have, and a mighty power and work of God 
there was amongst people, to the astonishment of both 
people and priests. 

** Let the Youth Speak/* 

After this I went again to Mansfield, where was a 
great meeting of professors and people; here I was 
moved to pray; and the Lord's power was so great 
that the house seemed to be shaken. When I had done, 
some of the professors said it was now as in the days of 
the apostles, when the house was shaken where they 
were. After I had prayed, one of the professors would 
pray, which brought deadness and a veil over them : and 
others of the professors were grieved at him and told 
him it was a temptation upon him. Then he came to 
me, and desired that I would pray again ; but I could 
not pray in man's will. 

Soon after there was another great meeting of pro- 
fessors, and a captain, whose name was Amor Stoddard, 
came in. They were discoursing of the blood of Christ ; 
and as they were discoursing of it, I saw, through the 
immediate opening of the invisible Spirit, the blood of 
Christ. And I cried out among them, and said, " Do 
ye not see the blood of Christ ? See it in your hearts, 
to sprinkle your hearts and consciences from dead works, 
to serve the living God " : for I saw it, the blood of the 
New Covenant, how it came into the heart. This 
startled the professors, who would have the blood only 
without them, and not in them. But Captain Stoddard 
was reached, and said, *< Let the youth speak ; hear the 



1648 FOX PREACHING IN THE FIELDS 21 

youth speak," when he saw they endeavoured to bear 
me down with many words. 

There was also a company of priests, that were looked 
upon to be tender ; one of their names was Kellett ; and 
several people that were tender went to hear them. I 
was moved to go after them, and bid them mind the 
Lord's teaching in their inward parts. That priest 
Kellett was against parsonages then ; but afterwards he 
got a great one, and turned a persecutor. 

Now, after I had had some service in these parts, I 
went through Derbyshire into my own county, Leicester- 
shire, again, and several tender people were convinced. 
Passing thence, I met with a great company of professors 
in Warwickshire, who were praying, and expounding the 
Scriptures in the fields. They gave the Bible to me, 
and I opened it on the fifth of Matthew, where Christ 
expounded the law ; and I opened the inward state to 
them, and the outward state ; upon which they fell into 
a fierce contention, and so parted ; but the Lord's power 
got ground. 

Steeple^House or Church ? 

Then I heard of a great meeting to be at Leicester, 
for a dispute, wherein Presbyterians, Independents, 
Baptists, and Common-prayer-men were said to be all 
concerned. The meeting was in a steeple-house ; and 
thither I was moved by the Lord God to go, and be 
amongst them. I heard their discourse and reasonings, 
some being in pews, and the priest in the pulpit; 
abundance of people being gathered together. At last 
one woman asked a question out of Peter, What that 
birth was, viz., a being born again of incorruptible seed, 
by the Word of God, that liveth and abideth for ever ? 
4nd the priest said to her, " I permit not a woman ^p 



WHAT IS A CHURCH ( 



16+8 



speak in the church " ; though he had before given 
liberty for any to speak. 

Whereupon I was wrapped up, as in a rapture, in the 
Lord's power; and I stepped up and asked the priest, 
" Dost thou call this (the steeple-house) a church? Or 
dost thou call this mixed multitude a church ? " For 
the woman asking a question, he ought to have answered 
it, having given liberty for any to speak. But, instead 
of answering me, he asked me what a church was ? I 
told him, "The church was the pillar and ground of 
truth, made up of living stones, living members, a 
spiritual household, which Christ was the head of: but 
he was not the head of a mixed multitude, or of an old 
house made up of lime, stones, and wood." 

This set them all on fire : the priest came down out 
of his pulpit, and others out of their pews, and the dis- 
pute lliere was marred. But I went to a great inn, and 
there disputed the thing with the priests and professors 
of all sorts ; and they were all on a fire. But I main- 
tained the true church, and the true head thereof, over 
the heads of them all, till they alt gave out and fled 
away. One man seemed loving, and appeared for a 
while to join with me ; but he soon turned against me, 
and joined with a priest, in pleading for infants' baptism, 
though he himself had been a Baptist before; and so 
left me alone. Howbeit, there were several convinced 
that day ; and the woman that asked the question 
was convinced, and her family ; and the Lord's power 
and glory shone over all. 

After this I returned into Nottinghamshire, and went 
into the Vale of Beavor. As I went, I preached 
repentance to the people; and there were many con- 
vinced in the Vale of Beavor, in many towns; for 
I stayed some weeks amongst them. One morning, as I 



L 



iW 



1648 FOX "UNDER A CLOUD" 23 

was sitting by the fire, a great cloud came over me, and 
a temptation beset me ; but I sat still. And it was said, 
"All things come by nature"; and the elements and 
stars came over me, so that I was in a manner quite 
clouded with it. But as I sat still, and silent, the people 
of the house perceived nothing. And as I sat still 
under it, and let it alone, a living hope arose in me, 
and a true voice, which said, " There is a living God 
who made all things." And immediately the cloud and 
temptation vanished away, and life rose over it all; 
my heart was glad, and I praised the living God. After 
some time, I met with some people who had a notion 
that there was no God, but that all things came by 
nature. I had a great dispute with them, and over- 
turned them, and made some of them confess that there 
is a living God. Then I saw that it was good that I had 
gone through that exercise. 

Some Great Meetings 

We had great meetings in those parts, for the power 
of the Lord broke through in that part of the country. 
Returning into Nottinghamshire, I found there a com- 
pany of shattered Baptists, and others ; and the Lord's 
power wrought mightily, and gathered many of them. 
Afterwards I went to Mansfield and thereaway, where the 
Lord's power was wonderfully manifested both at Mans- 
field and other neighbouring towns. In Derbyshire the 
mighty power of God wrought in a wonderful manner. At 
Eton, a town near Derby, there was a meeting of Friends, 
where there was such a mighty power of God that they 
were greatly shaken, and many mouths were opened in 
the power of the Lord God. Many were moved by 
the Lord to go to steeple-houses, to the priests and to 
the people, to declare th^ everlasting truth unto them? 



24 FOX EXHORTS THE JUSTICES 1648 

At a certain time, when I was at Mansfield, there was 
a sitting of the justices about hiring of servants; and it 
«as upon me from the Lord to go and speak to the 
justices, that they should not oppress the servants in 
their wages. So I walked towards the inn where they 
sat ; but finding a company of fiddlers there, I did 
not go in, but thought to come in the morning, when 
I might have a more serious opportunity to discourse 
with them, not thinking that a seasonable time. 

A Hiring of Servants 

WTien I came again in the morning, they were gone, 
and I was struck even blind, that I could not see. I 
inquired of the innkeeper where the justices were to 
sit that day ; and he told me, at a town eight miles oiT. 
My sight began to come to me again ; and I went and ran 
thitherward as fast as I could. When I was come to the 
house where they were, and many servants with them, I 
exhorted the justices not to oppress the soTants in 
wages, but to do that which was right and just to them ; 
and I exhorted the servants to do their duties, and 
serve honestly, &c. They all received my exhortation 
kindly ; for I was moved of the Lord therein. 

Moreover, I was moved to go to several courts and 
steeple-houses at Mansfield, and other places, to warn 
them to leave ofT oppression and oaths, and to turn 
from deceit to the Lord, and do justly. Particularly at 
Mansfield, after I had been at a court there, I was 
moved to go and speak to one of the most wicked men 
ill the country, one who was a common drunkard, 
a noted whore-master, and a rhyme-maker j and I 
reproved him in the dread of the mighty God, for his 
evil courses. When I had done speaking, and left 
him, he came after me, and told me, that he was so 



1648 FOX SEES AN IDEAL 25 

smitten when I spoke to him, that he had scarcely any 
strength left in him. So this man was convinced, and 
turned from his wickedness, and remained an honest, 
sober man, to the astonishment of the people who had 
known him before. Thus the work of the Lord went 
forward, and many were turned from the darkness 
to the light, within the compass of these three years, 
1646, 1647, ^"d 1648. Divers meetings of Friends, in 
several places, were then gathered to God's teaching, by 
his light, Spirit, and power ; for the Lord's power broke 
forth more and more wonderfully. 

A Vision of Innocency 

Now was I come up in Spirit through the flaming 
sword, into the paradise' of God. All things were new ; 
and all the creation gave another smell unto me than 
before, beyond what words can utter. I knew nothing 
but pureness, and innocency, and righteousness, being 
renewed into the image of God by Christ Jesus, to the 
state of Adam, which he was in before he fell. The 
creation was opened to me ; and it was showed me how 
all things had their names given them, according to their 
nature and virtue. I was at* a stand in my mind, 
whether I should practise physic for the good of man- 
kind, seeing the nature and virtues of things were 
so opened to me by the Lord. But I was immediately 
taken up in Spirit to see into another or more steadfast 
state than Adam's innocency, even into a state in Christ 
Jesus, that should never fall. And the Lord showed me 
that such as were faithful to him, in the power and light 
of Christ, should come up into that state in which Adam 
was before he fell ; in which the admirable works of 
creation, and the virtues thereof, may be known, 
through the openings of that diving Word of wisdQxp 



26 FOX AND THE GREAT PROFESSIONS 1648 

and power, by which they were made. Great things did 
the Lord lead me into, and wonderful depths were opened 
unto me, beyond what can by words be declared; but as 
people come into subjection to the Spirit of God, and 
grow up in the image and power of the Almighty, 
they may receive the Word of Wisdom, that opens 
all things, and come to know the hidden unity in 
the Eternal Being. 

Thi«c Gi^at Professions 

Thus I travelled on in the Lord's service, as the Lord 
led me. And when I came to Nottingham, the mighty 
power of God was there among Friends. From thence 
I went to Clawson in Leicestershire, in the Vale of 
Beavor, and the mighty power of God was there also, in 
several towns and villages where Friends were gathered. 
While I was there, the Lord opened to me three things, 
relating to those three great professions in the world, 
physic, divinity (so called), and law. 

He showed me that the physicians were out of the 
wisdom of God, by which the creatures were made ; 
and so knew not their virtues, because they were out 
of the Word of Wisdom ; by which they were made. 

He showed me that the priests were out of the true 
faith, which Christ is the author of; the faith which 
purifies and gives victory, and brings people to have 
access to God, by which they please God ; which mystery 
of faith is held in a pure conscience. 

He showed me, also, that the lawyers were out of the 
equity, and out of the true justice, and out of the law of 
God, which went over the first transgression, and over 
all sin, and answered the Spirit of God, that was grieved 
and transgressed in man. 

And that these three, the physicians, the priests, an<J 



1648 READING THE SCRIPTURES 27 

the lawyers, ruled the world out of the wisdom, out of 
the faith, and out of the equity and law of God : the 
one pretending the cure of the body, the other the cure 
of the soul, and the third the property of the people. 
But I saw they were all out of the wisdom, out of the 
faith, out of the equity and perfect law of God. And as 
the Lord opened these things unto me, I felt his power 
went forth over all, by which all might be reformed, if 
they would receive and bow unto it. The priests might 
be reformed, and brought into the true faith, which was 
the gift of God. The lawyers might be reformed, and 
brought into the law of God, which answers that of God, 
which is transgressed, in every one, and brings to love 
one's neighbour as himself. This lets man see, if he 
wrongs his neighbour he wrongs himself; and this 
teaches him to do unto others as he would they should 
do unto him. The physicians might be reformed, and 
brought into the wisdom of God, by which all things 
were made and created ; that they might receive a right 
knowledge of them, and understand their virtues, which 
the Word of Wisdom, by which they were made and are 
upheld, hath given them. 

The Statute of Christ 

I saw the state of those, both priests and people, 
who, in reading the Scriptures, cry out much against 
Cain, Esau, and Judas, and other wicked men of 
former times, mentioned in the Holy Scriptures ; but do 
not see the nature of Cain, of Esau, of Judas, and those 
others, in themselves. These said, it was they, they, 
they, that were the bad people ; putting it off from them- 
selves : but when some of these came, with the light and 
Spirit of truth, to see into themselves, then they came to 
say I, I, I, it is I myself, that have been the Isbmael, 



yy 



28 FOX AND THE INWARD LIGHT 1648 

and the Esau, &c. For then they came to see the nature 
of wild Ishmael in themselves ; the nature of Cain, of 
Esau, of Korah, of Balaam, and of the son of perdition 
in themselves, sitting above all that is called God in 
them. 

When I was brought up into his image in righteous- 
ness and holiness, and into the paradise of God, He let 
me see how Adam was made a living soul : and also the 
stature of Christ, the mystery that had been hid from 
ages and generations; which things are hard to be 
uttered, and cannot be borne by many. For, of all the 
sects in Christendom (so called) that I discoursed withal, 
I found none that could bear to be told that any should 
come to Adam's perfection, into that image of God, that 
righteousness and holiness that Adam was in before he 
fell ; to be clear and pure without sin, as he was. There- 
fore, how should they be able to bear being told that any 
should grow up to the measure of the stature of the ful- 
ness of Christ, when they cannot bear to hear that any 
should come, whilst upon earth, into the same power 
and Spirit that the prophets and apostles were in? 
Though it is a certain truth that none can understand 
their writings aright, without the same Spirit by which 
they were written. 

The Divine Light 

Now the Lord God opened to me by his invisible 
power, «< that every man was enlightened by the divine 
light of Christ " ; and I saw it shine through all ; and 
that they that believed in it came out of condemnation 
to the light of life, and became the children of it ; 
but they that hated it, and did not believe in it, were 
condemned by it, though they made a profession of 
Christ. This I saw in the pure openings of the Hght^ 



1648 EFFECT OF FOX'S PREACHING 29 

without the help of any man ; neither did I then know 
where to find it in the Scriptures, though afterwards, 
searching the Scriptures, I found it. For I saw in that 
Light and Spirit which was before the Scriptures were 
given forth, and which led the holy men of God to give 
them forth, that all must come to that Spirit if they 
would know God, or Christ, or the Scriptures aright, 
which they that gave them forth were led and taught by. 
But I observed a dulness and drowsy heaviness upon 
people, which I wondered at: for sometimes when I 
would set myself to sleep, my mind went over all to the 
beginning, in that which is from everlasting to everlasting. 
I saw death was to pass over this sleepy, heavy state ; 
and I told people they must come to witness death to 
that sleepy, heavy nature, and a cross to it in the power 
of God, that their minds and hearts might be on things 
above. 

Poz^s Commission 

On a certain time, as I was walking in the fields, the 
Lord said unto me : " Thy name is written in the Lamb's 
book of life, which was before the foundation of the 
world"; and, as the Lord spoke it, I believed, and 
saw it in the new birth. Then, some time after, the 
Lord commanded me to go abroad into the world, which 
was like a briery, thorny wilderness ; and when I came, 
in the Lord's mighty power, with the word of life into 
the world, the world swelled, and made a noise, like the 
great raging waves of the sea. Priests and professors, 
magistrates and people, were all like a sea, when I came 
to proclaim the day of the Lord amongst them, and to 
preach repentance to them. 

I was sent to turn people from darkness to the light, 
that they might receive Christ Jesus : for, to as many as 



^ 



so FOX TELLS HIS MESSAGE 16+8 

should receive him in his lighc, I saw that he would give 
power to become the sons of God j which I had obtained 
by receiving Christ. I was to direct people to the 
Spirit, that gave forth the Scriptures, by which they 
might be led into all truth, and so up to Christ and God, 
as they had been who gave them forth. 

Fox Defines His Mission 
Now, when the Lord God and his Son Jesus Christ 
sent me forth into the world to preach his everlasting 
gospel and kingdom, I was glad that I was commanded 
to turn people to that inward light, Spirit, and grace, by 
which all might know their salvation, and their way to God ; 
even that Divme Spirit which would lead them into all 
truth, and which I infallibly knew would never deceive any. 
But with and by this divine power and Spirit of God, 
and the light of Jesus, 1 was to bring people off from 
all their own ways, to Christ, the new and living way ; 
and from their churches, which men had made and 
gathered, to the church in God, the general assembly 
written in heaven, which Christ is the head of: and off 
from the world's teachers, made by men, to learn of 
Christ, who is the way, the truth, and the life, of whom 
the Father said, "This is ray beloved Son, hear ye 
Him ; " and off from all the world's worships, to know the 
Spirit of Truth in the inward parts, and to be led thereby ; 
that in it they might worship the Father of spirits, who 
seeks such to worship him; which Spirit they that 
worshipped not in, knew not what they worshipped. 

And I was to bring people off from all the world's 
religions, which are vain; that they might know Ihe 
pure religion, might visit the fatherless, the widows, and 
the strangers, and keep themselves from the spots of 
the world ; then there would not be so many b^gars, 




1648 POX CONDEMNS FORMALISM 31 

the sight of whom often grieved my heart, as it denoted 
so much hard-heartedness amongst them that professed 
the name of Christ. 

I was to bring them off from all the world's fellow- 
ships, and prayings, and singings, which stood in forms 
without power; that their fellowship might be in the 
Holy Ghost, and in the Eternal Spirit of God ; that 
they might pray in the Holy Ghost, and sing in the 
Spirit, and with the grace that comes by Jesus ; making 
melody in their hearts to the Lord, who hath sent his 
beloved Son to be their Saviour, and caused his heavenly 
sun to shine upon all the world, and through them all, 
and his heavenly rain to fall upon the just and the unjust 
(as his outward rain doth fall, and his outward sun doth 
shine on all), which is God's unspeakable love to the 
world. 

I was to bring people off from Jewish ceremonies 
and from heathenish fables, and from men's inventions 
and worldly doctrines, by which they blew the people 
about this way and the other way, from sect to sect; 
and from all their beggarly rudiments, with their schools 
and collies for making ministers of Christ, who are 
indeed ministers cf their own making, but not of Christ's ; 
and from all their images and crosses, and sprinkling of 
infants, with all their holy-days (so called) and all their 
vain traditions, which they had instituted since the 
apostles' days, which the Lord's power was against : in the 
dread and authority of which, I was moved to declare 
against them all, and against all that preached and not 
freely, as being such as had not received freely from Christ. 

Moreover, when the Lord sent me forth into the 
world, he forbade me to " put off my hat " to any, high 
or low ; and I was required to Thee and Thou all men 
and women, without any respect to rich or poor, great 



32 POX AND HAT HONOUR 1648 

or small. And as I travelled up and down, I was not 
to bid people Good morrow, or Good evening ; neither 
might I. bow or scrape with my leg to anyone; and this 
made the sects and professions to rage. But the Lord's 
power carried me over all to his glory, and many came 
to be turned to God in a little time ; for the heavenly 
day of the Lord sprung from on high, and broke forth 
apace, by the light of which many came to see where 
they were. 

Hat Honour— Thee and Thou 

But O I the rage that then was in the priests, magis- 
trates, professors, and people of all sorts ; but especially 
in priests and professors ! for, though Thou, to a single 
person, was according to their own learning, their 
accidence, and grammar rules, and according to the 
Bible, yet they could not bear to hear it : and as to the 
hat-honour, because I could not put off my hat to them, 
it set them all into a rage. But the Lord showed me 
that it was an honour below, which he would lay in the 
dust, and stain ; — an honour which proud flesh looked 
for, but sought not the honour which came from God 
only ; — an honour invented by men in the fall, and in 
the alienation from God, who were offended if it were 
not given them ; and yet they would be looked upon as 
saints, church-members, and great Christians : but Christ 
saith, " How can ye believe, who receive honour one of 
another, and seek not the honour that cometh from 
God only ? " " And I (saith Christ) receive not honour 
of men " : showing that men have an honour, which men 
will receive and give ; but Christ will have none of it. 
This is the honour which Christ will not receive, and 
which must be laid in the dust. 

O ! the rage and scorn, the heat and fury that arose ! 



1 649 FOX CONDEMNS FEASTS AND FAIRS S$ 

O ! the blows, punchings, beatings, and imprisonments 
that we underwent, for not putting off our hats to men I 
for that soon tried all men's patience and sobriety what 
it was. Some had their hats violently plucked off and 
thrown away, so that they quite lost them. The bad 
language and evil usage we received on this account are 
hard to be expressed, besides the danger we were some- 
times in of losing our lives for this matter, and that by 
the great professors of Christianity, who thereby evinced 
that they were not true believers. And though it was 
but a small thing in the eye of man, yet a wonderful 
confusion it brought among all professors and priests : 
but, blessed be the Lord, mapy came to see the vanity 
of that custom of putting off the hat to men, and felt 
the weight of Truth's testimony against it. 

Warfiings by Fox 

1649. — About this time I was sorely exercised in going 
to their courts to cry for justice, and in speaking and 
writing to judges and justices to do justly ; in warning 
such as kept public-houses for entertainment, that they 
should not let people have more drink than would do 
them good; and in testifying against their wakes or 
feasts, may-games, sports, plays, and shows, which trained 
up people to vanity and looseness, and led them from 
the fear of God ; and the days they had set forth for 
holy-days were usually the times wherein they most dis- 
honoured God by these things. In fairs, also, and in 
markets, I was made to declare against their deceitful 
merchandise, cheating, and cozening; warning all to 
deal justly, to speak the truth, to let their yea be yea, 
and their nay be nay ; and to do unto others as they 
would have others do unto them ; forewarning them of 
the great and terrible day of the Lord which would come 

c 



34 FOX AND CHILDREN'S TRAINING 1649 

upon them all. I was moved also to cry against all sorts 
of music, and against the mountebanks playing tricks on 
their stages, for they burthened the pure life, and stirred 
up people's minds to vanity. 

I was much exercised, too, with school-masters and 
school-mistresses, warning them to teach their children 
sobriety in the fear of the Lord, that they might not be 
nursed and trained up in lightness, vanity, and wanton- 
ness. Likewise I was made to warn masters and 
mistresses, fathers and mothers in private families, to 
take care that their children and servants might be trained 
up in the fear of the Lord; and that they themselves 
should be therein examples and patterns of sobriety and 
v virtue to them. For I saw that as the Jews were to teach 

their children the law of God and the old covenant, and 
to train them up in it, and their servants, yea, the very 
strangers were to keep the Sabbath amongst them, and 
be circumcised, before they eat of their sacrifices ; so all 
Christians, and all that made a profession of Christianity, 
ought to train up their children and servants in the new 
covenant of light, Christ Jesus, who is God's salvation to 
the ends of the earth, that all may know their salvation : 
and they ought to train them up in the law of life, the 
law of the Spirit, the law of love and of faith ; that they 
might be made free from the law of sin and death. 

All Christians ought to be circumcised by the Spirit, 
which puts off the body of the sins of the flesh, that they 
may come to eat of the heavenly sacrifice, Christ Jesus, 
that true spiritual food, which none can rightly feed upon 
but they that are circumcised by the Spirit. Likewise, 
I was exercised about the star-gazers, who drew people's 
minds from Christ, the bright and the morning-star ; and 
from the Sun of righteousness, by whom the sun, and 
moon, and stars, and all things else were made, who is 



1649 RELIGION AS A TRADE 35 

the wisdom of God, and from whom the right knowledge 
of all things is received. 

*'It Struck at My Life** 

But the earthly spirit of the priests wounded my life ; 
and when I heard the bell toll to call people together to 
the steeple-house, it struck at my life ; for it was just 
like a market-bell, to gather people together, that the 
priest might set forth his ware to sale. O ! the vast 
sums of money that are gotten by the trade they make of 
selling the Scriptures, and by their preaching, from the 
highest bishop to the lowest priest ! What one trade else 
in the world is comparable to it ? notwithstanding the 
Scriptures were given forth freely, and Christ commanded 
his ministers to preach freely, and the prophets and 
apostles denounced judgment against all covetous 
hirelings and diviners for money. But in this free 
Spirit of the Lord Jesus was I sent forth to declare the 
Word of life and reconciliation freely, that all might 
come to Christ, who gives freely, and who renews up into 
the image of God, which man and woman were in before 
they fell, that they might sit down in heavenly places in 
Christ Jesus. 

♦*Cry Against Yonder Idol** 

Now as I went towards Nottingham on a First-day 
in the morning, with Friends to a meeting there, when 
I came on the top of a hill in sight of the town, I 
espied the great steeple-house; and the Lord said 
unto me, **thou must go cry against yonder great 
idol, and against the worshippers therein." I said 
nothing of this to the Friends that were with me, but 
went on with them to the meeting, where the mighty 
power of the Lord was amongst us; in which I left 



$6 FOX PROTESTS IN CHURCH 1649 

Friends sitting in the meeting, and I went away to the 

steeple-house. 

When I came there, all the people looked like fallow- 
ground, and the priest (like a great lump of earth) stood 
in his pulpit above. He took for his text these words 
of Peter, « We have also a more sure Word of propheqr, 
whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light 
that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and 
the day-star arise in your hearts." And he told the 
people that this was the Scriptures, by which they were 
to try all doctrines, religions, and opinions. Now the 
Lord's power was so mighty upon me, and so strong in 
me, that I could not hold, but was made to cry out and 
say, " O no, it is not the Scriptures ;" and I told them 
what it was, namely, the Holy Spirit, by which the holy 
men of God gave forth the Scriptures, whereby opinions, 
religions, and judgments were to be tried; for it led 
into all truth, and so gave the knowledge of all truth. 
The Jews had the Scriptures, and yet resisted the Holy 
Ghost, and rejected Christ, the bright morning-star. 
They persecuted Christ and his apostles, and took upon 
them to try their doctrines by the Scriptures, but erred 
in judgment, and did not try them aright, because they 
tried without the Holy Ghost. 

Fox's First Imprisonment 

As I spoke thus amongst them, the officers came and 
took me away, and put me into a nasty, stinking prison ; 
the smell whereof got so into my nose and throat, that 
it very much annoyed me. But that day the Lord's 
power sounded so in their ears that they were amazed 
at the voice; and could not get it out of their ears for 
some time after, they were so reached by the Lord's 
•power in the steeple-house. 






i 



1649 FOX AT THE SHERIFF'S HOUSE 37 

At night they took me before the mayor, aldermen, 
and sheriffs of the town; and when I was brought 
before them the mayor was in a peevish, fretful temper, 
but the Lord's power allayed him. They examined me 
at large ; and I told them how the Lord had moved me 
to come. After some discourse between them and me, 
they sent me back to prison again ; but some time after 
the head sheriif, whose name was John Reckless, sent 
for me to his house. When I came in, his wife met me 
in the hall, and said, " Salvation is come to our house." 
She took me by the hand, and was much wrought upon 
by the power of the Lord God ; and her husband and 
children, and servants were much changed, for the 
power of the Lord wrought upon them. I lodged at 
the sheriffs, and great meetings we had in his house. 
Some persons of considerable condition in the world 
came to them, and the Lord's power appeared eminently 
amongst them. 

This sheriff sent for the other sheriff, and for a woman 
they had had dealings with in the way of trade; and he 
told her before the other sheriff that they had wronged 
her in their dealings with her (for the other sheriff and 
he were partners), and that they ought to make her resti- 
tution. This he spoke cheerfully ; but the other sheriff 
denied it ; and the woman said she knew nothing of it. 
But the friendly sheriff said it was so, and that the other 
knew it well enough ; and having discovered the matter, 
and acknowledged the wrong done by them, he made 
restitution to the woman, and exhorted the other sheriff 
to do the like. The Lord's power was with this friendly 
sheriff, and wrought a mighty change in him, and great 
openings he had. The next market-day, as he was 
walking with me in the chamber in his slippers, he said, 
" I must go into the market and preach repentance to 



SS FOX IN THE COMMON JAIL 1649 

the people " ; and accordingly he went into the market, 
and into several streets and preached repentance to the 
people. Several others also in the town were moved to 
speak to the mayor and magistrates, and to the people, 
exhorting them to repent. Hereupon the magistrates 
grew very angry, and sent for me from the sheriffs 
house, and committed me to the common prison. 

When the assize came on, there was one moved to 
come and offer up himself for me, body for body ; yea, 
life also : but when I should have been brought before 
the judge, the sheriffs man being somewhat long in 
fetching me to the sessions- house, the judge was risen 
before I came. At w^hich I understood the judge was 
somewhat offended, and said, ** he would have admon- 
ished the youth if he had been brought before him " ; for 
I was then imprisoned by the name of " a youth." So 
I was returned to prison again, and put into the common 
jail. The Lord's power was great among Friends ; but 
the people began to be very rude ; wherefore the governor 
of the castle sent down soldiers, and dispersed them ; 
and after that they were quiet. But both priests and 
people were astonished at the wonderful power that 
broke forth; and several of the priests were made 
tender, and some did confess to the power of the Lord. 

Now, after I was released from Nottingham jail, 
where I had been kept prisoner some time, I travelled 
as before, in the work of the Lord. Coming to Mans- 
field- Woodhouse, there was a distracted woman under 
a doctor's hand, with her hair loose all about her ears. 
He was about to bleed her, she being first bound, and 
many people being about her, holding her by violence ; 
but he could get no blood from her. I desired them to 
unbind her, and let her alone, for they could not touch 
the spirit in her, by which she was tormented. So they 



V 

\ 



1649 FOX CRUELLY BEATEN 39 

unbound her ; and I was moved to speak to her, and 
in the name of the Lord to bid her be quiet and 
still ; and she was so. The Lord's power settled 
her mind, and she mended; and afterwards she re- 
ceived the truth, and continued it to her death. The 
Lord's name was honoured ; to whom the glory of 
all his works belongs. Many great and wonderful 
things were wrought by the heavenly power in those 
days. 

In the Stocks 

Now while I was at Mansfield-Woodhouse, I was 
moved to go to the steeple-house there, and declare the 
truth to the priest and people ; but the people fell upon 
me in great rage, struck me down, and almost stifled 
and smothered me ; and I was cruelly beaten and bruised 
by them with their hands. Bibles, and sticks. Then 
they haled me out, though I was hardly able to stand, 
and put me into the stocks, where I sat some hours ; 
and they brought dog-whips and horse-whips, threaten- 
ing to whip me. After some time they had me before 
the magistrate, at a knight's house, where were many 
great persons ; who, seeing how evilly I had been used, 
after much threatening, set me at liberty. But the rude 
people stoned me out of the town, for preaching the 
word of life to them. I was scarcely able to move 
or stand, by reason of the ill usage I had received; 
yet with considerable effort I got about a mile from 
the town, and then I met with some people who gave 
me something to comfort me, because I was inwardly 
bruised ; but the Lord's power soon healed me again. 
That day some people were convinced of the 
Lord's truth, and turned to his teaching, at which I 
rejoiced. 



4 



k io FOX VISITS COVENTRY JAIL 1649 

On the First-day we came to Bagworth, and went to 
a steeple -house, where some Friends were got in ; and 
the people locked them in, and themselves too, with the 
priest. But aft^ the priest had done, they opened the 
door, and we went in also, and had a service for the 
Lord amongst them. Afterwards we had a meeting in 

I the town, amongst several people that were in high 

notions. Passing from thence, I heard of a people that 
were in prison in Coventry for religion. And as I 

(walked' towards the jail, the word of the Lord came to 
me saying, " My love was always to thee, and thou 
art in my love." And I was ravished with the sense 
of the love of God, and greatly strengthened in my 
I inward man. But when I came into the jail, where the 

prisoners were, a great power of darkness struck at me, 
and I sat still, having my spirit gathered into the love 
of God. 

A Talk with "Raoters" 
At last these prisoners began to rant, and vapour, and 
blaspheme, at which my soul was greatly grieved. They 
said they were God ; but we could not bear such things. 
When they were calm, I stood up and asked them 
whether they did such things by motion or fro n Scrip- 
ture : and they said, from Scripture. A Bible being at 
. hand, I asked them to point out that Scripture; and 

' they showed me the place where the sheet was let down 

to Peter, and it was s^d to him, what was sanctified he 
should not call common or unclean. When I had 
I showed them that that Scripture proved nothing for 

their purpose, they brought another, which spoke of 
God's reconciling all things to himself, things in heaven, 
and things in earth. I told them I owned that Scrip- 
ture also, but showed them that that was nothing to 



i 



fT^ : - 



« 



1^49 AMONG THE '* RANTERS'* 41 

their purpose either. Then seeing they said they were 
God, I asked them, if they knew whether it would rain 
to-morrow ? they said they could not tell. I told them, 
God could tell. Again, I asked them if they thought 
they should be always in that condition, or should 
change ? and they answered they could not tell. Then 
said I unto them, God can tell, and God doth not 
change. You say you are God; and yet you cannot 
tell whether you shall change or not. So they were 
confounded, and quite brought down for the time. 

After I had reproved them for their blasphemous 
expressions, I went away; for I perceived they were 
Ranters. I had met with none before ; and I admired 
the goodness of the Lord in appearing so unto me before 
I went amongst them. Not long after this, one of these 
Ranters, whose name was Joseph Salmon, put forth a 
paper, or book of recantation ; upon which they were set 
at liberty. 

*' Never such a Plant Bred** 

From Coventry I went to Atherstone ; and it being 
their lecture-day, I was moved to go to their chapel to 
speak to the priests and people. They were generally 
pretty quiet ; only some few raged, and would have had 
my relations to have me bound. I declared largely to 
them, how that God was come to teach his people him- 
self, and to bring them off from all their tnan-made 
teachers to hear his Son. Some were convinced there. 

Then I went to Market-Bosworth, and there was a 
lecture there also. He that preached that day was 
Nathaniel Stevens, who was priest of the town where I 
was bom. He raged much when I spoke to him and to 
the people, and told them I was mad. He had said 
before, to one Colonel Purfoy, that there was never such 



42 FOX AND THE SICK MAN 1649 

a plant bred in England ; and he bid the people not to 
hear me. So the people, being stirred up by the deceitful 
priest, fell upon us, and stoned us out of the town ; yet 
they did not do us much hurt. Howbeit, some people were 
made loving that day, and others were confirmed, seeing 
the rage of both priests and professors; and some cried out 
that the priest durst not stand to prove his ministry. 

As I travelled through markets, fairs, and divers places, 
I saw death and darkness in all people, where the power 
of the Lord God had not shaken them. As I was 
passing on in Leicestershire, I came to Twy-Cross, where 
there were excise-men. I was moved of the Lord to go 
to them, and warn them to take heed of oppressing the 
poor ; and people were much affected with it. There 
was in that town a great man, that had long lain sick, 
and was given up by the physicians ; and some Friends 
in the town desired me to go to see him. I went up to 
him in his chamber, and spoke the word of life to him, 
and was moved to pray by him; and the Lord was 
entreated, and restored him to health. But when I was 
come down stairs, into a lower room, and was speaking 
to the servants, and to some people that were there, a 
serving-man of his came raving out of another room, 
with a naked rapier in his hand, and set it just to my 
side. I looked steadfastly on him, and said, " Alack for 
thee, poor creature ! what wilt thou do with thy carnal 
weapon : it is no more to me than a straw." The 
standers-by were much troubled, and he went away in a 
rage, and full of wrath. But when the news of it came 
to his master, he turned him out of his service. Thus 
the Lord's power preserved me, and raised up the weak 
man, who afterwards was very loving to Friends; and 
iithen I came to that town again, both he and his wife 
came to see me, 






1650 ARRESTED AT DERBY 43 

1650. — After this I was moved to go into Derbyshire, 
where the mighty power of God was among Friends. And 
I went to Chesterfield, where one Britland was priest. He 
saw beyond the common sort of priest, for he had been 
partly convinced, and had spoken much on behalf of 
Truth, before he was priest there ; but when the priest 
of that town died, he got the parsonage, and choked 
himself with it. I was moved to speak to him and the 
people in the great love of God, that they might come off 
from all men's teaching unto God's teaching ; and he 
was not able to gainsay. But they had me before the 
Mayor, and threatened to send me, with some others, to 
the House of Correction ; and kept us in custody till it 
was late in the night. Then the officers, with the watch- 
men, put us out of the town, leaving us to shift as we 
could. So I bent my course towards Derby, having a 
friend or two with me. In our way we met with many 
professors ; and at Kidsey-Park many were convinced. 

Six Months for Blasphemy 

Then coming to Derby, I lay at a doctor's house, 
whose wife was convinced; and so were several more 
in the town. As I was walking in my chamber, the 
[steeple-house] bell rung, and it struck at my life at 
the very hearing of it ; so I asked the woman of the 
house what the bell rung for ? She said there was to be 
a great lecture there that day, and many of the officers of 
the army, and priests, and preachers were to be there, 
and a colonel that was a preacher. Then was I moved 
of the Lord to go up to them ; and when they had done 
I spoke to them what the Lord commanded me, and 
they were pretty quiet. 

But there came an officer and took me by the hand, 
and said I must go before the magistrates, and the other 



!^ 



44 FOX AND THE MAGISTRATES 1650 

two that were with me. It was about the first hour after 
noon that we came before them. They asked me, Why 
we came thither ; I said, God moved us so to do ; and I 
told them, " God dwells not in temples made with 
hands." I told them also, All their preaching, baptism, 
and sacrifices, would never sanctify them ; and bid them 
look unto Christ in them, and not unto men ; for it is 
Christ that sanctifies. Then they ran into many words ; 
but I told them they were not to dispute of God and 
Christ, but to obey him. The power of God thundered 
amongst them, and they flew like chaff before it. 

They put me in and out of the room often, hurrying 
me backward and forward ; for they were from the first 
hour till the ninth at night in examining me. Sometimes 
they would tell me, in a deriding manner, that I was 
taken up in raptures. At last they asked me, Whether I 
was sanctified ? I answered. Yes ; for I was in the 
paradise of God. Then they asked me. If I had no sin ? 
I answered, Christ, my Saviour, has taken away my sin, 
and in him there is no sin. They asked. How we 
knew that Christ did abide in us ? I said. By his Spirit, 
that he has given us. They temptingly asked, If any of 
us were Christ? I answered. Nay, we were nothing, 
Christ is all. They said. If a man steal, is it no sin ? I 
answered, All unrighteousness is sin. So when they had 
wearied themselves in examining me, they committed me 
and one other man to the House of Correction in Derby 
for six months, as blasphemers ; as appears by the 
following mittimus : — 

" To the Master of the House of Correction in Derby ^ 

greeting. 

" We have sent you herewithal the bodies of George 
Fox, late of Mansfield, in the county of Nottingham, and 



i 



1650 THE JAILER'S QUESTIONS 45 

John Fretwell, late of Staniesby, in the county of Derby, 
husbandman, brought before us this present day, and 
charged with the avowed uttering and broaching of divers 
blasphemous opinions contrary to a late act of Parlia- 
ment, which, upon their examination before us, they have 
confessed. These are therefore to require you forthwith, 
upon sight hereof, to receive them, the said George Fox 
and John Fretwell, into your custody, and them therein 
safely to keep during the space of six months, without 
bail or mainprize, or until they shall find sufficient 
security to be of good behaviour, or be thence delivered 
by order ftom ourselves. Hereof you are not to fail. 
Given under our hands and seals this 30th day of 
October, 1650. 

Ger. Bennet, 
Nath. Barton." 

Now did the priests bestir themselves in their pulpits 
to preach up sin for term of life ; and much of their 
work was to plead for it; so that people said, never 
was the like heard. After some time, he that was com- 
mitted with me, not standing faithful in his testimony, 
got in with the jailer, and by him made way to the 
justice to have leave to go to see his mother ; and so 
got his liberty. It was then reported that he said I 
had bewitched and deceived him; but my spirit was 
strengthened when he was gone. The priests and pro- 
fessors, the justices and the jailer, were all in a great 
rage against me. The jailer watched my words and 
actions, and would often ask me questions to ensnare 
me ; and sometimes asked me such silly questions as. 
Whether the door was latched, or not ? thinking to draw 
some sudden, unadvised answer from me, whence he 
might take advantage to charge sin upon me ; but I was 



46 IS HOLINESS POSSIBLE f 1650 

kept watchful and chaste, so that they could get no 
advantage of me, which they wondered at. 

While I was in prison, divers professors came to 
discourse with me; and I had a sense, before they 
spoke, that they came to plead for sin and imper- 
fection. 

Discussions in Prison 

I asked them. Whether they were behevers, and had 
faith? and they said. Yes. I asked them, In whom? 
and they said. In Christ. I replied. If ye are true 
beUevers in Christ, you are passed from death to life ; 
and if passed from death, then from sin that bringeth 
death. And if your faith be true, it will give you 
victory over sin and the devil, purify your hearts and 
consciences (for the true faith is held in a pure con- 
science), and bring you to please God, and give you 
access to him again. But they could not endure to 
hear of purity, and of victory over sin and the devil ; for 
they said they could not believe that any could be free 
from sin on this side the grave. I bid them give over 
babbling about the Scriptures, which were holy men's 
words, whilst they pleaded for unhotiness. 

At another time a company of professors came, and 
they also began to plead for sin. I asked them. Whether 
they had hope ? and they said. Yes : God forbid but we 
should have hope, I asked them. What hope is it that 
you have? Is Christ in you the hope of your glory ? 
Doth it purify you, as he is pure ? But they could not 
abide to hear of being made pure here. Then 1 bid 
them forbear talking of the Scriptures, which were holy 
men's words. For the holy men, that wrote the Scrip- 
tures, pleaded for holiness in heart, life, and conversa- 
tion here ; but since you plead for impurity and sin, 



i6So THE JAILER'S CONVERSION 47 

which is of the devil, what have you to do with the holy 
men's words ? 

The Jailer's Visioa 

Now the keeper of the prison, being a high professor, 
was greatly enraged against me, and spoke very wickedly 
of me : but it pleased the Lord one day to strike him 
so that he was in great trouble and under great terror 
of mind. As I was walking in my chamber I heard a 
doleful noise ; and standing still, I heard him say to 
his wife, " Wife, I have seen the day of judgment, and I 
saw George there, and I was afraid of him, because I 
had done him so much wrong, and spoken so much 
against him to the ministers and professors, and to the 
justices, and in taverns and ale-houses." 

Towards the evening, he came up into my chamber, 
and s^d to me, " I have been as a lion against you ; but 
now I come like a lamb, and hke the jailer that came to 
Paul and Silas trembling." And he desired that he 
might lodge with me ; I told him that I was in his 
power, he might do what he would : but he said nay, he 
would have ray leave, and he could desire to be always 
with me, but not to have me as a prisoner; and he 
said " he had been plagued, and his house had been 
plagued for my sake." 

So I suffered him to lodge with me ; and then he 
told me all his heart, and said he believed what I had 
said of the true faith and hope to be true; and he 
wondered that the other man that was put into prison 
with me did not stand to it; and said, "That man was 
not right, but I was an honest man." He confessed 
also to me that at times when I had asked him to let 
me go forth to speak the word of the Lord to the people, 
and he had refused to let me, and I had laid the weight 



48 "THE FIRST TO SAY 'QUAKERS'" 1650 

thereof upon him, that he used to be under great trouble, 
anutzed, and almost distracted for some time after ; and 
in such a condition that he had little strength left him. 
When the morning came, he rose, and went to the 
justices, and told them, " that he and his house had 
been plagued for my sake " : and one of the justices 
replied (as be reported to me), that the plagues were on 
them too for keeping me. This was Justice Bennet of 
Derby, who was the first that called us Quakers, because 
I bid them tremble at the word of the Lord. This was 
in the year 1650. 

Tbe Magistrates* Dodge 

After this the justices gave leave that I should have 

k liberty to walk a mile. I perceived their end, and told 

t the jailer if they would show me how far a mile was, I 

might walk it sometimes ; for I believed they thought 

I I would go away. And the jailer confessed afterwards 

that they did it with that intent, to have me escape, to 

ease them of their plague j but I told blm I was not of 

that spirit. 

This jailer had a sister, a sickly young woman. She 
» came up into my chamber to visit me; and after she 

I had stayed some time, and I had spoken the words of 

truth to her, she went down, and told them that " we 
were an innocent people, and did none any hurt, but 
did good to all, even to them that hated us " ; and she 
_ desired them to use kindness towards me. 

^As my restraint prevented my travelling about, to 
declare and spread truth through the country, it came 
» upon me to write a paper, and send it forth to be spread 

abroad both amongst Friends and other tender people, for 
the opeding of their understandings in the way of truA, 
and directing them to the true teacher in themsetres. 



i6sc> FOX ENRAGES THE JUSTICE 49 

While I was in the House of Correction, my relations 
came to see me ; and being troubled for my imprisonment 
they went to the justices that cast me into prison, and 
desired to have me home with them; offering to be 
bound in one hundred pounds, and others of Derby with 
them in fifty pounds each, that I should come no more 
thither to declare against the priests. 

The Judge Strikes Fox 

So I was had up before the justices ; and because I 
would not consent that they or any should be bound 
for me (for I was innocent from any ill behaviour, and 
had spoken the word of life and truth unto them). Justice 
Bennet rose up in a rage ; and as I was kneeling down 
to pray to the Lord to forgive him, he ran upon me, 
and struck me with both his hands, crying. << Away with 
him, jailer, take him away, jailer." Whereupon I was 
had again to prison, and there kept, until the time of 
my commitment for six months was expired. But I had 
now the liberty of walking a mile by myself, which I made 
use of, as I felt freedom. Sometimes I went into the 
market and streets, and warned the people to repent of 
their wickedness; and so returned to prison again. 
And there being persons of several sorts of religion in 
the prison, I sometimes went and visited them in their 
meetings on first-days. 

Fez and the Trooper 

While I was yet in the House of Correction, there 
came unto me a trooper, and said, as he was sitting in 
the steeple-house, hearing the priest, exceeding great 
trouble came upon him; and the voice of the Lord 
came to him saying, << Dost thou not know that my 
servant is in prison ? Go to him for direction." So I 

D 



50 FOX AND THE TROOPER 1650 

spoke to his condition, and his understanding was 
opened. I told hitn that which showed him his sins, 
and troubled him for them, would show him his salvation ; 
for he that shows a man his sin is the same that takes 
it away. 

While I was speaking to him, the Lord's power opened 
him, so that he began to have a good understanding in 
the Lord's truth, and to be sensible of God's mercies ; 
and began to speak boldly in his quarters amongst the 
soldiers, and to others, concerning truth (for the Scrip- 
tures were very much opened to him), insomuch that he 
said, " his colonel was as blind as Nebuchadnezzar, to 
cast the servant of the Lord into prison." Upon this 
his colonel had a spite against him ; and at Worcester 
fight, the year after, when the two armies were lying 
near one another, two came out from the king's army, 
and challenged any two of the Parliament army to fight 
with them ; his colonel made choice of him and another 
to answer the challenge. And when in the encounter 
his companion was slain, he drove both his enemies within 
musket-shot out of the town, without firing a pistol at 
them. This, when he returned, he told me with his own 
mouth. But when the fight was over, he saw the deceit 
and hypocrisy of the officers ; and being sensible how 
wonderfully the Lord had preserved him, and seeing also 
to the end of fighting, he laid down his arms. 

Asked to be a Soldier 
Now the time of my commitment to the house of 
correction being nearly ended, and there being many 
new soldiers raised, the commissioners would have made 
me captain over them ; and the soldiers said they would 
have none but me. So the keeper of the house of cor- 
rection was commanded to bring me before the com- 



ifijo POX IN A DUNGEON 51 

missioners and soldiers in the market-place ; and there 
they offered me that preferment, as they called it, asking 
me if I would not take up arms for the Commonwealth 
against Charles Stuart? I told them I knew from 
whence all wars arose, even from the lust, according to 
James's doctrine ; and that I lived in the virtue of that 
life and power that took away the occasion of all wars. 
But they courted me to accept their offer, and thought 
I did but compliment them. But I told them I was 
come into the covenant of peace, which was before wars 
and strifes were. They said they offered it in love and 
kindness to me, because of my virtue; and such like 
flattering words they used. But I told them, if- that 
was their love and kindness, I trampled it under my 
feet. 

Then their rage got up, and they said, " Take him 
away, jailer, and put him into the dungeon amongst the 
rogues and felons." So I was had away and put into a 
lousy, stinking place, without any bed, amongst thirty 
felons, where I was kept almost half a year, unless it 
were at times ; for they would sometimes let me walk in 
the garden, having a belief that I would not go away. 
Now when they had got me into Derby dungeon, it was 
the belief and saying of people that I should never come 
out ; but I had faith in God, and beheved I should be 
delivered in his time; for the Lord had said to me 
before that I was not to be removed from that place 
yet, being set there for a service which he had for me 
to do. 

After it was noised abroad that I was in Derby 
dungeon, my relations came to see me again ; and they 
were much troubled that I should be in prison ; for they 
looked upon it to be a great shame to them for me to be 
imprisoned for region ; and some thought I was mad, 



^ 



7 



52 THE ORIGIN OF A SLANDER 1650 

because I advocated purity, and righteousness, and 
perfection. 

Discussions in Prison 

Among others that came to see, and discourse with 
me, was a person from Nottingham, a soldier, that had 
been a Baptist (as I understood), and with him came 
several others. In discourse he said to me, "Your 
£aith stands in a man that died at Jerusalem, and there 
never was any such thing." I was exceedingly grieved 
to hear him say so ; and I said to him, « How ! did not 
Christ suffer without the gates of Jerusalem through the 
professing Jews, and chief priests, and Pilate ? " And 
he denied that ever Christ suffered there outwardly. 
Then I asked him whether there were not chief priests, 
and Jews, and Pilate there outwardly ? and when he 
could not deny that, then I told him, as certainly as 
there was a chief priest, and Jews, and Pilate there out- 
wardly, so certainly was Christ persecuted by them, and 
did suffer there outwardly under them. Yet from this 
man's words was a slander raised upon us, that the 
Quakers denied Christ that suffered and died at Jerusalem; 
which was all utterly false, and the least thought of it 
never entered our hearts; but it was a mere slander 
cast upon us, and occasion d by this person's words. 
The same person also said that never any of the 
prophets, or apostles, or holy men of God, suffered any 
thing outwardly ; but all their sufferings were inward. 
But I instanced to him how many of them suffered, and 
by whom they suffered : and so was the power of the 
Lord brought over his wicked imaginations. 

There came also another company to me, that pre- 
tended they were triers of spirits ; I asked them what 
was the first step to peace, and what it was by which a 



e • 



1 65 1 FOX ADVISES THE JUSTICES 53 

man might see his salvation ? and they were presently 
up in the airy mind, and said I was mad. Thus they 
came to try spirits, who did not know themselves, nor 
their own spirits. 

In this time of my imprisonment I was exceedingly 
exercised about the proceedings of the judges and magis- 
trates in their courts of judicature. I was moved to 
write to the judges concerning their putting men to 
death for cattle, and money, and small matters ; and to 
show them how contrary it was to the law of God in 
old time ; for I was under great suffering in my spirit 
because of it, and under the very sense of death ; but 
standing in the will of God, a heavenly breathing arose 
in my soul to the Lord. Then did I see the heavens 
opened, and I rejoiced, and gave glory to God. 

Saved from Execution 

Moreover, I laid before the judges what an hurtful 
thing it was that prisoners should lie so long in jail ; 
showing how they learned wickedness one of another in 
talking of their bad deeds : and therefore speedy justice 
should be done. For I was a tender youth, and dwelt 
in the fear of God, and being grieved to hear their bad 
language, I was often made to reprove them for their 
wicked words and evil conduct towards each other. 
People admired that I was so preserved and kept ; for 
they could never catch a word or action from me, to 
make any thing of against me, all the time I was there ; 
for the Lord's infinite power upheld and preserved me 
all that time ; to him be praises and glory for ever ! 

1651. — While I was here in prison, there was a young 
woman in the jail for robbing her master of some money. 
When she was to be tried for her life, I wrote to the 
judge and to the jury about her, showing thena how ;t 



54 REPRIEVED ON THE SCAFFOLD 1651 

was contrary to the law of God in old time to put people 
to death for stealing, and moving them to show metcy. 
Yet she was condemned to die, and a grave was made 
for her ; and at the time appointed she was carried forth 
to execution. Then I wrote a few words, warning all 
people to beware of greediness or covetousness, for it 
leads from God ; and exhorting all to fear the Lord, to 
avoid all earthly lusts, and to prize their time while they 
have it : this I gave to be read at the gallows. And 
though they had her upon the ladder, with a cloth bound 
over her face, ready to be turned off, yet they did not 
put her to death, but brought her back again to prison : 
and in the prison she afterwards came to be convinced 
of God's everlasting truth. 

There was also in the jail, while I was there, 2 prisoner, 
a wicked, ungodly man, who was a reputed conjuror. 
He threatened how he would talk with me, and what he 
would do to me ; but he never had power to open his 
mouth to me. And once the jailer and he foiling out, 
he threatened that he would raise the Devil, and break 
his house down, so that he made the jailer afraid. Then 
I was moved of the Lord to go in his power, and rebuke 
him, and say unto him, " Come let us see what thou 
canst do; do thy worst " : and I told him the Devil was 
raised high enough in him already, but the power of 
God chained him down : so he slunk away from me. 

Pressed A^ain for a Soldier 
Now the time of Worcester fight coming on. Justice 
Bennet sent the constables to press me for a soldier, 
seeing I would not voluntarily accept of a command. 
I told them that I was brought off from outward wars. 
They came down again to give me press-money, but I 
would take none. Then I was brought up to Sergeant 



p. 



1 65 1 REFUSES TO BE A SOLDIER M> 

Holes, kept there a while, and then taken down ag^in. 
After a while the constables fetched me up again, and 
brought me before the commissioners, who said I «hould 
go for a soldier ; but I told them that I was dead to it. 
They said I was alive. I told them, where envy and 
hatred are, there is confusion. They offered me money 
twice, but I would not take it : then they were angry, 
and committed me close prisoner, without bail or main- 
prize. 

The Wickedness of Derby 

Great was my exercise and travail in spirit, during my 
imprisonment here, because of the wickedness that was 
in this town ; for though some were convinced, yet the 
generality were a hardened people; and I saw the 
visitation of God's love pass away from them. I 
mourned over them ; and it came upon me to give forth 
the following lamentation for them : — 

" O Derby ! as the waters run away when the flood- 
gates are up, so doth the visitation of God's love pass 
away from thee, O Derby 1 Therefore look where thou 
art, and how thou art grounded ; and consider, before 
thou art utterly forsaken. The Lord moved riie twice 
before I came to cry against the deceits and vanities 
that are in thee, and to warn all to look at the Lord, and 
not at man. The woe is against the crown of pride ; 
the woe is against drunkenness and vain pleasures, and 
against them that make a profession of religion in words, 
yet are high and lofty in mind, and live in oppression 
and envy. O Derby ! thy profession and preaching 
stink before the Lord. Ye profess a Sabbath in words, 
and meet together, dressing yourselves in fine apparel; 
you uphold pride. Thy women go with stretched-forth 
necks and wanton eyes, &c., which the true prophet of 



5fi MAGISTRATES UNEASY ABOUT FOX 16;, 

old cried against. Vour assemblies are o&aw, and an 
abomination to the Lord : pride is set up, and bowed 
down to ; covetousness abounds ; and he that doeth 
wickedly ts honouied : SO deceit bears with deceit -, and 
yet they profess Christ in words. O the decwt thai is 
within thee ! it doth even break my heart to see hou 
God is dishonoured in thee, O Derby 1 " 

After I had seen the visitation of God's love pass 
away from this place, I knew that my imprisonment 
here would not continue long ; but I saw that when the 
Lord should bring me forth, it would be as the letting 
of a lion out of a den amongst the wild beasts of the 
forest. For all professions stood in a beastly spirit and 
nature, pleading for sin, and for the body of sin and 
imperfection, as long as they lived. They all raged, and 
ran against the Ufe and Spirit which gave forth the 
Scriptures, which they professed in words. And so it 
was, as will appear hereafter. 
^S. There was a great judgment upon the town, and the 

Sgi magistrates were uneasy about me ; but they could not 

f^f agree what to do with me. One while they would have 

^^^ sent me up to the parliament ; another while they would 

^ have banished me to Ireland. At first they called me a 

^ deceiver, and a seducer, and a blasphemer : afterwards, 

when God had brought his plagues upon them, they 

^' said I was an honest, virtuous man. But their good 

Sfe- report or bad report, their well speaking or their ill 

^ speaking, was nothing to me ; for the one did not lift 

l^j. me up, nor the other cast me down : praised be the 

^^ Lord ! At length they were made to turn me out of 

^^ jmI, about the beginning of Winter in the year 1651, 

^- after I had been a prisoner in Derby almost a year ; six 

months in the House of Correction, and the rest of the 
time in the common jail and dungeon, 



iT' 



1651 FOX CURSES LICHFIELD 57 

Thus being set at liberty again, I went on, as 
before, in the work of the Lord, passing through the 
country, first into my own country of Leicestershire, 
and had meetings as I went ; and the Lord's Spirit and 
power accompanied me. Afterwards I went near to 
Burton-on-Trent, where some were convinced; and so 
to Bushel House, where I had a meeting. I went up 
into the country, where there were friendly people ; yet 
an outrageous wicked professor had an intent to do me 
a mischief, but the Lord prevented him. Blessed be the 
Lord! 

*'Woc to Lichfield I** 

As I was walking along with several Friends, I lifted 
up my head, and I saw three steeple-house spires, and 
they struck at my life. I asked them what place that 
was? and they said Lichfield. Immediately the word 
of the Lord came to me, that I must go thither. Being 
come to the house we were going to, I wished the 
Friends that were with me to walk into the house, 
saying nothing to them whether I was to go. As soon 
as they were gone, I stepped away, and went by my eye 
over hedge and ditch, till I came within a mile of 
Lichfield ; where, in a great field, there were shepherds 
keeping their sheep. Then I was commanded by the 
Lord to pull off my shoes. I stood still, for it was 
Winter ; and the word of the Lojd was like a fire in me. 
So I put off my shoes, and left them with the shepherds ; 
and the poor shepherds trembled and were astonished. 

Then I walked on about a mile, and as soon as I was 
within the city, the word of the Lord came to me again, 
saying, " Cry, Woe unto the bloody city of Lichfield." 
So I went up and down the streets, crying with a loud 
voice, " Woe to t«b bloody city of Lichfield ! " 



58 AN AMAZING INCIDENT 1651 

It being market-day, I went into the market-place, and 
to and fro in the several parts of it, and made Stands, 
crying as before, " Woe to the bloody citv of Lich- 
field ! " And no one laid hands on me ; but as I went 
thus crying through the streets, there seemed to me to 
be a channel of blood running down the streets, and the 
market-place appeared like a pool of blood. When I 
had declared what was upon me, and felt myself clear, 
I went out of the town in peace ; and returning to the 
shepherds, gave them some money, and took my shoes 
of them again. But the fire of the Lord was so in my 
feet, and all over me, that I did not matter to put on 
my shoes any more, and was at a stand whether I should 
or not, till I felt freedom from the Lord so to do ; and 
then, after I had washed my feet, I put on my shoes 
again. 

The Martyfs of Lichfield 
ASier this a deep consideration came upon me, why, 
or for what reason, I should be sent- to cry against that 
city, and call it the bloody city. For though the parlia- 
ment had the minster one while, and the king another, 
and much blood had been shed in the town, during the 
wars between them, yet that was no more than had 
befallen many other places. But afterwards I came to 
understand, that in the Emperor Dioclesian's time, a 
thousand Christians were martyred in Lichfield, So I 
was to go, without my shoes, through the channel of 
their blood, and into the pool of their blood in the 
market-place, that I might raise up the memorial of the 
blood of those martyrs which had been shed above a 
thousand years before, and lay cold in theh streets. So 
the sense of this blood was upon me, and I obeyed the 
word of the l/>rd. Ancient records testify how many 



\ 



w 



1 65 1 FOX AT BEVERLEY 59 

of the Christian Britons suffered there. Much I could 
write of the sense I had of the blood of the martyrs that 
hath been shed in this nation for the name of Christ, 
both under the ten persecutions and since ; but I leave 
it to the Lord, and to his book, out of which all shall be 
judged ; for his book is a most certain record, and his 
Spirit a true recorder. 

In Beverley SteepIe^House 

I passed through the country towards Captain Pursloe's 
house by Selby, and visited John Leek, who had been 
to visit me in Derby prison, and was convinced. I had 
a horse, but was fain to leave him, not knowing what to 
do with him ; for I was moved to go to many great 
houses, to admonish and exhort the people to turn to 
the Lord. Thus passing on, I was moved of the Lord 
to go to Beverley steeple-house, which was then a place 
of high profession ; and being very wet with rain, I went 
first to an inn, aiid as soon as I came to the door, a 
young woman of the house came to the door, and said, 
" What, is it you ? come in," as if she had known me 
before ; for the Lord's power bowed their hearts. So I 
refreshed myself and went to bed ; and in the morning, 
my clothes being still wet, I got ready, and having paid 
for what I had had in the inn, I went up to the steeple- 
house, where was a man preaching. When he had done, 
I was moved to speak to him, and to the people, in the 
mighty power of God, and turned them to their teacher, 
Christ Jesus, The power of the Lord was so strong 
that it struck a mighty dread amongst the people. The 
mayor came and spoke a few words to me ; but none of 
them had any power to meddle with me. 

So I passed away out of the town, and in the after- 
noon went to another steeple-hguse ^bout two miles off, 



60 EFFECTS OF THE BEVERLEY VISIT 1651 

When the priest had done, I was moved to speak to 
him, and to the people very largely, showing them the 
way of hfe and truth, and the ground of election and 
reprobation. The priest said he was but a child, and 
could not dispute with me ; I told him I did not come 
to dispute, but to hold forth the word of life and truth 
unto them, that they might all know the one Seed, 
which the promise of God was to, both in the male and 
in the female. Here the people were very loving, and 
■ would have me come again on a week-day, and preach 
among them; but I directed them to their teacher, 
Christ Jesus, and so passed away. 

The next day I went to Crantsick, to Captain Pur- 
sloe's, who accompanied me to Justice Hotham's. This 
Justice Hotham was a tender man, one that had some 
exfierience of God's workings in his heart. After some 
discourse with him of the things of God, he took me 
into his closet ; where, sitting together, he told me he 
had known that principle these ten years, and was glad 
that the Lord did now publish it abroad to the people. 
After a while there came a priest to visit him, with 
whom also I had some discourse concerning Truth. But 
his mouth was quickly stopped, for he was nothing but 
a notionist. 

While I was here, there came a great woman of 
Beverley to speak to Justice Hotham about some 
business ; and in discourse she told him that the last 
Sabbath-day (as she called it) there came an angel or 
spirit into the church at Beverley, and spoke the wonder- 
ful things of God, to the astonishment of all that were 
there; and when it had done, it passed away, and they 
did not know whence it came, nor whither it went ; but 
it astonished all, both priest, professors, and magistrates 
of the town, This relation Justice Hotham gave me 



^-^ 






1651 SELLING THE GOSPEL 61 

afterwards, and then I gave him an account how I had 
been that day at Beverley steeple-house, and had de- 
clared truth to the priest and people there. 

There were in the country thereabouts some noted 
priests and doctors, with whom Justice Hotham was 
acquainted. He would fain have them speak with me, 
and offered to send for them, under pretence of some 
business he had with them, but I wished him not to 
do so. 

**Comc Down» Thou Deceiver** 

When the First-day of the week was come. Justice 
Hotham walked out with me into the field ; and Captain 
Pursloe coming up after us, Justice Hotham left us and 
returned home, but Captain Pursloe went with me into 
the steeple-house. When the priest had done, I spoke 
both to priest and people ; declared to them the word of 
life and truth, and directed them where they might find 
their teacher, the Lord Jesus Christ. Some were con- 
vinced, received the truth, and stand fast in it ; and have 
a fine meeting to this day. 

In the afternoon I went to another steeple-house 
about three miles off, where preached a great high-priest, 
called a doctor, one of them whom Justice Hotham 
would have sent for to speak with me, I went into the 
steeple-house, and stayed till the priest had done. The 
words which he took for his text were these, " Ho, every 
one that thirsteth, come ye to the waters ; and he that 
hath no money, come ye, buy and eat, yea come, buy 
wine and milk without money and without price." Then 
was I moved of the Lord God to say unto him, ** Come 
down, thou deceiver ; dost thou bid people come freely, 
and take of the water of life freely, and yet thou takest 
three hundred pounds a-year of them, for preaching the 



6s FOX AND JUSTICE HOTHAM 1651 

Scripturrs to them. Mayest thou not blush for shame ? 
Did the prophet Isaiah, and Christ do so, who spoke the 
words, and gave them forth freely ? Did not Christ say 
to his ministers, whom he sent to preach, ' Freely ye 
have received, freely give ' ? " The priest, like a man 
amazed, hastened away. After he had left his flock, I 
had as much time as I could desire to speak to the 
people; and I directed them from the darkness to the 
light, and to the grace of God, that would teach them, 
and bring them salvation ; to the Spirit of God in their 
inward parts, which would be a free teacher unto them. 

Having cleared myself amongst the people, I returned 
to Justice Hotham's house that night, who, when I came 
in, took me in his arms, and said his house was my 
house, for he was exceedingly glad at the work of the 
Lord, and that his power was revealed. Then he told 
me why he went not with me to the steepte-house in the 
morning, and what reasonings he had in himself about 
it ; for he thought, if he had gone with me to the steeple- 
house, the officers would have put me to him; and then 
he should have been so put to it, that he should not 
have known what to do. But he was gbd, he said, when 
Captain Pursloe came up to go with me ; yet neither of 
them was dressed, nor had his band about his neck. 
It was a strange thing then to see a man come into a 
steeple-house without a band ; yet Captain Pursloe went 
in with me without his band, the Lord's power and truth 
had so affected him that he minded it not. 

From hence I passed on through the country, and 
came at night to an inn where was a company of rude 
people. I bid the woman of the house, if she had any 
meat, to bring me some; but because I said Thee and 
Thou to her she looked strangely on me. Then I asked 
her if she had any milk; and she said, No. I was 



Il 



1 65 1 FOX AND THE LYING INNKEEPER 63 

sensible she spoke falsely, and being willing to try her 
further, I asked her if she had any cream ; she denied 
that she had any. Now there stood a churn in the room, 
and a little boy playing about it, put his hands into it, 
and pulled it down, and threw alt the cream on the floor 
before my eyes. Thus was the woman manifested to be 
a liar. She was amazed, and blessed herself, and taking 
up the child, whipped it sorely; but 1 reproved her for 
her lying and deceit. After the Lord had thus dis- 
covered her deceit and perverseness, I walked out of the 
house, and went away till I came to a stack of hay, and 
lay in the hay-stack that night in rain and snow, it being 
but three days before the time called Christinas. 

Thrown from York Cathedral 
The next day I came into York, where were several 
people that were very tender. Upon the First-day of 
the week following, I was commanded of the Lord to go 
to the great minster, and speak to priest Bowles and his 
hearers in their great cathedral. Accordingly I went ; 
and when the priest had done, I told them I had some- 
thing tirom the Lord God to speak to the priest and 
people. "Then say on quickly," said a professor that 
was among them, for it was frost and snow, and very 
cold weather. Then I told them, This was the word of 
the Lord God unto them, that they lived in words ; but 
God Almighty looked for fruits amongst them. As soon 
as the words were out of my mouth, they hurried me 
out, and threw me down the steps ; but I got up again 
without hurt, and went to my lodgings. Several were 
convinced there : for the very groans that arose from the 
weight and oppression that was upon the Spirit of God 
in me, would open people, and strike them, and make 
them confess that the groans which broke forth through 



64 FOX TRAVELS IN THE SNOW 16 st 

me did reach them ; for my life was burthened with their 
profession without possession, and words without fruit. 

1652. — ^Though at this time the snow was very deep, 
I kept travelling ; and going through the country, came 
to a market-town, where I met with many professors, with 
whom I had much reasoning. I asked them many 
questions, which they were not able to answer ; saying 
they had never had such deep questions put to them in 
all their lives. 

I went to Stath, where also I met with many pro- 
fessors, and some Ranters. I had large meetings 
amongst them, and a great convincement there was. 
Many received the truth; amongst whom, one was a 
man of an hundred years of age ; another was a chief 
constable; and a third was a priest, whose name was 
Philip Scafe. Him the Lord, by his free Spirit, did 
afterwards make a free minister of his free gospel. 

Unjust Tithing 

The priest of this town was a lofty one, who much 
oppressed the people for his tithes. If they went a- 
fishing many leagues off, he would make them pay the 
tithe-money of what they made of their fish, though they 
caught them at a great distance, and carried them as far 
as Yarmouth to sell. I was moved to go to the steeple- 
house there, to declare the truth, and expose the priest. 
When I had spoken to him, and laid his oppression of 
the people before him, he fled away. The chief of the 
parish were very light and vain ; so after I had spoken 
the word of life to them, I turned away from them 
because they did not receive it, and left them. But the 
word of the Lord, which I had declared amongst them, 
remained with some of them ; so that at night some of 
the heads of the parish came to me, and most of them 









1652 FOX AND THE RANTER 6^ 

were convinced and satisfied, and confessed to the truth. 
Thus the truth began to spread in that country, and 
great meetings we had ; at which the priest began to 
rage, and the Ranters to be stirred ; and they sent me 
word that they would have a dispute with me, both the 
oppressing priest, and the leaders of the Ranters. 

A day was fixed, and the Ranter came with his com- 
pany; and another priest, a Scotchman, came; but not 
the oppressing priest of Stath. Philip Scafe, who had 
been a priest, and was convinced, was with me : and a 
great number of people met. When we were settled, the 
Ranter, whose name was T. Bushel, told me he had had 
a vision of me ; that I was sitting in a great chair, and 
that he was to come and put off his hat, and bow 
down to the ground before me; and he did so: and 
many other flattering words he spoke. I told him it was 
his own .figure, and said unto him, " Repent, thou beast." 
He said it was jealousy in me to say so. Then I asked 
him the ground of jealousy, and how it came to be bred 
in man ? and the nature of a beast, what made it, and 
how it was bred in man ? For I saw him directly in the 
nature of the beast ; and therefore I wished to know of 
him how that nature came to be bred in him ? I told 
him he should give me an account of the things done in 
the body, before we came to discourse of things done 
out of the body. So I stopped his mouth, and all his 
fellow Ranters were silenced ; for he was the head of 
them. Then I called for the oppressing priest, but he 
came, not ; only the Scotch priest came, whose mouth 
was soon stopped with a very few words ; he being out 
of the life of what he professed. 

Then I had a good opportunity with the people. I 
laid open the Ranters, ranking them with the old 
Ranters in Sodom. The priests I manifested to be of 

E 






66 FOX AND THE MAD PRIEST 1651 

the same stamp with their fellow hirelings, the false 
prophets of old, and the priests that then bore rule over 
the people by their means, seeking for their gain from 
their quarter, divining for money, and teaching for filthy 
lucre. I brought all the prophets, and Christ, and the fj 

apostles, over the heads of the priests, showing how the 
prophets, Christ, and the apostles had long since dis- 
covered them by their marks and fruits. Then I directed 
the people to their inward teacher, Christ Jesus their 
Saviour; and I preached up Christ in the hearts of his 
people, when all these mountains were laid low. The 
people were all quiet, and the gainsayers' mouths were 
stopped; for though they broiled inwardly, yet the 
power bound them down, that they could not break 
out. 

A Priest in a Rage 

After the meeting, this Scotch priest desired me to 
walk with him on the top of the cliffs ; whereupon I 
called a brother-in-law of his, who was in some measure 
convinced, and desired him to go with me, telling him 
I desired to have somebody by to hear what was said, 
lest the priest, when I was gone, should report anything 
of me which I did not say. We went together ; and as 
we walked, the priest asked me many things concerning 
the light, and concerning the soul; to all which I 
answered him fully. When he had done questioning, 
we parted, and he went his way : and meeting with 
Philip Scafe, he broke his cane against the ground in 
madness, and said if ever he met with me again he 
would have my life or I should have his ; adding that he 
would give his head if I was not knocked down within 
a month. By this, Friends suspected that his intent 
was, in desiring me to walk with him alone« either to 



i6sz FOX DISPUTES WITH PRIESTS 67 

thrust me down from off the cliff, or to do me some other 
mischief; and that when he saw himself frustrated in 
that, by my having one with me, it made him rage. I 
feared neither his prophecies nor his threats; for I 
feared God Almighty. But some Friends, through their 
affection for me, feared much that this priest would do 
me some mischief, or set on others to do it. Yet after 
some years this very Scotch priest, and his wife also, 
came to be convinced of the truth ; and about twelve 
years after this I was at their house. 

After this there came another priest to a meeting 
where I was, one that was in repute above all the priests 
in the country. As I was speaking in the meeting, th^t 
the gospel was the power of God, and how it brought 
life and immortality to light in men, and was turning 
people from darkness to the light, this high-flown priest 
said the gospel was mortal. I told him the true minister 
said the gospel was the power of God, and would he 
make the power of God mortal ? Upon that the other 
priest, Philip Scafe, that was convinced, and had felt the 
immortal power of God in himself, took him up and 
reproved him ; so a great dispute arose between them ; 
the convinced priest holding that the gospel was im- 
mortal, and the other priest that it was mortal. But 
the Lord's power was too hard for this opposing priest, 
and stopped his mouth; and many people were con* 
vinced, seeing the darkness that was in the opposing 
priest, and the light that was in the convinced priest. 

^'The Man in Leather Breeches is Come'* 

Then another priest sent to have a dispute with me, 
and Friends went with me to the house where he was : 
but when he understood we were come, he slipped out 
of the house, and hid himself under a hedge. The 



68 FOX'S LEATHER BREECHES 1654 

people went to seek him, and found him, but could not 
get him to come to us. Then I went to a steeple-house 
hard by, where the priest and people were in a great 
rage : this priest had threatened Friends what he would 
do ; but when I came he fled ; for the Lord's power 
came over him and them. Yea, the Lord's everlasting 
power was over the world, and reached to the hearts of 
people, and made both priests and professors tremble. 
It shook the earthly and airy spirit in which they held 
their profession of religion and worship, so that it was a 
dreadful thing unto them when it was told them, " The 
man in leather breeches is come."* At the hearing 
thereof the priests, in many places, would get out of the 
way ; they were so struck with the dread of the eternal 
power of God; and fear surp ''sed the hypocrites. 

From this place we passcvl to Whitby and Scar- 
borough, where we had some service for the Lord ; there 
are large meetings settled there since. From thence I 
passed over the Wolds to Malton, where we had great 
meetings ; as we had also at the towns thereabouts. At 

* The leathern garments worn by George Fox were chosen by him 
for their simplicity and durability; and though they often subjected 
their wearer to ridicule and abuse, he had no motive beyond the above- 
mentioned for choosing such a garb. Many persons have been amused 
if not offended at him for having worn such a dress when he was a 
young man. In those days leathern garments for working men may 
not have been so singular as some suppose. It is a well authenticated 
fact that an eminent merchant of the city of London, about 150 years 
ago, travelled on foot from Newcastle, in search of a livelihood, clad in 
a coat of leather. He opened a warehouse in London for the sale of 
heavy articles of iron, which were manufactured in the neighbourhood 
of Newcastle. In a few years he became prosperous, accumulated a 
large fortune, and ranked with the magnates of the city, sharing in all 
the civic honours of the corporation. The firm which he established 
still continues to conduct a flourishing business, at a warehouse in 
Thames Street, which is familiarly known in the trade by " The Leathern 
Doublet " ; a representation of the founder's original dress being fixed 
as a sign in front of the building. — ^W. Armistead. 



HSS2 CHURCHES AND PULPITS OFFENSIVE 69 

one town a priest sent me a challenge to dispute with 
me ; but when I came, he would not come forth ; so I 
had a good opportunity with the people, and the Lord's 
power came over them. One, who had been a wild, 
drunken man, was so reached therewith that he came 
to me as lowly as a lamb; though he and his con>- 
panions had before sent for drink, to make the rude 
people drunk, on purpose that they might abuse us. 
When I found the priest would not come forth, I was 
moved to go to the steeple-house ; the priest was con- 
founded, and the Lord's power came over all. 

On the First-day following came one of the highest 
Independent professors, a woman, who had let in sudti a 
prejudice against me that she said before she came she 
could willingly go to see me hanged : but when she 
came she was convinced, and remains a Friend. 

Foz in the SteeplcHouse 
Then I turned to Malton ^ain, and very great meet- 
ings there were; to which more people would have 
come, but durst not for fear of their relations ; for it 
was thought a strange thing then to preach in houses, 
and not go to the church, as they called it ; so that I 
was much desired to go and speak in the steeple-houses. 
One of the priests wrote to me, and invited me to preach 
in the steeple-house, calling me his brother. Another 
priest, a noted man, kept a lecture there. Now the 
Lord had showed me, while I was in Derby prison, that 
I should speak in steeple-houses, to gather people from 
thence ; and a concern sometimes would come upon my 
mind about the pulpits that the priests lolled in. 

For the steeple-houses and pulpits were offensive to 
my mind, because both priests and people called them 
the bouse of God, and idolised them ; reckoning that 



70 FOX PREACHES IN CHURCH 1652 

God dwelt there in the outward house. Whereas they 
should have looked for God and Christ to dwell in thdr 
hearts, and their bodies to be made the temples of God ; 
for the apostle said, " God dwelleth not in temples made 
with hands " : but by reason of the people's idolising 
those places, it was counted a heinous thing to declare 
against them. 

■ When I came into the steeple-house, there were not 
above eleven hearers, and the priest was preaching to 
them. But after it was known in the town that I was 
in the steeple-house, it was soon filled with people. 
When the priest that preached that day had done, he 
sent the other priest that had invited me thither, to 
bring me up into the pulpit ; but I sent word to him 
that I needed not to go into the pulpit. Then he 
sent to me again, desiring me to go up into it ; for, he 
said, it was a better place, and there I might be seen of 
the people. I sent him word again, I could be seen and 
heard well enough where 1 was ; and that I came not 
there to hold up such places, nor their maintenance and 
trade. Upon my saying so, they began to be angiy, 
and said, " these false prophets were to come in the last 
times." Their saying so grieved many of the people; 
and some began to murmur at it. Whereupon 1 stood 
up, and desired all to be quiet ; and stepping upon a 
high seat, I declared unto them the marks of the false 
prophets, and showed that they were already come ; and 
set the true prophets, and Christ, and his apostles over 
them ; and manifested these to be out of the steps of 
the true prophets, and of Christ and his apostles. I 
directed the people to their inward teacher, Christ 
Jesus, who would turn them from darkness to the light. 
And having opened divers Scriptures to them, I directed 
them to the Spirit of God in themselves, by which they 



1652 SESSIONS HELD IN CHURCH 71 

might come to him, and by which they might also come 
to know who the false prophets were. So having had 
a large opportunity among them, I departed in peace. 

After some time I came to Pickering, where in the 
steeple-house the justices held their sessions, Justice 
Robinson being chairman. I had a meeting in the 
school-house at the same time ; and abundance of priests 
and professors came to it, asking questions, which were 
answered to their satisfaction. It being sessions-time, 
four chief constables and many other people were con- 
vinced that day; and word was carried to Justice 
Robinson that his priest was overthrown and convinced, 
whom he had a love to, more than to all the priests 
besides. After the meeting, we went to an inn. Justice 
Robinson's priest was very lowly and loving, and would 
have paid for my dinner, but I would by no means 
suffer it. Then he offered that I should have his steeple- 
house to preach in, but I refused it, and told him and 
the people that I came to bring them off from such 
things to Christ. 

Fox and the Justice 

The next morning I went with the four chief con- 
stables, and others, to visit Justice Robinson, who met 
me at his chamber door. I told him I could not 
honour him with man's honour. He said he did not 
look for it. So I went into his chamber, and opened 
to him the state of the false prophets, and of the true 
prophets ; and set the true prophets, and Christ, and 
the apostles over the other ; and directed his mind to 
Christ his teacher. I opened to him the parables, and 
how election and reprobation stood ; as that reprobation 
stood in the first birth, and election stood in the second 
birth. I showed ajso what the proniise of Qod was to. 



72 FOX OBJECTS TO BELLS 1652 

and what the judgment of God was against. He con- 
fessed to it all ; and was so opened with the truth, that 
when another justice that was present made some little 
opposition, he informed him. At our parting, he said 
it was very well that I exercised that gift which God 
had given me. He took the chief constables aside, and 
would have given them some money for me, saying he 
would not have me at any charge in their country ; but 
they told him that they could not persuade me to take 
any; and so accepting his kindness, I refused his 
money. 

Fox and His Message 

From thence I passed up into the country, and the 
priest that called me brother (in whose school-house I 
had the meeting at Pickering) went along with me. 
When we came into a town to bait, the bells rang. I 
asked what they rang for : and they said, for me to 
preach in the steeple-house. After some time I felt 
drawings that way ; and as I walked to the steeple- 
house, I saw the people were gathered together in the 
yard. The old priest would have had me to go into 
the steeple-house ; but I said it was no matter. It was 
something strange to the people that I would not go 
into that which they called the house of God. I stood 
up in the steeple-house yard, and declared to the people 
that I came not to hold up their idol temples, nor their 
priests, nor their tithes, nor their augmentations, nor 
their priests' wages, nor their Jewish and heathenish 
ceremonies and traditions (for I denied all these), and 
told them that that piece of ground was no more holy 
than another piece of ground. I showed them that the 
apostles' going into the Jews' synagogues and temples, 
which God had commanded, was to bring people off 



W^- 



• ■rw 



1652 PREACHING FROM A HAYSTACK 73 

from that temple, and those synagogues, and from the 
offerings, and tithes, and covetous priests of that time ; 
that such as came to be convinced of the truth, and 
converted to it, and believed in Jesus Christ, whom the 
apostles preached, met together afterwards in dwelling- 
houses j and that all who preach Christ, the Word of 
life, ought to preach freely, as the apostles did, and as 
he had commanded. 

So I was sent of the Lord God of heaven and earth 
to preach freely, and to bring people off from these out- 
ward temples made with hands, which God dwelleth not 
in ; that they might know their bodies to become the 
temples of God and of Christ : and to draw people off 
from all their superstitious ceremonies, and Jewish and 
heathenish customs, traditions, and doctrines of men ; 
and from all the world's hireling teachers, that take 
tithes and great wages, preaching for hire, and divining 
for money, whom God and Christ never sent, as them- 
selves confess when they say they never heard God's 
voice nor Christ's voice. Therefore I exhorted the 
people to come off from all these things, and directed 
them to the Spirit and grace of God in themselves, and 
to the light of Jesus in their own hearts, that they might 
come to know Christ, their free teacher, to bring them 
salvation, and to open the Scriptures to them. Thus 
the Lord gave me a good opportunity amongst them to 
open things largely unto them. All was quiet, and 
many were convinced ; blessed be the Lord ! 

I passed on to another town, where there was another 
great meeting, the old priest before mentioned going 
along with me; and there came professors of several 
sorts to it. I sat on a haystack, and spoke nothing for 
some hours; for I was to famish them from words. 
The professors would ^ver and anon be speaking to the 



74 THE JUSTICE AND FOX'S WORK 1652 

old priest, and asking him when I would begin and 
when I would speak. He bade them wait ; and told 
them that the people waited upon Christ a long while 
before he spoke. At last I was moved of the Lord to 
speak ; and they were struck by the Lord's power ; the 
word of life reached to them, and there was a general 
convincement amongst them. 



Night in the Furze Bushes 

Now I came towards Crantsick, to Captain Pursloe*s 
and Justice Hotham's, who received me kindly, being 
glad that the Lord's power had so appeared ; that truth 
was spread, and so many had received it; and that 
Justice Robinson was so civil. Justice Hotham said. If 
God had not raised up the principle of light and life 
which I preached, the nation had been overrun with 
Ranterism, and all the justices in the nation could not 
have stopped it with all their laws ; because (said he) 
they would have said as we said, and done as we com- 
manded, and yet have kept their own principle still. 
But this principle of truth, said he, overthrows their 
principle, and the root and ground thereof; and there- 
fore he was glad the Lord had raised up this principle 
of life and truth. 

The next day, Friends and friendly people having left 
me, I travelled alone, declaring the day of the Lord 
amongst people in the towns where I came, and warning 
them to repent. One day I came towards night into 
a town called Patrington; and as I walked along the 
town I warned both priest and people (for the priest 
was in the street) to repent, and turn to the Lord. It 
grew dark before I came to the end of the town ; and a 
multitude of people gathered about me, to whom I 
declared the wprd of life. When J had cleared myself 



i6sa FOX IS REFUSED FOOD 75 

I went to an inn, and desired tbem to let me have a 
lodging; but they would not. Then I desired them to 
let me have a little meat, or milk, and I would pay them 
for it; but they would not. So I walked out of the 
town, and a company of fellows followed me, and asked 
me, what news ? I bid them repent, and fear the Lord. 

After I had gone some distance, I came to another 
house, and desired the people to let me have a little 
meat and drink, and lo<^ng for my money; but they 
denied me. Then I went to another house, and desired 
the same ; but they refused me also. By this time it 
was grown so dark that I could not see the h^bway ; 
but 1 discerned a ditch, and got a little water and 
refreshed myself. Then I got over the ditch, and being 
weary with travelling, sat down among the furze-bushes 
till it was day. 

After break of day I got up and passed over the 
fields. A man came after me with a great pike-staff, 
and went along with me to a town ; and he raised the 
town upon me, with the constable and chief constable, 
before the sun was up. I declared God's everlasting 
truth among them, warning them of the day of the Lord 
that was coming upon all sin and wickedness ; and ex- 
horted them to repent. But they seized me, and had 
me back to Fatrington, about three miles, guarding me 
with pikes, staves, and halberds. 

Fox Preaches to a Justice 
Now when I was gone back to Fatrington, all the 
town was in an uproar, and the priest and people were 
consulting together; so I had another opportunity to 
declare the word of life amongst them, and warn them to 
repent. At last a professor, a tender man, called me 
into his house, and there I took a little milk and bread, 






76 FOX AND HIS LINEN 1652 



not having eaten for some days before. Then they 
guarded me about nine miles to a justice. When I was 
come near his house, a man came riding after us, and 
asked me whether I was the man that was apprehended ? 
I asked him wherefore he asked ? He said, for no hurt ; 
and I told him I was ; so he rode away to the justice 
before us. The men that guarded me said, It was well 
if the justice was not drunk before we got to him ; for 
he used to be drunk early. 

When I was brought in before him, because I did not 
put off my hat, and said Thou to him, he asked the 
man that rode thither before me whether I was not 
mazed or fond ; but the man told him no, it was my 
principle. Then I warned him to repent, and come 
to the light which Christ had enlightened him with, 
that by it he might see all his evil words and actions ; 
and to return to Christ Jesus whilst he had time ; and 
that whilst he had time he should prize it. " Ay, ay," said 
he, " the light that is spoken of in the third of John." 
I desired him that he would mind it, and obey it. As I 
admonished him I laid my hand upon him, and he was 
brought down by the power of the Lord, and all the 
watchmen stood amazed. Then he took me into a little 
parlour with the other man, and desired to see what I 
had in my pockets, of letters or intelligence. I plucked 
out my linen, and showed him that I had no letters. 
He said. He is not a vagrant by his linen ; and then he 
set me at liberty. 

I went back to Patrington with the man that had 
ridden before me to the justice ; for he lived at Patring- 
ton. When I came there he would have had me have a 
meeting at the Cross ; but I said it was no matter, his 
house would serve. He desired me to go to bed, or lie 
4own upon a bed j which be did that they might say 



f 



t 



1652 NIGHT ON A HAYSTACK 77 

they had seen me in a bed, or upon a bed ; for a report 
had been raised that I would not lie on any bed, because 
at that time I lay many times out of doors. 

Sore of Foot 

From Patrington I went to several great men's 
houses, warning them to repent. Some received me 
lovingly, and some slighted me. Thus I passed on, and 
at night came to another town, where I desired lodging 
and meat, and I would pay for it ; but they would not 
lodge me, except I would go to the constable, which 
was the custom (they said) of all lodgers at inns, if 
strangers. I told them I should not go; for that 
custom was for suspicious persons, but I was an 
innocent man. After I had warned them to repent, 
declared unto them the day of their visitation, and 
directed them to the light of Christ and Spirit of God, 
that they might come to know salvation, I passed away ; 
and the people were something tendered and troubled 
afterwards. When it grew dark, I spied a hay-stack, and 
went and sat under it all night till morning. 

The next day I passed into Hull, admonishing and 
warning people, as I went, to turn to Christ Jesus that 
they might receive salvation. That night I got a 
lodging, but was very sore with travelling on foot 
so far. 

Afterwards, I came to Balby, and visited Friends up 
and down in those parts; and then passed into the 
edge of Nottinghamshire, visiting Friends there ; and so 
into Lincolnshire, and visited Friends there. And 
on the First-day of the week I went to a steeple-house 
on this side of Trent ; and in the afternoon to one on 
the other side of Trent, declaring the word of life to the 
people, and directing them to their teacher, Christ Jesus, 



78 FOX AT GAINSBOROUGH 1652 

who died for them that they might hear him, and receive 
salvation by him. Then I went further into the country, 
and had several meetings. To one meeting came a 
great man, and a priest, and many professors ; but the 
Lord's power came over them all, and they went their 
ways peaceably. There came a man to that meeting 
who had been at one before, and raised a false accusa- 
tion against me, and made a noise up and down the 
country, reporting that I had said I was Christ ; which 
was utterly ialse. 

The Fate of Judas 

When I came to Gainsboroi^h, where a Friend 
had been declaring truth in the market, the town and 
market-people were all in an uproar. I went into a 
friendly man's house, and the people rushed in after 
me ; so that the house was filled with professors, dis- 
puters, and rude people. This false accuser came in, 
and charged me openly before all the people that I had 
said I was Christ, and he had got witnesses to prove it. 
This set the people into such a rage that they had much 
to do to keep their hands off me. Then was I moved 
of the Lord God to stand up on the table, and, in the 
eternal power of God, to tell the people " That Christ 
was in them, except they were reprobates ; and that it 
was Christ the eternal power of God that spoke in me 
at that time unto them ; not that I was Christ." And 
the people were generally satisfied, except himself, a 
professor, and his own false-witnesses. 

I called the accuser Judas, and was moved to tell him 
that Judas's end would be his ; and that that was the 
word of the Lord and of Christ, through me, to him. 
So the Lord's power came over all, and quieted the 
minds of the people, and they departed in peace. But 



w^ 



1652 A FALSE STORY 79 

this Judas went away, and shortly after hanged himself, 
and a stake was driven into his grave. Afterwards the 
wicked priests raised a scandal upon us, and reported 
that a Quaker had hanged himself in Lincolnshire, and 
had a stake driven through him. This falsehood they 
printed to the nation, adding sin to sin; which the 
truth and we were clear of; for he was no more a 
Quaker than the priest that printed it, but was one of 
thei*" own people. But notwithstanding this wicked 
slai.der, by which the adversary designed to defame us, 
and turn people's minds against the truth we held forth, 
many in Lincolnshire received the gospel, being con- 
vinced of the Lord's everlasting truth, and sat down 
therein under the Lord's heavenly teaching. 

Ttu*ned out of Church 

After this I passed, in the Lord's power, into York- 
shire, came to Warmsworth, and went to the steeple- 
house in the forenoon, but they shut the door against 
me ; yet after a while they let in Thomas Aldam, and 
then shut it again ; and the priest fell upon him, asking 
him questions. At last they opened the door, and I 
went in. As soon as I was in the priest's sight he dis- 
continued preaching, though I said nothing to him, and 
asked me, " What have you to say ? " and presently 
cried out, " Come, come, I will prove them false prophets 
in Matthew " ; but he was so confounded he could not 
find the chapter. Then he fell on me, asking me many 
questions, and I stood still all this while, not saying any 
thing amongst them. At last I said, " Seeing here are 
so many questions asked, I may answer them." But as 
soon as I began to speak the people violently rushed 
upon me, and thrust me out of the steeple-house again, 
and locked the door on me. As soon as they had done 



80 FOX STONED IN THE STREET 165^ 

their service, and were come forth, the people ran upon 
me, and knocked me sorely with their staves, threw clods 
and stones at me, and abused me much ; the priest also, 
being in a great rage, laid violent hands on me himself. 
But I warned them and him of the terrible day of the 
Lord, and exhorted them to repent, and turn to Christ. 
Being filled with the Lord's refreshing power, I was not 
sensible of much hurt I had received by their blows. 
In the afternoon I went to another steeple-house, but 
the priest had done before I got thither ; so I preached 
repentance to the people that were left, and directed 
them to their inward teacher, Jesus Quist. 

From hence I went to Balby, and so to Doncaster, 
where I had formerly preached repentance on the 
market-day ; which had made a noise and alarm in the 
country. On the First-day I went to the steeple-house, 
and after the priest had done I spoke to him and the 
people what the Lord had commanded me ; and they 
were in a great rage, hurried me out, threw me down 
and haled me before the magistrates. A long examina- 
tion they made of me, and much work I had with them. 
They threatened my life if ever I came there again ; and 
that they would leave me to the mercy of the people. 
Nevertheless, I declared truth amongst them, and directed 
them to the light of Christ in them ; testifying unto them 
that " God was come to teach his people himself, whether 
they would hear or forbear." After a while they put us 
out (for some Friends were with me) among the rude 
multitude, and they stoned us down the street. An 
innkeeper, that was a bailiff, came and took us into his 
house; and they broke his head, that the blood ran 
down his face, with the stones that they threw at us. 
We stayed a while in his house, and showed the more 
sober people the priest's fruits. Then we went to Balby, 



r 



1652 FOX BESMEARED WITH BLOOD 81 

about a mile off, and the rude people laid wait for us, 
and stoned us down the lane ; but, blessed be the Lord, 
we did not receive much hurt. 

The next First-day I went to Tickhill, whither the 
Friends of that side gathered together, and in the meeting 
a mighty brokenness by the power of God was amongst 
the people. I went out of the meeting, being moved of 
God to go to the steeple-house. 

Struck by the Clerk 

I found the priest and most of the chief of the parish 
together in the chancel. So I went up to them, and 
began to speak; but they immediately fell upon me; 
and the clerk took up his Bible, as I was speaking, and 
struck me on the face with it, so that it gushed out with 
blood, and I bled exceedingly in the steeple-house. 
Then the people cried, " Let us have him out of the 
church " ; and when they had got me out they beat me 
exceedingly, and threw me down, and over a hedge; 
and afterwards they dragged me through a house into 
the street, stoning and beating me as they drew me 
along, so that I was besmeared all over with blood and 
dirt. They got my hat from me, which I never obtained 
again. Yet when I was got upon my legs again I 
declared to them the word of life, and showed them 
the fruits of their teacher, and how they dishonoured 
Christianity. 

After a while I got into the meeting again amongst 
Friends; and the priest and people coming by the 
house, I went forth with Friends into the yard, and 
there I spoke to the priest and people. The priest 
scoflbd at us, and called us Quakers. But the Lord's 
power was so over them, and the word of life was 
declared in such authority and dread to them, that the 

F 



X 



SS THE TREMBLING PRIEST 1653 

priest began trembling himself; and one of the people 
said, " Look how the priest trembles and shakes, he is 
turned a Quaker also." When the meeting was over, 
Friends departed ; and I went without my hat to Balby, 
about seven or eight miles. Friends were much abused 
that day by the priest and his people; insomuch that 
some moderate justices hearing of it, two or three of 
them came, and sat at the town, to hear and examine 
the business. And he that had shed my blood was 
afraid of having his hand cut off for striking me in the 
church (as they called it) ; but I forgave him, and would 
not appear against him. 

Fox has a Vision 

In the banning of this year, 1652, great rage got up 
in priests and people, and in some of the magistrates of 
the West-Riding of Yorkshire, against the truth and 
Friends ; insomuch that the priest of Warmsworlh pro- 
cured a warrant from the justices against me and Thomas 
Aldam, to be executed in any part of the West-Riding 
of Yorkshire. At the same time I had a vision of a 
bear and two great mastiff dogs ; that I should pass by 
them, and they should do me no hurt ; and it proved 
so : for the constable took Thomas Aldam and carried 
him to Y(>rk. I went with Thomas Aldam twenty miles 
towards York : and the constable had the warrant for 
me also, and said, " he saw me, but he was loath to 
trouble men that were strangers ; but Thomas Aldam 
was his neighbour." So the Lord's power restrained 
him, that he had not power to meddle with me. 

From hence I went to Wakefield ; and on the First- 
day after I went to a steeple-house, where James Naylor 
had been a member of an Independent church; but 
upon his receiving truth he wab excommunicated. 



r 



1652 CURIOUS RUMOURS ABOUT FOX 83 

When I came in, and the priest had done, the people 
called upon me to come up to the priest, which I did ; 
but when I began to declare the word of life to them, 
and to lay open the deceit of the priest, they rushed 
upon me suddenly, thrust me out at the other door, 
punching and beating me, and cried, " Let us have him 
to the stocks." But the Lord's power restrained them, 
that they were not suffered to put me in. So I passed 
away to the meeting, where were a great many professors 
and friendly people gathered, and a great convincement 
there was that day ; for the people were mightily satisfied 
that they were directed to the Lord's teaching in them- 
selves. Here we got some lodging ; for four of us had 
lain under a hedge the night before, there being then 
.few Friends in that place. 

** Wicked Slanders** 

The priest of that church which James Naylor had 
been a member of, whose name was Marshall, raised 
many wicked slanders about me, as <<that I carried 
bottles with me, and made people drink of them, which 
made them follow me " ; and " that I rode upon a great 
black horse, and was seen in one country upon it in one 
hour, and at the same hour in another country three- 
score miles off" ; and " that I would give a fellow money 
to follow me when I was on my black horse." With 
these lies he fed his people, to make them think evil of 
the truth which I had declared amongst them. But by 
these lies he preached many of his hearers away from 
him; for I was then travelling on foot, and had no 
horse at that time; which the people generally knew. 
The Lord soon after cut off this envious priest in 
his wickedness. 

After this I came to High-Town, where dwelt a 



84 AN ATTEMPT TO MURDER 1652 

woman who had been convinced a little before. We 
went to her house, and had a meeting ; and the people 
gathered together, and we declared the truth to them, 
and had some service for the Lord amongst them ; 
they passed away again peaceably. But there was a widow 
woman, named Green, who, being filled with envy, went 
to one that was called a gentleman in the town (who 
was reported to have killed two men and one woman), 
and informed him against us, though he was no officer. 

Next morning we drew up some queries to be sent 
to the priest. When we had done, and were just going 
away, some of the friendly people of the town came 
running up to the house where we were, and told 
us that this murdering man had sharpened a pike 
to stab us, and was coming up with his sword by 
his side. We were just passing away, and so missed 
him. But we were no sooner gone than he came to 
the house where we had been ; and the people generally 
concluded if we had not been gone he would have 
murdered some of us. That night we lay in a wood, 
and were very wet, for it rained exceedingly. In the 
morning I was moved to return to the town, when they 
gave us a full relation of this wicked man. 

From hence we passed to Bradford, where we met 
with Richard Farnsworth again, from whom we had 
parted a little before. When we came in, they set 
meat before us ; but as I was going to eat, the word of 
the Lord came to me, saying, *<Eat not the bread 
of such as have an evil eye." Immediately I arose from 
the table, and ate nothing. The woman of the house 
was a Baptist. After I had exhorted the family to turn 
to the Lord Jesus Christ, and hearken to his teachings 
in their own hearts, we departed thence. 

I went to Underbarrow, to one^Miles Bateman's; 



if. 



1652 FOX*S SYMPATHY WITH THE POOR 85 

and several people going along ^ith me, great reasonings 
I had with them, especially with Edward Burrough. At 
night the priest and many professors came to the house, 
and much disputing I had with them. Supper being 
provided for the priest and the rest of the company, 
I had not freedom to eat with them, but told them, 
if they would appoint a meeting for the next day at the 
steeple-house, and acquaint the people with it, I might 
meet them. They had a great deal of reasoning about 
it ; some being for it, and some against it. In the 
morning I went out, after I had spoken again to them 
concerning the meeting ; and as I walked upon a bank 
by the house, there came several poor people, travellers, 
asking relief, who I saw were in necessity; and they 
gave them nothing, but said they were cheats. It grieved 
me to see such hard-heartedness amongst professors; 
so, when they were gone in to their breakfast, I ran after 
the poor people about a quarter of a mile, and gave 
them some money. 

Fox and the Beggars 

Meanwhile some of them that were in the house, 
coming out again, and seeing me a quarter of a mile off, 
said I could not have gone so far in such an instant if 
I had not had wings. Hereupon the meeting was like 
to have been put by; for they were filled with such 
strange thoughts concerning me that many of them were 
against having a meeting with me. I told them I ran 
after those poor people to give them some money, being 
grieved at their hard-heartedness, who gave them nothing. 
Then came Miles and Stephen Hubbersty, who being 
more simple-hearted men, would have the meeting held. 
So to the chapel I went, and the priest came. A great 
meeting there was, and the way of life and salvation was 



86 FOX AND PklEST LAMPITT 1651 

opened ; and after a while the priest fled away. Many 
of Crook and Underbarrow were convinced that day, 
received the word of life, and stood fast in it under the 
teaching of Christ Jesus. After I had declared the truth 
to them for some hours, and the meeting was ended, the 
chief-tonstable and some other professors fell to reason- 
ing with me in the chapel-yard ; whereupon I took a 
Bible, and opened to them the Scriptures, and dealt 
tenderly with them, as one would do with a child. 
They that were in the light of Christ, and Spirit of 
God, knew when I spoke Scripture, though I did not 
mention chapter and verse, after the priest's form unto 
them. 

Fox and Margaret Fell 
I went to Ulverstone, and so to Swarthmore to Judge 
Fell's ; whither came up one Lampitt, a priest, who was 
a h^h notionist. With him I had much reasoning ; for 
he talked of high notions and perfection, and thereby 
deceived the people. He would have owned me, but I 
could not own or join with him, he was so full of filth. 
He said he was above John ; and made as thoi^h he 
knew all things. But I told him, "Death reigned from 
Adam to Moses, that he was under death, and knew not 
Moses, for Moses saw the paradise of God ; hut he knew 
neither Moses nor the prophets, nor John." For that 
crooked and rough nature stood in him, and the mountain 
of sin and corruption ; and the way was not prepared in 
him for the Lord. He confessed he had been under a 
cross in things ; but now he could sing psalms, and do 
anything : I told him, " now he could see a thief, and 
join hand in hand with him, but he could not preach 
Moses, nor the prophets, nor John, nor Christ, except 
he were in the same Spirit that they were in." Margaret 






1652 IN ULVERSTONE CHORCH 8? 

Fell had been absent in the daytime ; and at night her 
children told her that priest Lampitt and I had dis- 
agreed ; which somewhat troubled her, because she was 
in profession with him ; but he hid his dirty actions 
from them. At night we had much reasoning, and I 
declared the truth to her and her family. 

The next day Lampitt came again, and I had much 
discourse with him before Margaret Fell, who then 
clearly discerned the priest. A convincement of the 
Lord's truth came upon her and her family. Soon after 
a day was to be observed for a humiliation, and Margaret 
Fell asked me to go with her to the steeple-house at 
Ulverstone, for she was not wholly come off from them ; 
I replied, ** 1 must do as I am ordered by the Lord." 
So I left her, and walked into the fields ; and the word 
of the Lord came to me, saying, "Go to the steeple- 
house after them." When I came, Lampitt was singing 
with his people; but his spirit was so foul, and the 
matter they sung so unsuitable to their states, that after 
they had done singing I was moved of the Lord to speak. 

The word of the Lord to them was, " He is not a 
Jew that is one outwardly, but he is a Jew that is 
one inwardly, whose praise is not of man, but of 
God." Then, as the Lord opened further, I showed 
them " that God was come to teach his people by his 
Spirit, and to bring them off from all their old ways, 
religions, churches, and worships ; for all their rehgions, 
worships, and ways were but talking with other men's 
words ; but they were out of the life and Spirit which 
they were in who gave them forth." Then cried out 
one, called Justice Sawrey, "Take him away"; but 
Judge Feirs wife said to the officers, " Let him alone, 
why may not he speak as well as any other ? " Lampitt 
also, the priest, in deceit said, " Let him speak." So at 



88 FOX AND JUDGE FELL 1652 

length, when I had declared some time, Justice Sawrey 
caused the constable to put me out ; and then I spoke to 
the people in the grave-yard. 

Judge Fell is Convinced 

Soon after, Judge Fell being come home, Margaret 
Fell his wife sent to me, desiring me to return tliither ; 
and, feeling freedom from the Lord so to do, I went 
back to Swarthmore. I found the priests and professors, 
and that envious Justice Sawrey, had much incensed 
Judge Fell and Captain Sands against the truth by their 
lies ; but when I came to speak with him I answered all 
his objections ; and so thoroughly satisfied him by the 
Scriptures that he was convinced in his judgment. 
He asked me if I was that George Fox whom Justice 
Robinson spoke so much in commendation of amongst 
many of the parliament men. I told him I had been 
with Justice Robinson, and with Justice Hotham in 
Yorkshire, who was very civil and loving to me, and that 
they were convinced in their judgment by the Spirit of 
God that the principle which I bore testimony to was 
the truth, and they saw over and beyond the priests of 
the nation ; so that they, and many others, were now 
come to be wiser than their teachers. After we had dis- 
coursed some time together, Judge Fell himself was 
satisfied also, and came to see, by the openings of the 
Spirit of God in his heart, over all the priests and 
teachers of the world, and did not go to hear them for 
some years before he died ; for he knew it was the truth 
that I declared, and that Christ was the teacher of his 
people, and their Saviour. He sometimes wished that 
I were a while with Judge Bradshaw to discourse with 
him. 

There came to Judge Fell's, Captain Sands, endeavour- 



S?3?r 



1652 MEETINGS AT JUDGE FELL'S 89 

ing to incense the judge against me ; for he was an evil- 
minded man, and full of envy against me ; and yet he 
could speak high things, and use the Scripture words, 
and say, " Behold, I make all things new." But I told 
him, then he must have a new God, for his God was his 
belly. Besides him came also that envious justice, John 
Sawrey. I told him " his heart was rotten, and he was 
full of hypocrisy to the brim.'* Several other people 
also came, whose states the Lord gave me a discerning 
of ; and I spoke to their conditions. While I was in 
those parts, Richard Farnsworth and James Naylor came 
to see me and the family ; and Judge Fell, being satisfied 
that it was the way of truth, notwithstanding all their 
opposition, suffered the meeting to be kept at his house ; 
and a great meeting was settled there in the Lord's 
power, which continued nearly forty years, until the year 
1690, that a new meeting-house was erected near it. 

The Voice of God 

I came to Swarthmore again. And when I had visited 
Friends in those parts, I heard of a great meeting the 
priests were to have at Ulverstohe, on a lecture-day. I 
went to it, and into the steeple-house in the dread and 
power of the Lord. When the priest had done, 1 spoke 
among them the word of the Lord, which was as a 
hammer, and as a fire amongst them. And though 
Lampitt, the priest of the place, had been at variance 
with most of the priests before, yet against the truth they 
all joined together. But the mighty power of the Lord 
was over all ; and so wonderful was the appearance 
thereot that priest Bennett said " the church shook," 
insomuch that he was afraid and trembled. And when 
he had spoken a few confused words, he hastened out, 
for fear it should fall on his head. Many priests got 



F 

I 



90 FOX TELLS HIS AUTHORITV 1651 



together there; but they had no power as yet to 
persecute. 

^; When I had cleared my conscience towards them, I 

P went up to Swarthmore again, whither came four or five 

p: of the priests. Coming to discourse, I asked them, 

^^ " whether any one of them could say he ever had the 

1^: word of the Lord to go and speak to such or such a 

I people ? " None of them durst say he had ; but one of 

I ^ them burst out into a passion, and said ^* he could speak 

^ his experiences as well as I." I told him experience was 

I one thing; but to receive and go with a message, and to 

have a word from the Lord, as the prophets and apostles 
had and did, and as I had done to them, this was 
another thing. And therefore I put it to them again, 
lf ; " could any of them say he had ever had a command or 

word from the Lord immediately at any time?" but 
^ none of them could say so. 'I'hen I told them, the false 

prophets, the false apostles, and antichrists, could use 
the words of the true prophets, the true apostles, and of 
Christ, and would speak of other men*s experiences, 
though they themselves never knew or heard the voice of 
God or Christ ; and such as they might obtain the good 
words and experiences of others ; this puzzled them 
much, and laid them open. 

At another time, when I was discoursing with several 
priests at Judge Fell's house, and he was by, I asked 
them the same question, ** whether any of them ever 
heard the voice of God or Christ, to bid him go to such 
and such a people, to declare his word or message unto 
them ? " for any one, I told them, that could but read 
might declare the experiences of the prophets and 
t; . apostles, which were recorded in the Scriptures. Here- 

^ upon Thomas Taylor, an ancient priest, did ingenuously 

confess before Judge Fell " that he had never heard the 



1. 

■ I' 



5^' 









?4. 









i6s2 "OLD MASS HOUSES** 91 

voice of God, nor ot Christ, to send him to any people, 
but he spoke his experiences, and the experiences of the 
saints in former ages, and then he preached." This very 
much confirmed Judge Fell in the persuasion he had "that 
the priests were wrong " ; for he had thought formerly, as 
the generality of people then did, " that they were sent 
from God." 

Fox^s Fellow Ministers 

After I had visited Friends in Westmorland, I re- 
turned into Lancashire, and went to Ulverstone, where 
W. Lampitt was priest. 

Now when meetings were set up, and we met in 
private houses, Lampitt the priest began to rage ; and he 
said, "we forsook the temple, and went to Jeroboam's 
calves' houses " ; so that many professors began to see 
how he had declined from that which he had formerly 
held and preached. 

Much work I had in those days with priests and 
people, concerning their old mass-houses, which they 
called their churches ; for the priests had persuaded the 
people that it was the house of God; whereas the 
apostle says, " whose house we are," &c. Heb. iii. 6. 
So the people are God's house, in whom he dwells. 
And the apostle saith, " Christ purchased his church 
with his own blood " ; and Christ calls his church his 
spouse, his bride, and the Lamb's wife ; so that this title, 
church and .spouse, was not given to an old house, but 
to his people, the true believers. 

Fox Beaten in the Steeple^Hotise 

After this, on a lecture day, I was moved to go to the 
steeple-house at Ulverstone, where were abundance of 
professors, priests, and people. I went up near to priest 



92 FOX BEATEN IN CHURCH 1652 

Lampitt, who was blustering on in his preaching ; and 
after the Lord had opened my mouth to speak, John 
Sawrey the justice came to me and said, " if I would 
speak according to the Scriptures, I should speak." I 
wondered at his speaking so to me, for I did speak 
according to the Scriptures, and I told him, ** I should 
speak according to the Scriptures, and bring the Scrip- 
tures to prove what I had to say ; for I had something 
to speak to Lampitt and to them." Then he said I 
should not speak, contradicting himself who had said 
just before, " I should speak if I would speak according 
to the Scriptures." 

The people were quiet and heard me gladly, until this 
Justice Sawrey (who was the first stirrer up of cruel 
persecution in the North) incensed them against me, 
and set them on to hale, beat, and bruise me. Suddenly 
the people were in a rage, and fell upon me in the 
steeple-house before his face ; knocked me down, kicked 
me, and trampled upon me; and so great was the 
uproar that some tumbled over their seats for fear. At 
last he came and took me from the people, led me out of 
the steeple-house, and put me into the hands of the 
constables and other officers, bidding them whip me and 
put me out of the town. 

They led me about a quarter of a mile, some taking 
hold of my collar, and some by my arms and shoulders, 
and shook and dragged me along. Many friendly 
people being come to the market, and some of them 
to the steeple-house to hear me, divers of these they 
knocked down also, and broke their heads, so that the 
blood ran down from several of them ; and Judge Fell's 
son running after, to see what they would do with me, 
they threw him into a ditch of water, some of them 
crying, " knock the teeth out of his head." Now when 



wry 



1652 AN EXTRAORDINARY INCIDENT 93 

they had haled me to the common moss-side, a multi- 
tude of people following, the constables and other 
officers gave me some blows over my back with their 
willow-rods, and so thrust me among the rude multitude, 
who, having furnished themselves, some with staves, 
some with hedge-stakes, and others with holm or holly- 
bushes, fell upon me, and beat me on my head, arms, 
and shoulders, till they had deprived me of sense ; so 
that I fell down upon the wet common. 

Fox*s Bravery 

When I recovered again, and saw myself lying in a 
watery common, and the people standing about me, I 
lay still a little while ; and the power of the Lord sprang 
through me, and the Eternal Refreshings refreshed me, 
so that I stood up again in the strengthening power of 
the Eternal God ; and stretching out my arms amongst 
them, I said with a loud voice, <' Strike again ; here are 
my arms, my head, and my cheeks." There was in the 
company a mason, a professor, but a rude fellow ; he 
with his walking rule-staff gave me a blow with all his 
might, just over the back of my hand, as it was stretched 
out ; with which blow my hand was so bruised, and my 
arm so benumbed, that I could not draw it unto me 
again ; so that some of the people cried out, " he hath 
spoiled his hand for ever having the use of it any more." 
But I looked at it in the love of God (for I was in the 
love of God to them all, that had persecuted me), and 
after a while the Lord's power sprang through me again, 
and through my hand and arm, so that in a moment I 
recovered strength in my hand and arm, in the sight of 
them all. 

Then they began to fall out among themselves, and 
some of them came to me, and said if I would give 



I 



94 FOX AND THE SOLDIER 1652 

them money they would secure me from the rest. But 
I was moved of the Lord to declare to them the word 
of Ufe, and showed them their false Christianity, and the 
fruits of their priest's ministry ; telling them they were 
more like heathens and Jews than true Christians. 
Then was I moved of the Lord to come up again 
through the midst of the people, and go into Ulverstone 
market. 

As I went, there met me a soldier, with his sword by his 
side ; " Sir," said he to me, " I see you are a man, and 
I am ashamed and grieved that you should be thus 
abused " ; and he offered to assist me in what he could. 
But I told him the Lord's power was over all ; so I 
walked through the people in the market, and none of 
them had power to touch me then. But some of the 
market-people abusing some Friends in the market, I 
turned me about and saw this soldier among them with 
his naked rapier, whereupon I ran in amongst them, 
and catching hold of his hand that his rapier was in, I 
bid him put up his sword again, if he would go along 
with me ; for I was willing to draw him out from the 
company, lest some mischief should be done. A few 
days after seven men fell upon this soldier, and beat 
him cruelly, because he had taken part with Friends 
and me ; for it was the manner of the persecutors of 
that country, for twenty or forty people to run upon 
one man. And they fell so upon Friends in many 
places, that they could hardly pass the highways, stoning, 
beating, and breaking their heads. 

When I came to Swarthmore, I found the friends 
there dressing the heads and hands of Friends and 
friendly people, which had been broken or hurt that 
day by the professors and hearers of Lampitt^ the priest. 
My body and arms were yellow, black, and blue, with 



w 



1652 CHARGED WITH BEWITCHING 95 

the blows and bruises I received amongst that day. 
Now began the priests to prophesy again, that within 
half a year we should be all put down and gone. 

''Km him I Kill himr* 

About two weeks after this I went into Walney island, 
and James Naylor went with me. We stayed one night 
at a little town on this side, called Cockan, and had a 
meeting there, where one was convinced. After a while 
there came a man with a pistol, whereupon the people 
ran out of doors. He called for me ; and when I came 
out to him, he snapped his pistol at me, but it would 
not go off. This caused the people to make a great 
bustle about him ; and some of them took hold of him, 
to prevent his doing mischief; but I was moved in the 
Lord's power to speak to him ; and he was so struck by 
the power of the Lord, that he trembled for fear, and 
went and hid himself. Thus the Lord's power came 
over them all, though there was a great rage in the 
country. 

Next morning I went over in a boat to James 
Lancaster's. As soon as I came to land, there rushed 
out about forty men and staves, clubs, and fishing-poles, 
who fell upon me, beating and punching me, and 
endeavouring to thrust me backward into the sea. 
When they had thrust me almost into the sea, and I saw 
they would have knocked me down in it, I went up into 
the midst of them; but they laid at me again, and 
knocked me down, and stunned me. When I came to 
myself, I looked up and saw James Lancaster's wife 
throwing stones at my face, and her husband James 
Lancaster was lying over me, to keep the blows and the 
jitones off me. For the people had persuaded James 
I^wicaster's wife that I had bewitched her husband; 



I 



96 FOX AGAIN BEATEN 1653 

and had promised her, that if she would let them know 
when I came thither, they would be my death. And 
having got knowledge of my coming, many of the town 
rose up in this manner with clubs and staves to kill me ; 
but the Lord's power preserved me, that they could not 
take away my life. At length I got up on my feet, but 
they beat me down again into the boat; which James 
Lancaster observing, he presently came into it, and set 
me over the water from them ; but while we were on the 
water within their reach, they struck at us with long 
poles, and threw stones after us. By the time we were 
come to the other side, we saw them beating James 
Naylor ; for whilst they had been beating me, he walked 
up into a field, and they never minded him till I was 
gone ; then they fell upon him, and all their cry was, 
'* Km him, kill him." 

♦♦I made Light of it** 

When I was come over to the town again, on the 
other side of the water, the townsmen rose up with pitch- 
forks, flails, and staves, to keep me out of the town, 
crying, "Kill him, knock him on the head, bring the 
cart, and carry him away to the churchyard." So after 
they had abused me, they drove me some distance out ot 
the town, and there left me. Then went James Lancaster 
back to look after James Naylor ; and I being now left 
alone, went to a ditch of water, and having washed 
myself (for they had besmeared my face, hands, and 
clothes, with miry dirt), I walked about three miles to 
Thomas Button's house, where lodged Thomas Lawson, 
the priest that was convinced. When I came in, I 
could hardly speak to them, I was so bruised ; only I 
told them where I left James Naylor ; so they took each 
of them a horse, and went and brought him thither that 



r 



1652 FOX AND HIS ENEMIES 9"? 

night. The next day Margaret Fell hearing of it, sent 
a horse for me ; but so sore I was with bruises, I was 
not able to bear the shaking of the horse without much 
pain. 

When I was come to Swarthmbre, Justice Sawrey, and 
one Justice Thompson of Lancaster, granted a warrant 
against me; but Judge Fell coming home, it was not 
served upon me ; for he was out of the country all this 
time, that I was thus cruelly abused. When he came 
home, he sent forth warrants into the isle of Walney, to 
apprehend all those riotous persons ; whereupon some 
of them fled the country. James Lancaster's wife was 
afterwards convinced of the truth, and repented of the 
evils she had done me ; and so did others of those bitter 
persecutors also ; but the judgments of God fell upon 
some of them, and destruction is come upon many of 
them since. Judge Fell asked me to give him a relation 
of my persecution ; but I told him they could do no 
otherwise in the spirit wherein they were, and that they 
manifested the fruits of their priest's ministry, and their 
profession and religion to be wrong. So he told his 
wife I made light of it, and that I spoke of it as a man 
that had not been concerned; for, indeed, the Lord's 
power healed me again. 

After 1 was recovered, I went to Yelland, where there 
was a great meeting. In the evening there came a priest 
to the house, with a pistol in his hand, under pretence 
to light a pipe of tobacco. The maid of the house 
seeing the pistol, told her master ; who, clapping his hands 
on the door-posts, told him he should not come in there. 
While he stood there, keeping the door-way, he looked 
up, and spied over the wall a company of men coming, 
some armed with staves, and one with a musket. But 
the Lord God prevented their bloody design ; so that 



98 THE PRIEST'S FALSE WITNESS 1652 

seeing themselves discovered, they went their way, and 
did no harm. 

The time for the sessions at Lancaster being come, I 
went thither with Judge Fell j who on the way told me 
he had never had such a matter brought before him 
before, and he could not well tell what to do in the 
business. I told him, when Paul was brought before 
the rulers, and the Jews and priesUcame down to accuse 
him, and laid many false things to his charge, Paul stood 
still all that while. And when they had done, Festus, 
the governor, and king Agrippa, beckoned to him to 
speak for himself; which Paul did, and cleared himself 
of all those &lse accusations ; so he might do with me. 
Being come to Lancaster, Justice Sawrey and Justice 
Thompson having granted a warrant to apprehend me, 
though I was not apprehended by it, yet hearing of it, I 
appeared at the sessions j where there appeared against 
me about forty priests. 

Forty Priests v. Fox 
These had chosen one Marshall, priest of Lancaster, 
to be their orator; and had provided one young priest, 
and two priests' sons to bear witness against me, who 
had sworn beforehand that I had spoken blasphemy. 
When the justices were sat, they heard all that the priests 
and their witnesses could say and charge against me ; 
their orator Marshall sitting by, and explaining their 
sayings for them ; but the witnesses were so confounded, 
that they discovered themselves to be false witnesses ; 
for when the court had examined one of them upon oath, 
and then began to examine another, he was at such loss 
he could not answer directly, but said the other could 
say it. Which made the justices say to him, " have you 
sworn it, and given it in already upon your oath, and 



w 



v% 



1652 A FRIENDLY JUSTICE 99 

now say that he can say it ? It seems you did not hear 
those words spoken yourself, though you have sworn it." 
There were then in court several people who had been 
at that meeting, wherein the witnesses swore I spoke 
those blasphemous words, which the priests accused me 
of; and these being men of integrity and reputation in 
the country, declared and affirmed in court that the 
oath which the witnesses had taken against me was 
altogether false; and that no such words as they had 
sworn against me were spoken by me at that meeting. 
Indeed, most of the serious men of that part of the 
country, that were then at the sessions, had been at that 
meeting, and had heard me both at that and other 
meetings also. This was taken notice of by Colonel 
West, who, being a justice of the peace, was then upon 
the bench ; and having long been weak in body, blessed 
the Lord, and said, " the Lord had healed him that 
day " ; adding, that he never saw so many sober people 
and good &ces together in all his life. 

A Sermon in Court 

And then, turning himself to me, he said in the open 
sessions, " George, if thou hast anything to say to the 
people, thou mayest freely declare it." I was moved ot 
the Lord to speak; and as soon as I began, priest 
Marshall, the orator for the rest of the priests, went 
away. That which I was moved to declare was this : 
" that the Holy Scriptures were given forth by the Spirit 
of God, and all people must first come to the Spirit of 
God in themselves, by which they might know God and 
Christ, of whom the prophets and the apostles learnt ; 
and by the same Spirit know the Holy Scriptures ; for 
as the Spirit of God was in them that gave forth the 
Scriptures, so the same Spirit of God must be in all 






1 



100 LOGIC IN COURT 1652 

them that come to understand the Scriptures ; by which 
Spirit they might have fellowship with the Son, and with 
the Father, and with the Scriptures, and with one 
another ; and without this Spirit they can know neither 
God nor Christ, nor the Scriptures, nor have right 
fellowship one with another." 

I had no sooner spoken these words, than about half 
a dozen priests that stood behind me burst out into a 
passion; and one of them, named Jackus, amongst 
other things that he spoke against the truth, said that 
the Spirit and the letter were inseparable. I replied, 
" then every one that hath the letter hath the Spirit ; 
and they might buy the Spirit with the letter of the 
Scriptures." This plain discovery of darkness in the 
priest moved Judge Fell and Colonel West to reprove 
them openly, and tell them, that according to that 
position they might carry the Spirit in their pockets, as 
they did the Scriptures. Upon this the priests being 
confounded and put to silence, rushed out in a rage 
against the justices, because they could not have their 
bloody ends upon me. The justices, seeing the witnesses 
did not agree, and perceiving that they were brought 
to answer the priests' envy, and finding that all their 
evidences were not sufficient in law to make good their 
charge against me, discharged me. And after Judge 
Fell had spoken to Justice Sawrey and Justice Thompson 
concerning the warrant they had given forth against me, 
and showed them the errors thereof, he and Colonel 
West granted a supersedeas to stop the execution of it. 

** The Quakers had got the Day ** 

Thus was I cleared in open sessions of all those lying 
accusations which the malicious priests had laid to my 
charge ; and multitudes of people praised God that day, 



'1 *'•' 



1 6s 2 FOX FASTS 101 

for it was a joyful day to many. Justice Benson of 
Westmorland was convinced ; and Major Ripan, mayor 
of Lancaster, also. It was a day of everlasting salvation 
to hundreds of people ; for the Lord Jesus Christ, the 
way to the Father, and the free teacher, was exalted 
and set up, and his everlasting gospel was preached 
and the word of eternal life was declared over the heads 
of the priests, and all such money-preachers. For the 
Lord opened many mouths that day to speak his word 
to the priests, and several friendly people and professors 
reproved the priests in their inns, and in the streets ; so 
that they fell, like an old rotten house ; and the cry was 
among the people that the Quakers had got the day, 
and the priests were fallen. Many people were con- 
vinced that day, amongst whom was Thomas Briggs, 
who before had been averse to Friends and truth, 
insomuch that discoursing with John Lawson, a 
Friend, concerning perfection, Thomas Briggs said to 
him, " dost thou hold perfection ? " at the same time 
lifting up his hand to give the Friend a box on the ear. 
But this Thomas Briggs, being convinced of the truth 
that day, declared against his own priest, Jackus ; and 
afterwards became a faithful minister of the gospel, and 
stood so to the end of his days. 

At this time I was in a fast, and was not to eat 
until this work of God, which then lay weighty upon me, 
was accomplished. But the Lord's power was wonder- 
fully exalted and gave truth and Friends dominion 
therein over all, to his glory. This gospel was freely 
preached that day, over the heads of about forty hireling 
priests. I stayed two or three days afterwards in 
Lancaster, and had some meetings there ; and the rude 
and baser sort of people plotted together to draw me 
out of the house, and to throw me over Lancaster 



102 A BRAVE CLERK OF ASSIZE 1652 

bridge, but the Lord prevented them. Then they 
invented another mischief, which was this : after a meet- 
ing at Lancaster they brought down a distracted man, 
and another with him with bundles of birchen rods, 
bound together like besoms, with which they would 
have whipped me : but I was moved to speak to them in 
the Lord's mighty power, which chained down the 
distracted man, and the other also, and made them 
calm and quiet. Then I bid him throw his rods into the 
fire, and burn them ; and he did so. Thus the Lord's 
power being over them, they departed quietly. 

The Judge Thwarted 

But the priests, fretting to see themselves overthrown 
at the sessions at Lancaster, got some of the envious 
justices to join with them ; and, at the following assize 
at Lancaster, informed Judge Windham against me. 
Whereupon the judge made a speech against me in 
open court; and commanded Colonel West, who was 
clerk of the assize, to issue forth a warrant for the 
apprehending of me : but Colonel West told the judge of 
my innocency, and spoke boldly in my defence. Yet the 
judge commanded him again, either to write a warrant 
or go off from his 'seat: then he told the judge plainly 
that he would not do it ; but that he would offer up all 
his estate, and his body also, for me. Thus he stopped 
the judge ; and the. Lord's power^came over all; so that 
the priests and 'justices could not get their envy 
executed. 

That same night I came^into Lancaster, it being the 
assize time, and hearing of a warrant to be given out 
against me, I judged it^ better to show myself openly, 
than for my adversaries to seek me. So I went to Judge 
Feirs and Colonel West's chambers. As soon as I came 



_ _i 



1652 IN THE DRAGON'S MOUTH 103 

in they smiled on me ; and Colonel West said, " What ! 
are you come into the dragon's mouth ? " I stayed in 
town till the judge went out of town ; and I walked up 
and down the town, but no one meddled with me 
or questioned me. Thus the Lord's blessed power, 
which is over all, carried me through and over this 
exercise, gave dominion over his enemies, and enabled 
nie to go on in his glorious work and service for 
his great name's sake. For though the beast maketh 
war against the saints, yet the Lamb hath got, and will 
get, the victory. 

Friends Attacked by Frenchmen 

From Lancaster I returned to Robert Widders's, 
and from thence I went to Thomas Leper's to a 
meeting in the evening ; and a very blessed meeting 
we had there ; after which I walked in the evening to 
Robert Widders's again. No sooner was I gone than 
there came a company of disguised men to Thomas 
Leper's, with swords and pistols ; who suddenly entering 
the house put out the candles, and swung their swords 
about amongst the people of the house, who held up 
the chairs before them to save themselves from being 
cut and wounded. At length they drove all the people 
out of the house, and then searched it for me; who, it 
seems, was the only person they looked for: for they 
had laid wait before on the highway, by which I should 
have gone had I rode to Robert Widders's. And not 
meeting with me on the way, they thought to find me in 
the house, but the Lord prevented them. Soon after I 
was come to Robert Widders's, some friends came from 
the town where Thomas Leper lived, and gave us a 
relation of this wicked attempt : and they were afraid 
lest they should come and search Robert Widders's house 



104 FRIENDS PRESERVE THEIR ENEMIES 1652 

also for me, and do me a mischief; but the Lord re- 
strained them that they came not. 

Though these men were in disguise the friends 
perceived some of them to be Frenchmen, and sup- 
posed them to be servants belonging to one called 
Sir Robert Bindlas ; for some of them had said, that in 
their nation they used to tie the Protestants to trees, 
and whip and destroy them. His servants used often 
to abuse Friends, both in their meetings, and going to 
and from them. They once took Richard Hubberthorn 
and several others out of one, and carried them a good 
way off into the fields ; and there bound them, and left 
them bound in the Winter season. At another time 
one of his servants came to Francis Fleming's house, 
and thrust his naked rapier in at the door and windows ; 
but there being at the house a kinsman of Francis 
Fleming's, one who was not a Friend, he came with a 
cudgel in his hand, and bid the serving-man put up his 
rapier ; which when the other would not, but vapoured 
at him with it, and was rude, he knocked him down 
with his cudgel, and took his rapier from him ; and had 
it not been for Friends, he would have run him through 
with it. So the Friends preserved the life of him that 
would have destroyed theirs. 

**Sui?ely I was a Witch** 

From Robert Widders's I went to visit Justice West, 
Richard Hubberthorn accompanying me. Not knowing 
the way, or the danger of the sands, we rode where, as 
we were afterwards told, no man ever rode before, 
swimming our horses over a very dangerous place. 
When we were come in Justice West asked us if we 
did not see two men riding over the sands : '< I shall 
have their clothes anon ' said he, " for they cannot 



\^ 



1652 CHEATING THE CORONER 105 

escape drowning, and I am the coroner." But when we 
told him that we were the men, he was astonished, and 
wondered how we escaped drowning. Upon this the 
envious priests and professors raised a slanderous report 
concerning me, that neither water could drown me, nor 
could they draw blood of me ; and that therefore surely 
I was a witch; indeed, sometimes when they beat me 
with great staves, they did not much draw my blood, 
though they bruised my body ofttimes very sorely. But 
all these slanders were nothing to me with respect to 
myself, though I was concerned on the truth's behalf, 
which, I saw, they endeavoured by these means to 
prejudice people against ; for I considered that their 
forefathers, the apostate Jews, called the master of the 
house Beelzebub; and these apostate Christians from 
the life and power of God, could do no less to his seed. 
But the Lord's power carried me over their slanderous 
tongues, and their bloody murderous spirits ; who had 
the ground of witchcraft in themselves, which kept them 
from coming to God and to Christ. 

Fox Indicts a Judge 

Having visited Justice West, I went to Swarthmore, 
visiting Friends ; and the Lord's power was over all the 
persecutors there. I was moved to write several letters 
to the magistrates, priests, and professors thereabouts, 
who had raised persecution before ; that which I sent 
to Justice Sawrey was after this manner : — 

«* Friend, 

" Thou wast the first beginner of all the persecution 

in the North ; thou wast the beginner and the maker of 

the people tumultuous. Thou wast the first stirrer of 

them up against the righteous seed, and against the truth 



166 UPBRAIDING A JUDGE 16^2 

of God ; the first strengthener of the hands of evil-doers 
against the innocent and harmless ; and thou shalt not 
prosper. Thou wast the first stirrer up of strikers, 
stoners, persecutors, stockers, mockers, and imprisoners 
in the North, and of revilers, slanderers, railers, and false 
accusers* This was thy work, and this thou stirredst 
up ! so thy fruits declare thy spirit. 

" Instead of stirring up the pure mind in people, thou 
hast stirred up the wicked, malicious, and envious, and 
taken hand with the wicked. Thou hast made the 
people's minds envious up and down the country ; this 
was thy work. But God hath shortened thy days, and 
limited thee ; hath set thy bounds, and broken thy jaws ; 
discovered thy religion to the simple and babes, and 
brought thy deeds to light. How is thy habitation 
fallen, and become the habitation of devils ! How is thy 
beauty lost, and thy glory withered ! How hast thou 
showed thy evil, that thou hast served God but with thy 
lips, thy heart being far from him, and thou in hypocrisy ! 
How hath the form of thy teaching declared itself to 
be the mark of the false prophets, whose fruit declares 
itself ! for by their fruits they are known. How are the 
wise men turned ' backward ! View thy ways, and take 
notice with whom thou hast taken part. That of God 
in thy conscience will tell thee; the Ancient of Days 
will reprove thee. 

" How hath thy ieal appeared to be the blind zeal ot 
a persecutor, which Christ and his apostles forbade 
Christians to follow ! How hast thou strengthened the 
hands of evil-doers, and been a praise to them, and not 
to them that do well ! How like a madman and blind 
man, didst thou turn thy sword backward against the 
saints, against whom there is no law ! How wilt thou 
be gnawed and burned one day, when thou shalt feel the 



hJ^ 



1652 FOX'S WARNINGS 107 

flame and have the plagues of God poured upon thee, 
and thou begin to gnaw thy tongue for pain, because of 
the plagues ! Thou shalt have thy reward according to 
thy works. Thou canst not escape ; the Lord's righteous 
judgment will find thee out, and the witness of God in 
thy conscience shall answer it. How hast thou caused 
the heathen to blaspheme, gone on with the multitude to 
do evil, and joined hand and hand with the wicked ! 
How is thy latter end worse than thy beginning, who art 
come with the dog to bite, and art turned as a wolf, to 
devour the lambs ! How hast thou discovered thyself to 
be a man more fit to be kept in a place to be nurtured, 
than to be set in a pla^e to nurture ! How wast thou 
exalted and puffed up with pride! and now art thou 
fallen down with shame, that thou comest to be covered 
with that which thou stirredst up and broughtest forth. 

** Thy Table is Thy Snare** 
i 
I " Let not John Sawrey take the words of God into his 

I mouth till he be reformed; let him not take his name 

: into his mouth till he depart from iniquity ; let not him 

[ and his teacher make a profession of the saints' words, 

except they intend to proclaim themselves hypocrites, 

whose lives are so contrary to the lives of the saints ; 

whose church hath made itself manifest to be a cage of 

j unclean birds. You, having a form of godliness, but not 

I the power, have made them that are in the power your 

derision, your by-word, and talk at your feasts. Thy ill 

savour, John Sawrey, the country about have smelled, 

and of thy unchristian carriage all that fear God have 

been ashamed; and to them thou hast been a grief; in 

the day of account thou shalt know it, even in the day 

of thy condemnation. Thou wast mounted up, and 

hadst set thy nest on high, but never gottest higher than 



1 



\ 



108 



A STRONG LETTER 



l6$2 



the fowls of the air. Now thou art run amongst the 
beasts of prey, and art fallen into the earth ; so that 
earthliness and covetousness have swallowed thee up. 
Thy conceitedness would not carry thee through, in 
whom was found the selfish principle, which hath blinded 
thy eye. Thy back must be bowed down always ; for 
thy table is already become thy snare. G. F." 

This Justice Sawrey, who was the first persecutor in 
that country, was afterwards drowned. 

**Adam Sands— Repent** 

Amongst the chief hearers and followers of priest 
I^mpitt of Ulverstone, was one Adam Sands, who was 
a very wicked, false man, and would have destroyed 
truth and its followers if he could. To him I was 
moved to write thus : — 




*« Adam Sands, 
" To the light in thy conscience I appeal, thou child 
of the Devil, thou enemy of righteousness ; the Lord will 
strike thee down, though now for a while in thy wicked- 
ness thou mayest reign. The plagues of God are due 
to thee, who hardenest thyself in thy wickedness against 
the pure truth of God. With the pure truth of God, 
which thou hast resisted and persecuted, thou art to be 
thrashed down, which is eternal, and doth comprehend 
thee ; and with the light, which thou despisest, thou art 
seen ; and it is thy condemnation. Thou as one brutish, 
and thy wife as an hypocrite, and you both as murderers 
of the just, in that which is eternal, are seen and com- 
prehended ; and your hearts searched, and tried, and 
condemned by the light. The light in thy conscience 
will witness the truth of what I write to thee ; and will 




i6st A KNOWN FALSEHOOD 109 

let thee see that thou art not born of God, but art from 
the truth, in the beastly nature. If ever thy eye see 
repentance, thou wilt witness me a friend of thy soul, 
and a seeker of thy eternal good. G. F." 

This Adam Sands afterwards died miserably. 

Many other epistles also and papers I wrote about 
that time, as the Lord moved me thereunto, which I 
sent among the priests, professors, and people of all 
sorts, for the laying their evil ways open before them, 
that they might see and forsake them ; and opening the 
way of truth unto them, that they might come to walk 
therein ; which are too many and large to be inserted in 
this place. 

Fez Debates with a Priest 

I went to Grayrigg, and had a meeting there at 
Alexander Dixon's house, to which the priest (who was 
a Baptist, and a chapel priest) came to oppose ; but the 
Lord confounded him by his power. Some, of the 
priest's people tumbled down some milk-pails which 
stood upon the side of the house, which was much 
crowded ; whereupon the priest, after he and his com- 
pany were gone away, ; raised a slander <* that the Devil 
frightened him, and took away a side of the house 
while he was in the meeting." And though this was a 
known falsehood, yet it served the priests and professors 
to feed on for a while ; and so shameless they were that 
they printed and published it. 

Another time this priest came to a meeting, and fell 
to jangling. First he said, " the Scriptures were the 
word of God." I told him they were the words of God, 
but were not Christ, who is the Word ; and bid him 
prove by Scripture what he said. Then he said it was 



110 A BIBLE DISPUTE i6;2 

not the Scripture that was the word ; and setting his foot 
upon the Bible he said it was but copies bound up 
together. Many unsavoury words came from him, but 
after he was gone we had a blessed meeting, and the 
Lord's power and presence was preciously manifested 
and felt amongst us. Soon after he sent me a challenge 
to meet me at Kendal. I sent him word he need not 
go so far as Kendal, for I would meet him in his own 
parish. The hour being fixed, we met, and abundance 
of rude people gathered together, besides the baptized 
people who were his own members ; and they had in- 
tended to do mischief, but God prevented them. 

When we were met, I declared the day of the Lord 
to them, and directed them to Christ Jesus. Then the 
priest out with his Bible, and said it was the word of 
God. I told him it was the words of God, but not God, 
the Word. His answer was, he would prove the Scrip- 
tures to be the word before all the people. I let him 
go on, having a man there that could take down in 
writing both what he said and what I said. When he 
could not prove it (for I kept him to Scripture proof, 
chapter and verse for it), the people gnashed their teeth 
for anger, and said he would have me anon ; but in going 
about to prove that one error, he ran into many. 

When at length he saw he could not prove it, then 
he said he would prove it to be a God ; so he toiled 
himself afresh, till he perspired again, but could not 
proved what he had affirmed. And he and his com- 
pany were full of wrath ; for I Itept his assertions on the 
head of him and them all, and told them I owned what 
the Scriptures said of themselves, namely, that they 
were the words of God, but Christ was the Word. So 
the Lord's power came over all, and they being con- 
founded went away. The Lord disappointed their 



i653 POX PROPHESIES HI 

mischievous intentions against me ; and Friends were 
established in Christ, and many of the priest's foUowers 
saw the folly of their teacher. 

It was now about the beginning of the year 1653, 
when I returned to Swarthmore ; and going to a meeting 
at Gleaston, a professor challenged a dispute with me. 
I went to the house where he was, and called him to 
come forth ; but the Lord's power was over him, so that 
he durst not meddle. Then I departed thence, and 
visited the meetings of Friends in Lancashire, and came 
back to Swarthmore. Great openings I had from the 
Lord, not only of divine and spiritual matters, but also 
of outward things, relating to the civil government. 

"Geofge was a Trtie Propbet" 

Being one day in Swarthmore-hall, when Judge Fell 
and Justice Benson were talking of the news, and of 
the parhament then sitting, which was called the Long 
Pariiament, I was moved to tell them that before that 
day two weeks the parliament should be broken up, and 
the speaker plucked out of his chair. And tl^^t day 
two weeks Justice Benson coming thither again, told 
Judge Fell that now he saw George was a true prophet ; 
for Oliver had broken up the Parliament. 

About this time I was in a fast for about ten days, 
my spirit being greatly exercised on truth's account ; 
for James Milner and Richard Myer went out into 
imaginations, and a company followed them. This 
James Milner and some of his company had true open- 
ings at first ; but getting into pride and exaltation of 
spirit, they ran out from truth. I was sent for to them, 
and was moved of the Lord to go, and show them their 
outgoings : and they were brought to see their folly, and 
condemned it, and came into the way of truth again. 






s. 

tr 

c 

I"- 






;^ 






112 THE LAME HEALED 1653 

After some time I went to a meeting at Arn-Side, where 
Richard Myer was, who had been long lame of one of 
his arms. I was moved of the Lord to say unto him, 
amongst all the people, " Stand up on thy legs " (for 
he was sitting down) : and he stood up and stretched 
out his arm that had been lame a long time, and said, 
<< Be it known unto you, all people, that this day I am 
healed." Yet his parents could hardly believe it ; but 
after the meeting was done, they had him aside, took off 
his doublet, and then saw it was true. He came soon 
after to Swarthmoie meeting, and then declared how 
that the Lord had healed him. Yet after this the Lord 
commanded him to go to York with a message from 
him, but he disobeyed the Lord ; and the Lord struck 
him again, so that he died about three-quarters of a 
year after. 

^'I Stood up on a Seat^ 

Now was I moved to send James Lancaster to appoint 
a meeting at John Wilkinson's steeple-house near Cocker- 
mouths who was a preacher in great repute, and had 
thfte parishes under him ; wherefore I stayed at Millom- 
in-Bootle till he came back again. In the meantime 
some of those called the gentry of the country had 
formed a plot against me, and had given a little boy a 
rapier, to do me a mischief with it. They came with 
the boy to Joseph Nicholson's house to seek me ; but 
the Lord had so ordered it that I was gone into the 
fields. They met with James Lancaster, but did not 
much abuse him ; and not finding me in the house, after 
a while they went away again. So I walked up and 
down in the fields that night, and did not go to bed as 
very often t used to do. 

The next day we came to the steeple-house, where 



w 



1653 A TREE AUDITORUM 113 

James Lancaster had appointed the meeting. There 
were at this meeting twelve soldiers and their wives, who 
were come thither from Carlisle ; and the country people 
came in, as if it had been to a fair. I lay at a house a 
short distance from the place, so that many Friends were 
there before me. When I came, I found James Lan- 
caster speaking under a yew tree ; which was so full of 
people that I feared they would break it down. I looked 
about for a place to stand upon, to speak to the people ; 
for they lay all up and down like people at a leaguer. 
After I was discovered, a professor came to me, and 
asked if I would not go into the church; seeing 
no place convenient to speak to the people from, I 
told him, <* Yes " ; whereupon the people rushed in ; 
so that when I came in, the house and even the pulpit 
was so full of people that I had much ado to get 
in; and they that could not get in stood about the 
walls. 

When the people were settled, S stood up on a seat ; 
and the Lord opened my mouth " to declare his ever- 
lasting truth, and his everlasting day ; and to lay open 
all their teachers, their rudiments, traditions, and inven- 
tions, that they had been in, in the night of apostacy 
since the apostles' days. I turned them to Christ the 
true teacher, and to the true spiritual worship ; directing 
them where to find the Spirit and truth, that they might 
worship God therein. I opened Christ's parables unto 
them, and directed them to the Spirit of God in them- 
selves, that would open the Scriptures unto them. And 
I showed them how all might come to know their 
Saviour, and sit under his teaching ; — might come to be 
heirs of the kingdom of God, and know both the voice 
of God and of Christ, by which they might discover all 
the false shepherds and teachers they had been under ; 

H 






if- 



114 



FOX'S DISCERNMENT 



1653 



^ 



and be gathered to the true shepherd, priest, bishop, and 
prophet, Christ Jesus, whom God commanded all to 
hear." So when I had largely declared the word of life 
unto them for about three hours, I walked from 
amongst the people, and they passed away very well 
satisfied. 

**A Spirit of Discerning ** 

I went to a village, and many people accompanied 
me. As I was sitting in a house full of people, declaring 
the word of life unto them, I cast mine eye upon a 
woman, and discerned an unclean spirit in her. And I 
was moved of the Lord to speak shafply*to her, and told 
her she was under the influence of an unclean spirit ; 
whereupon she went out of the room. Now, I being a 
stranger there, and knowing nothing of the woman out- 
wardly, the people wondered at it, and told me after- 
wards that I had discovered a great thing ; for all the 
country looked upon her to be a wicked person. The 
Lord had given me a spirit of discerning, by which I 
many times saw the states and conditions of people, 
and could try their spirits. 

For not long before, as I was going to a meeting, I 
saw some women in a field, and I discerned an evil 
spirit in them ; and I was moved to go out of my way 
into the field to them, and declare unto them their con- 
ditions. At another ime there came one into Swarth- 
more-hall in the meeting time; and I was moved to 
speak sharply to her, and told her she was under the 
power of an evil spirit ; and the people said afterwards 
she was generally accounted so. There came also at 
another time another woman, and stood at a distance 
from me, and I cast mine eye upon her, and said, 
** Thou hast been an harlot " ; for I perfectly saw the 



4 

i 



i653 FOX'S EYES 115 

condition and life of the woman. The woman answered 
and said, many could tell her of her outward sins, but 
none could tell her of her inward. Then I told her her 
heart was not right before the Lord, and that from the 
inward came the outward. This woman came after- 
wards to be convinced of God's truth, and became a 
Friend. 

'♦Keep Thy Eyes Off Me** 

[Carlisle.] — On the market-day I went up into the 
market to the market-cross. Now the magistrates had 
both threatened and sent their Serjeants; and the 
magistrates' wives had said that if I came there, they 
would pluck the hair off my head ; and that the Serjeants 
should take me up. Nevertheless I obeyed the Lord 
God, and went upon the Cross, and there declared unto 
them, " that the day of the Lord was coming upon all 
their deceitful ways and doings, and deceitful merchan- 
dise ; and that they should put away all cozening and 
cheating, and keep to yea and nay, and speak the truth 
one to another ; so the truth and the power of God was 
set over them." After I had declared the word of life 
to the people, the throng being so great that the Serjeants 
could not get to me, nor the magistrates' wives come at 
me, I passed away quietly. Many people and soldiers 
came to me, and some Baptists, that were bitter con- 
tenders ; amongst whom one of their deacons, being an 
envious man, and finding the Lord's power was over 
them, cried out for very anger. Whereupon I set my 
eyes upon him, and spoke sharply to him in the power 
of the Lord ; and he cried, " Do not pierce me so with 
thy eyes ; keep thy eyes off me." 

On the First-day following I went into the steeple- 
house ; and after the priest had done, I preached the 



116 CARLISLE IN AN UPROAR 1653 

truth to the people, and declared the word of life amongst 
them. The priest got away, and the magistrates desired 
me to go out of the steeple-house. But I still declared 
the way of the Lord unto them, and told thero, " I came 
to speak the word of life and salvation from the Lord 
amongst them." The power of the Lord was dreadful 
amongst them in the steeple-house, so that the people 
trembled and shook, and they thought the steeple-house 
shook ; and some of them feared it would fall down on 
their heads. The magistrates' wives were in a rage, and 
strove mightily to be at me j but the soldiers and friendly 
people stood thick about me. At length the rude people 
of the city rose, and came with staves and stones into 
the steeple-house, crying " Down with these round- 
headed rogues " ; and they threw stones. Whereupon 
the governor sent a file or two of musketeers into the 
steeple-house, to appease the tumult, and commanded 
all the other soldiers out. So those soldiers took me by 
the hand in a friendly manner, and said they would have 
me along with them. 

When we came forth into the street, the city was in 
an uproar, and the governor came down ; and some of 
those soldiers were put in prison for standing by me, 
and for me, against the town's-people. A lieutenant, 
that had been convinced, came, and brought me to his 
house, where there was a Baptists' meeting, and thither 
came Friends also, and we had a very quiet meeting ; 
they heard the word of life gladly, and many received it. 
The next day, the justices and magistrates of the town 
being gathered in the townhall, they granted a warrant 
against me, and sent for me to come before them. I 
was then gone to a Baptist's house ; but hearing of it I 
went up to the hall to them, where many rude 
people were ; some of whom had sworn strange, false 



1 6s 3 FOX SENT TO JAIL 11? 

things against me. I had much discourse with the 
magistrates, wherein I laid open the fruits of their 
priests' preaching, and showed them how void they were 
of Christianity ; and that, though they were such great 
professors (for they were Independents and Presby- 
terians) they were without the possession of that which 
they professed. 

In Carlisle Jail 

After a large examination they committed me to 
prison as a blasphemer^ a heretic, and a seducer ; though 
they could not justly charge any such thing against me. 
The jail at Carlisle had two jailers, an upper and an 
under, who looked like two great bear-wards. Now 
when I was brought in, the upper jailer had me up 
into a great chamber, and told me I should have 
what I would in that room. But I told him he 
should not expect any money from me, for I would 
neither lie in any of his beds, nor eat any of his 
victuals. Then he put me into another room; where 
after a while I got something to lie upon. There I lay 
till the assizes came ; and then all the talk was that I 
was to be hanged. The high sheriff, whose name was 
Wilfred Lawson, stirred them much up to take away my 
life; and said he would guard me to my execution 
himself. They were in a great rage, and set three 
musketeers for a guard upon me ; one at my chamber 
door, another at the stairs' foot, and a third at the 
street door; and they would let none come at me, 
except one sometimes, to bring me some necessary 
things. 

At night they would bring up priests to me, some- 
times as late as the tenth hour ; who were exceedingly 
rude and devilish. There was a company of bitter 



118 A TERRIBLE PRISON 1653 

Scotch priests, Presbyterians, made up of envy and 
malice, who were not fit to speak of the things of 
God, they were so foul-mouthed ; but the Lord, by his 
power, gave me dominion over them all, and I let them 
see both their fruits and their spirits. Great ladies also 
(as they were called) came to see the man that they said 
was to die. While both the judge, justices, and sheriff 
were contriving together how they might put me to 
death, the Lord disappointed their design by an unex- 
pected way ; for the judge's clerk (as I was informed) 
started a question among them, which confounded all 
their counsels ; so that after that they had not power to 
call me before the judge. 

A Cruel Jailer 

The judges were resolved not to suffer me to be 
brought before them ; but reviling and scoffing at me 
behind my back, left me to the magistrates of the town ; 
giving them what encouragement they could to exercise 
their cruelty upon me. Whereupon (though I had been 
kept up so close in the jailer's house that Friends were 
not suffered to visit me, and Colonel Benson and Justice 
Pearson were denied to see me, yet) the next day, after 
the judges were gone out of town, an order was sent to 
the jailer to put me down into the dungeon among the 
moss-troopers, thieves, and murderers, which accordingly 
he did. A filthy nasty place it was, where men and 
women were put together in a very uncivil manner, and 
not even a house of convenience to it ; and the prisoners 
so lousy that one woman was almost eaten to death with 
lice. Yet, as bad as the place was, the prisoners were 
all made very loving and subject to me ; and some of 
them were convinced of the truth, as the publicans 
and harlots were of old; so that they were able to 



i653 FOX SINGS IN JAIL 119 

confound any priest that might come to the grates to 
dispute. 

But the jailer was very cruel, and the under-jailer very 
abusive to me and to Friends that came to see me ; for 
he would beat Friends with a great cudgel, that did but 
come to the window to look in upon me. I could get 
up to the grate, where sometimes I took in my meat j at 
which the jailer was often offended. One time he came, 
in a great rage, and beat me with a great cudgel, though 
I was not at the grate at that time ; and as he beat me 
he cried, " Come out of the window," though I was then 
far enough from it. While he struck me^ I was made to 
sing in the Lord's power ; and that made him rage the 
more. Then he fetched a fiddler, and brought him in 
where I was, and set him to play, thinking to vex me 
thereby ; but while he played, I was moved in the ever- 
lasting power of the Lord God to sing ; and my voice 
drowned the noise of the fiddle, and struck and con- 
founded them, and made them give over fiddling and go 
their way. 

Justice Benson's wife was moved of the Ix)rd to come 
to visit me, and to eat no meat but what she ate with me 
at the bars of the dungeon window. She was afterwards 
herself imprisoned at York, when she was great with 
child, for speaking to a priest ; and was kept in prison, 
and not suffered to go out, when the time of her travail 
was come; so she was delivered of her child in the prison. 
She was an honest, tender woman, and continued faithful 
to the truth until she died. 

Fox Makes a Public Challenge 

Now when I saw that I was not likely to be brought to 
a public hearing and trial (although I had before answered, 
in writing, the particular matters charged against me, at 



120 FOX'S PUBLIC CHALLENGE 1653 

the time of my first examination and commitment), I was 
moved to send the following paper, as a public challenge 
to all those that belied the truth and me behind my back, 
to come forth and make good their charge : — 

"If any in Westmorland, or Cumberland, or else- 
where, that profess Christianity, and pretend to love 
God and Christ, are not satisfied concerning the things 
of God which I, who am called George Fox, have spoken 
and declared, let them declare and publish their dis- 
satisfaction in writing, and not back-bite, nor lie, nor 
persecute in secret: this I demand of you all in the 
presence of the living God, as ye will answer it to him. 
For the exaltation of the truth, and the confounding of 
deceit, is this given forth. To that of God in your 
consciences I speak ; declare or write your dissatisfaction 
to any of them, whom you call Quakers, that truth may 
be exalted, and all may come to the light, with which 
Christ hath enlightened every one that cometh into the 
world : that nothing miay be hid in darkness, in prisons, 
holes, or corners, but that all things may be brought to 
the light of Christ, and by the light of Christ may be 
tried. This am I moved of the Lord to write, and send 
forth to be set upon the market-crosses in Westmorland 
and elsewhere. To the light of Christ in you I speak, 
that none of you may speak evil of the things of God, 
which you know not ; nor act contrary to the light, that 
gave forth the Scriptures; lest you be found fighters 
against God, and the hand of the Lord be turned against 
you. G. F." 

While I thus lay in the dungeon at Carlisle, the report 
raised at the time of the assize, " that I should be put to 
death," was gone far and near; insomuch that the 
parliament then sitting, which, I think, was called the 



i 



* 



i6s3 TITHE PERSECUTIONS 121 

Little Parliament, hearing that a young man at Carlisle 
was to die for religion, caused a letter to be sent to the 
sheriff and magistrates concerning me. 

^Spoiling of Goods** 

About the same time I wrote also to the justices at 
Carlisle, that had cast me into prison, and that persecuted 
Friends at the instigation of the priests for tithes ; ex- 
postulating the matter with them thus : — 

« Friends, Thomas Craston and Cuthbert 

Studholm, 

« Your noise is gone up to London before the sober 
people : what imprisoning, what gagging, what havoc and 
spoiling of the goods of people have you made within 
these few years 1 Unlike men ; as though you had never 
read the Scriptures, or had not minded them ! Is this 
the end of Carlisle's religion ? is this the end of your 
ministry ; and is this the end of your church, and of your 
profession of Christianity ? you have shamed it by your 
folly, your madness, and blind zeal. Was it not always 
the work of the blind guides, watchmen, leaders, and 
false prophets, to prepare war against them that would 
not put into their mouths ? And have not you been the 
priests' pack-horses and executioners ? When they spur 
you up, to bear the sword against the just, do not you run 
on against the creatures, that cannot hold up such as 
the Scriptures did always testify against ? Yet will you 
lift up your unholy hands, and call upon God with your 
polluted lips, and pretend a fast, who are full of strife 
and debate. Did your hearts never burn within you ? 
Did you never come to question your conditions ? Are 
you wholly given up to do the Devil's lusts, to persecute ? 
Where is your loving of enemies ? Where is your enter- 



1S2 TO THE JUSTICES 1653 

taining of strangers? Where is your overcoming evil 
with good? Where are your teachers that can stop the . 
mouths of gainsayers, and can convince gainsayers and 
such as oppose themselves? Have you no ministers ot 
the Spirit, no soldiers with spiritual weapons displaying 
Christ's colours? . . . Read the Scriptures, and see 
how unlike you are to the prophets, Christ, and his 
apostles ; and what a visage you have, like unto them 
that persecuted the prophets, Christ and the apostles. 
You are found in their steps, wrestling with flesh and 
blood, and not with principalities, and powers, and 
spiritual wickedness, and your teachers imprisoning and 
persecuting for outward things, you being their execu- 
tioners ; the like whereof hath not been in all the nations. 
The havoc that hath been made, the spoiling of the 
goods of people, taking away their oxen and fatted 
beeves, iheir sheep, corn, wool, and household goods, 
and giving them to the priests, that liave done no work 
for them ; more like moss-troopers than ministers of 
the gospel, they take them from Friends ; sueing them 
in your courts, and fining them, because they will not 
break the commands of Christ; that is, because they 
will not swear. . . ." 

A Protest to the Magistrates 
I mentioned before that Gervase Benson and Anthony 
Pearson, though they had been justices of the peace, 
were not permitted to come to me in the prison ; where- 
upon they jointly wrote a letter to the magistrates, 
priests, and people at Carlisle concerning my imprison- 
ment^ which was thus : 

" Him, who is called George Fox, who is persecuted 
by rulers and magistrates, by justices, by priests, and by 



p':c 



1653 JUSTICES DEFEND FOX 123 

people, and who suffers imprisonment of his body at 
this present, as a blasphemer, and a heretic, and a 
seducer, him do we witness, who in measure are made 
partakers of the same life, that lives in him, to be a 
minister of the eternal word of God, by whom the ever- 
lasting gospel is preached j by the powerful preaching 
whereof the eternal Father of the saints hath opened 
the blind eyes, hath unstopped the deaf ears, hath let 
the oppressed go free, and hath raised up the dead out 
of the graves. Christ is now preached in and among 
the saints, the same that ever he was ; and because his 
heavenly image is borne up in this his faithful servant, 
therefore doth fallen man (rulers, priests, and people) 
persecute him. Because he lives up out of the fall, and 
testifies against the works of the world, that the deeds 
thereof are evil, he suffers by you magistrates ; not as an 
evil-doer. ... The Lord is coming to thrash the moun- 
tains, and will beat them to dust ; and all corrupt rulers, 
corrupt officers, and corrupt laws, the Lord will take 
vengeance on, by which the tender consciences of his 
people are oppressed. He will give his people his law, 
and will judge his people himself, not according to the 
sight of the eye, and hearing of the ear, but with 
righteousness, and with equity. Now are your hearts 
made manifest to be full of envy against the living truth 
of God, which is made manifest in his people, who are 
contemned and despised of the world, and scornfully 
called Quakers. You are worse than the heathens, that 
put Paul in prison, for none of his friends or acquaintance 
were hindered to come to him by them ; therefore they 
shall be witnesses against you. Ye are made manifest 
to the saints, to be of the same generation that put 
Christ to death, and that put the apostles in prison on 
the same pretence that you act under, in calling truth 



124 THE JAILER IMPRISONED 1653 

error, and the ministers of God blasphemers, as they did. 
But the day is dreadful and terrible that shall come 
upon you, ye evil magistrates, priests, and people, who 
profess the truth in words outwardly, and yet persecute 
the power of truth, and them that stand in and for the 
truth. While ye have time prize it, and remember what 
is written Isa. liv. 17. 

««Gervase Benson. 

«* Anthony Pearson." 

Not long after this, the Lord's power came over the 
justices, and they were made to set me at liberty. But 
some time previous, the governor and Anthony Pearson 
came down into the dungeon to see the place where I 
was kept, and understand what usage I had. They 
found the place so bad, and the savour so ill, that they 
cried shame' on the magistrates for suffering the jailer to 
do such things. They called for the jailers into the 
dungeon, and required them to find sureties for their 
good behaviour; and the under-jailer, who had been 
such a cruel fellow, they put into the dungeon with me, 
amongst the moss-troopers. 

Dangei^ in My Travels 

Now I went into the country, and had mighty great 
meetings. The everlasting gospel and word of life 
flourished, and thousands were turned to the Lord Jesus 
Christ, and to his teaching. Several that had taken 
tithes, as impropriators, denied the receiving of them any 
longer, and delivered them up freely to the parishioners. 

Some dangers at this time I underwent in my travels ; 
for at one time, as we were passing from a meeting, and 
going through Wigton on a market-day, the people of 
the town had set a guard with pitch-forks ; and although 



W:^^:- 



1653 . WHY FRIENDS PROSPERED 1«5 

some of tfadr own ne^boms were with us, they k^t 
us out of the town, and would not let us pass through it, 
under the pretence of preventing the sickness ; though 
there was no occasion for any such thing. However, 
they fell upon us, and had like to have spoiled us and 
our horses ; but the Lord restrained them, that they did 
not much hurt ; and we passed away. Another time, as 
I was passing between two Friends' houses, some rude 
fellows lay in wait in a lane, and exceedingly stoned and 
abused us; but at last, through the Lord's assistance, we 
got through them, and had not much hurt. But this 
showed the fruits of the priesf s teaching, which shamed 
their profession of Christianity. 

Prosperity of the Friends 

About this time the priests and professors fell to 
prophesying against us afresh. They had said long 
before that we should be destroyed within a month > 
and after that, they prolonged the time to half a year ; 
but that time being long expired, and we mightily 
increased in number, they now gave forth that ¥re would 
eat out one another. For often after meetings, many 
tender people having a great way to go, tarried at 
Friends' houses by the way, and sometimes more than 
there were beds 'to lodge in : so that some have lain on 
the hay-mows ; hereupon Cain's fear possessed the pro- 
fessors and world's people. For they were afraid that 
when we had eaten one another out, we would all come 
to be maintained by the parishes, and be chargeable to 
them. But after a while, when they saw that the Lord 
blessed and increased Friends, as he did Abraham, both 
in the field and in the basket, at their goings forth and 
comings in, at their risings up and lyings down, and 
that all things prospered with them ; then they saw the 



126 FRIENDS' HONESTY 1653 

falseness of all their prophecies against us ; and that it 
was in vain to curse where God had blessed. 

At the first convincement, when Friends could not 
put off their hats to people, or say You to a single 
person, but Thou and Thee ; when they could not bow, 
OT use flattering words in salutations, 01 adopt the 
fashions and customs of the world, many Friends that 
were tradesmen of several sorts lost their customers at 
first ; for the people were shy of them, and would not 
trade with them ; so that for a time some Friends could 
hardly get money enough to buy bread. But afterwards, 
when people came to have experience of Friends' 
honesty and faithfulness, and found that their yea was 
yea, and their nay was nay; that they kept to a word in 
their dealings, and that they would not cozen and cheat 
them ; but that if they sent a child to their shops for 
anything, they were as well used as if they had come 
themselves ; the lives and conversation of Friends did 
preach, and reached to the witness of God in the people. 

Quakers in Trade 

Then things altered so that all the inquiry was, " where 
is there a draper, or shopkeeper, or tailor, or shoemaker, 
or any other tradesman, that is a Quaker?" Insomuch 
that Friends had more trade than many of their neigh- 
bours, and if there was any trading they had a great part 
of it. Then the envious professors altered their note, 
and began to cry out, " if we let these Quakers alone, 
they will take the trade of the nation out of our hands." 
This has been the Lord's doing to and for his people ! 
which my desire is that all who profess his holy truth 
may be kept truly sensible of, and that all may be pre- 
served, in and by his power and Spirit, faithful to God 
and man ; first to God, in obeying him in all things ; 



if f 



1654 A SOLDIERS' TRAGEDY 127 

and then in doing unto all men that which is just and 
righteous, to all men and women in all things that they 
have to do or deal with them in ; that the Lord God 
may be glorified in their practising truth, holiness, godli- 
ness, and righteousness amongst people in all their lives 
and conversation. 

About this time the oath or engagement to Oliver 
Cromwell was tendered to the soldiers ; many of whom 
were disbanded because, in obedience to Christ, they 
could not swear. John Stubbs was one, who was con- 
vinced when I was in Carlisle prison, and became a good 
soldier in the Lamb's war, and a faithful minister in 
Christ Jesus, travelling much in the service of the Lord 
in Holland, Ireland, Scotland, Italy, Egypt, and 
America. And the Lord's power preserved him out of 
the hands of the Papists, though many times he was in 
great danger of the Inquisition. But some of the 
soldiers who had been convinced in their judgments, but 
had not come into obedience to the truth, took Crom- 
well's oath; and going afterwards into Scotland, and 
coming before a garrison there, the garrison thinking 
they had been enemies, fired at them, and killed many 
of them ; which was a sad event. 

Butchers Threaten Fox 

1654. — I came again to Thomas Taylor's, within 
three miles of Halifax, where was a meeting of about two 
hundred people; amongst which were many rude people 
and divers butchers, several of whom had bound them- 
selves with an oath before they came out that they 
would kill me (as I was told); one of those butchers had 
been accused of killing a man and a woman. They 
came in a very rude manner, and made a great dis- 
turbance in the meeting. l!h& meeting being in a field, 



I«S A FIELD MEETING 1654 

Thomas Taylor stood up, and said unto them, " If you 
will be civil, you may stay, but if not, I charge you to 
be gone off my ground." But they were the worse, and 
said they would malw it like a. common ; and they 
yelled, and made a noise, as if they had been at a beai- 
baiting. They thrust Friends up and down ; and 
Friends being peaceable, the Lord's power came over 
them. Several times they thrust me off from the place 
I stood on, by the crowding of the people together 
against me ; but still I was moved of the Lord to stand 
up E^ain, as I was thrust down. At last I was moved 
of the Lord to say unto them, " if they would discourse 
of the things of God, let them come up to me one by 
one; and if they bad anything to say or to object, I 
would answer them all, one after another " ; but they 
were all silent, and had nothing to say. 

And then the Lord's power came so over them all, 
and answered the witness of God in them, that they 
were bound by the power of God ; and a glorious, power- 
fill meeting we had, and his power went over all, and 
the minds of the people w^e turned by the Spirit o( 
God in them to God, and to Christ their teacher. The 
powerfiil word of life was largely declared that day; and 
in the life and power of God we broke up our meeting ; 
and that rude company went their way to Halifax. The 
people asked them why they did not kill me, according 
to the oath they had sworn; and they maliciously 
answered that I had so bewitched them that they could 
not do it. Thus was the devil chained at that time. 
Friends told me that they used to come at other times, 
and be very rude ; and sometimes break their stools and 
seats, and make frightfiil work amongst them ; but the 
Lwd's power had now bound them. 

Shortly after this the butcher that had been accused 



8fV"i 



1654 RUDE BUTCHERS 129 

of killing a man and a woman before, and who was one 
of them that had then bound himself by an oath to kill 
me, killed another man, and was sent to York jail. 
Another of those rude butchers, who had also sworn to 
kill me, having accustomed himself to thrust his tongue 
out of his mouth, in derision of Friends, when they 
passed by him, had it so swollen out of his mouth that 
he could never draw it in again, but died so. Several 
strange and sudden judgments came upon many of these 
conspirators against me, which would be too large here 
to declare. 

A Plot Against Fox 

Having visited these countries, I came into Derby- 
shire ; the sheriff of Lincoln, who was lately convinced, 
being with me. In one meeting we had some opposi- 
tion, but the Lord's glorious power gave dominion over 
all. At night there came a company of bailiffs and 
serving-men, and called me out. I went out to them, 
having some Friends with me. They were exceedingly 
rude and violent; for they had plotted together, and 
intended to carry me away with them in the dark of the 
evening by force : and then to do me a mischief: but 
the Lord's power went over them, and chained them, so 
that they could not effect their design ; and at last they 
went away. The next day, Thomas Aldam under- 
standing that the serving-men belonged to one called a 
knight, who lived not far off, went to his house, and laid 
before him the bad conduct of his servants. The knight 
rebuked them, and did not allow of their evil carriage 
towards us. 

I passed towards Kidsley Park, where came many 
Ranters ; but the Lord's power checked them. From 
thence I went into the Peak Country towards Thomas 



130 ARGUMENTS AGAINST OATHS 165+ 

Hanimersley's, where came the Ranters of that country 
and many high professors. The Ranters opposed me, 
jl and began swearing. When I reproved them for it, they 

would bring Scripture for it, and said Abraham, and 
I Jacob, and Joseph swore; and the priests, Moses, the 

prophets, and the angels swore. Then I told them, " I 
confessed all these did so, as the Scripture records; but, 
said I, Christ (who said, ' Before Abraham was, I am ') 
saith ' Swear not at all.' And Christ ends the prophets, 
and the old priesthood, and the dispensation of Moses, 
and reigns over the house of Jacob and of Joseph ; and 
he says, ' Swear not at all.' And God, when he bringetb 
in the first-begotten into the world, saith, ■ Let all the 
angels of God worship him,' to wit, Christ Jesus, who 
saith, ■ Swear not at alt.' And as for the plea that men 
make for swearing to end their strife, Christ, who says, 
' Swear not at all,' destroys the Devil and his works, who 
is the author of strife, for that is one of his works. And 
God said, ' This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well 
pleased; hear ye him.' So the Son is to be heard, who 
forbids swearing. And the apostle James, who heard 
the Son of God, followed him, and preached him, for- 
bids all oaths, James v. 12." 

Quaker's Upright Verdict 
So the Lord's power went over them : and his Son and 
his doctrine was set over them. The word of life was 
fully and richly preached, and many were convinced that 
day. This Thomas Hammersley being summoned to 
serve upon a jury, was admitted to serve without an 
oath ; and when he, as foreman of the jury, brought in 
the verdict, the judge declared "that he had been a 
judge many years, but never heard a more upright 
verdict than that Quaker had then brought in." Much 



5'" V V' 



1^54 fox RETURNS HOM£ ISl 

might be written of things of this nature, which time 
would fail to declare. 

"A Great Dispute We Had'* 

Then I went to Drayton in Leicestershire to visit my 
relations. As soon as I was come in, Nathaniel Stephens 
the priest, having got another priest, and given notice to 
the country, sent to me to come to them, for they could 
not do anything till I came. Having been three years 
away from my relations, I knew nothing of their design. 
But at last I went into the steeple-house yard, where the 
two priests were ; and they had gathered abundance of 
people. When I came there, they would have me go 
into the steeple-house. I asked them what I should do 
there ; and they said, Mr. Stephens could not bear the 
cold. I told them he might bear it as well as I. At 
last we went into a great hall, Richard Farnsworth being 
with me j and a great dispute we had with these priests 
concerning their practices, how contrary they were to 
Christ and his apostles. 

The priests would know where tithes were forbidden 
or ended. I showed them out of the seventh chapter 
to the Hebrews, " that not only tithes, but the priest- 
hood that took tithes, was ended ; and the law was ended 
and disannulled, by which the priesthood was made, and 
tithes were commanded to be paid." Then the priests 
stirred up the people to some lightness and rudeness. 
I had known Stephens from a child, therefore I laid 
open his condition and the manner of his preaching 3 
and " how that he, like the rest of the priests, did 
apply the promises to the first birth, which must 
die. But I showed that the promises were to the ' 
Seed, not to many seeds, but to one Seed, Christ; 
who was one in male and female : for all were to be 



tSi TITHES FOR PREACHING 1654 

bom agun before they could enter into the kingdom of 
God." 

Then he said, I must not judge so : but I told him, 
" he that was spiritual judged all things." Then he con- 
fessed that that was a full Scripture ; " but, neighbours," 
said he, " this is the business ; George Fox is come to 
the light of the sun, and now he thinks to pat out my 
star-light" I told him, " I would not quench the least 
measure of God in any, much less put out his star-light, 
if it were true star-light — light from the morning star." 
But I told him, " if he had anything from Christ or God, 
he ought to speak it freely and not take tithes from the 
people for preaching, seeing Christ commanded his 
ministers to give freely, as they had received freely," So 
I charged him to preach no more for tithes, or any hire. 
But he said he would. not yield to that. 

Eight Priests v. Fox 
After a while the people b^an to be vain and rude ; 
so we broke up ; yet some were made loving to the truth 
that day. Before we parted I told them that, if the 
Lord would, I intended to be at the town again that day 
week. In the interim I went into the country, and had 
meetings, and came thither again that day week. Against 
that time this priest had got seven priests to help him : 
for priest Stephens had given notice at a lecture on a 
market-day at Adderston, that such a day there would be 
a meeting and a dispute with me. I knew nothing of 
it ; but had only said I should be in town that day week 
again. These eight priests had gathered several hun- 
dreds of people, even most of the country thereabouts, 
and they would have had me into the steeple-house ; but 
I would not go in, but got on a hill, and there spoke to 
them and the people. 



r 






i6s4 THE PRIESTS IN A RAGE ISS 

There were with me Thomas Taylor, who had been a 
priest, James Parnell, and several other Friends. The 
priests thought that day to trample down truth ; but the 
truth came over them. Then they grew light, and the 
people rude ; and the priests would not stand trial with 
me ; but would be contending here and there a little, 
with one Friend or other. At last one of the priests 
brought his son to dispute with me ; but his mouth was 
soon stopped. When he could not tell how to answer, 
he would ask his father : and his father was confounded 
also when he came to answer for his son. So, after 
they had toiled themselves, they went away in a rage 
to priest Stephen's house to drink. As they went away 
I said, " I never came to a place where so many priests 
together would not stand the trial with me." Whereupon 
they and some of their wives came about me, laid hold 
of me, and fawningly said, " what might I have been, it 
it had not been for the Quakers!" Then they began to 
push Friends to and fro, to thrust them from me, and to ' 
pluck me to themselves. 

''Prove iti Prove iti** 

After a while several lusty fellows came, took me up 
in their arms, and carried me into the steeple-house 
porch, intending to carry me into the steeple-house 
by force ; but the door being locked, they fell down on 
a heap, having me under them. As soon as I could, I 
got up from under them, and went to the hill again : 
then they took me from that place to the steeple-house 
wall, and set me on something like a stool ; and all the 
priests being come back, stood under with the people. The 
priests cried, " Come, to argument, to argument": I said, 
«* I denied all their voices, for they were the voices of hire- 
lings and strangers." And they cried, " Prove it, prove it/* 



■ ■ ■■■■■■ ■•■! 



1S4 FOX CONDEMNS HIRELINGS 1654 

Then I directed them to the tenth of John, where 
they might see what Christ said of such : he declared, 

^ " he was the true shepherd that laid down his life 

for his sheep, and his sheep heard his voice, and 
followed him ; but the hireling would fly when the wolf 
came, because he was a hireling." I offered to prove 
that they were such hirelings. Then the priests pludced 
me off from the stool again ; and they themselves got all 
upon stools under the steeple-house wall. Then I 
felt the mighty power of God arise over all, and told 
them, " if they would but give audience, and hear me 
quietly, I would show them by the Scriptures why I 
denied those eight priests or teachers that stood before 
me ; and all the hirelings teachers of the world whatso- 
ever; and I would give them Scriptures for what I 
said." Whereupon both priests and people consented. 
So when I had largely quoted the Scriptures, and 
showed them wherein they were like the Pharisees, 
' loving to be called of men masters, and to go in long 
robes, and to stand praying in the synagogues, and 
to have the uppermost rooms at feasts, and the like ; 
and when I had thrown them out in the sight of 
the people amongst -the false prophets, deceivers, scribes, 
and Pharisees, and showed at large how such as they 
were juiced and condemned by the true prophets, by 
Christ, and by the apostles, " I directed them to the 
' light of Christ Jesus, who enlightens every man that 
Cometh into the world; that by it they might see 
whether these things were not true, as had been 
spoken," When I appealed to that of God in their 

k consciences, the light of Christ Jesus in them, they 

I could not bear to hear of it; they were all quiet till 

then ; but then a professor said, " George, what ! wilt 
thou nev^ have done?" J told hjm I should hay? 



f . ' X 



? 



1654 ' FOX HAS A DEBATE 135 

done shortly. So I went on a little longer, and cleared 
myself of them in the Lord's power. 

**HoId Thy Tongue, George I** 

When I had done, all the priests and people stood 
silent for a time: at last one of the priests said 
they would read the Scriptures that I had quoted. I 
told them with all my heart. They began to read the 
23rd of Jeremiah, and there they saw the marks ot 
the false prophets that he cried against. When they had 
read a verse or two I said, " Take notice, people " : but 
the priests said, " Hold thy tongue, George." I bid 
them read the whole chapter throughout \ for it was all 
against them : then they stopped, and would read no 
further ; but asked me a question. I told them I 
would answer their question, the matter being first 
granted that I had charged them with, viz., that 
they were false prophets, false teachers, anti-christs, and 
deceivers, such as the true prophets, Christ, and the 
apostles cried against. A professor said Nay to that ; 
but I said Yea ; for you leaving the matter, and going 
to another thing, seem to consent to the proof of the 
former charge. Then I answered their question, which 
was this. Seeing those false prophets were adulterated, 
whether I did judge Stephens to be an adulterer? 
To which I answered, he was adulterated from God in 
his practice, like those false prophets and the Jews. 
They would not stand to vindicate him, but broke up 
the meeting. 

Then the priests whispered together ; and priest 
Stephens came to me, and desired that my father and 
brother and I might go aside with him, that he might 
speak to me in private ; and the rest of the priests 
should keep the people from coming to us. I was very 



186 FOX AND PRIEST STEPHENS ' i6s4 

loath to go aside with him ; but the people cried, " Go, 
George; do, Geoi^e, go ^ide with him."' 1 was afraid 
if I did not go they would say I was disobedient to my 
parents ; so I went, and the rest of the priests were to 
keep the people off; but they could not, for the people 
being willing to hear, drew close to us. I asked the 
priest what he had to say ; and he said, " if he was out 
of the way, I should pray for him : and if I was out of 
the way, he would pray for me : and he would give me 
a form of words to pray for him by." I replied, " It 
seems thou dost not know whether thou art in the right 
way or not ; neither dost thou know whether I am in 
tfae right way or not : but I know that I am in the ever- 
lasting way, Christ Jesus, which thou art out of. And 
thou wouldst give me a form of words to pray by, and 
yet thou deniest the Common Prayer-Book to pray by, 
as well as I; and I deny thy form of words, as well as 
it. If thou wouldst have me pray for thee by a form of 
words, is not this to deny the apostle's doctrine and 
practice of praying by the Spirit, as it gave words and 
utterance ? " Here the people fell a laughing : but I 
was moved to speak more to him. And when I had 
cleared myself to him and them, we parted. 

A Shake to the Priests 
So the priests packed away, and many people were 
convinced; for the Lord's power came over all. Though 
they thought to have confounded truth that day, many 
were convinced of it ; and many that were convinced 
before were by that day's work confirmed in the truth, 
and abode in it ; and a great shake it gave to the priests. 
My father, though he was a hearer and follower of the 
priest, was so well satisfied that he struck his cane 
upon the ground, and said, " Truly, I see, he that will 



i^' 



1654 FOX AND COLONEL HACKER 137 

but stand to the truth, it will carry him out." I passed 
about in the country till that day week, and then came 
again ; for we had appointed a meeting at my relations' 
house. 

Then I went to Leicester, and then to Whetstone. 
There came about seventeen troopers of Colonel Hacker's 
regiment, with his marshal, and took me up before the 
meeting, though Friends were beginning to gather 
together ; for there were several Friends come from 
various parts. I told the marshal, "he might let all 
the Friends go, I would answer for them all " ; so he • 
took me, and let them go, except Alexander Parker, who 
went with me. At night they had me before Colonel 
Hacker, his major, and captains, a great company oi 
them ; and much discourse we had about the priests 
and meetings, for at this time there was a rumour of a 
plot against Oliver Cromwell. Much reasoning I had 
with them about the light of Christ, which enlighteneth 
every man that cometh into the world. Colonel Hacker 
asked whether it was not this light of Christ that made 
Judas betray his master, and afterwards led him to hang 
himself? I told him, " No ; that was the spirit of dark- 
ness, which hated Christ and his light." 

Then Colonel Hacker said I might go home, and 
keep there, and not go abroad to meetings. I told him, 
" I was an innocent man, free from plots, and denied 
all such work." His son Needham said, " Father, this 
man hath reigned too long, it is time to have him cut 
off." I asked him, " For what ? what had I done ? or 
whom had I wronged from a child ? for I was bred and 
bom in that country, and who could accuse me of any 
evil from a child?" Then Colonel. Hacker asked me 
again if I would go home, and stay there ? I told him, 
*< if I should promise him that, it would manifest that I 



138 FOX SENT TO CROMWELL 1654 

was guilty of something, to go home, and make my 
home a prison ; and if I went to meetings they would 
say I broke their order. I told them, " I should go to 
meetings, as the Lord should order me, and therefore 
could not submit to their requirings " ; but I said, " we 
were a peaceable people." " Well then," said Colonel 
Hacker, " I will send you to my Lord Protector, by 
Captain Drury, one of his life-guards." 

"I Will Send You to my Lord Protector*' 
That night I was kept a prisoner at the Marshalsea ; 
and the next morning by six o'clock I was delivered to 
Captain Drury. I desired he would let me speak with 
Colonel Hacker before I went, and he had me to his 
Iwd-side. Colonel Hacker set upon me presently again, 
to go home and keep no more meetings. I told bim, 
" I could not submit to that, but must hare my liberty 
to serve God, and to go to meetings." "Then," said 
ht:, " you must go before the Protector." Whereupon 
I kneeled by his bed-side, and besoi^ht the Lord to 
forgive him, for he was as Pilate, though he would wash 
his bands; and when the day of his misery and trial 
should come upon him, I bid him then remember what 
I had said to him. But he was stirred up and set on 
by priest Stephens and the other priests and professors, 
wherein their envy and baseness was manifest; who, 
when they could not overcome me by disputes and 
arguments, nor resist the Spirit of the Lord that was in 
me, then they got soldiers to take me up. 

Afterwards, when this Colonel Hacker was in prison 
ill London, a day or two before he was executed, he was 
put in mind of what he had done against the innocent; 
and he remembered it, and confessed to it to Margaret 
Fell, saying he knew well whom she meant; and he had 



1 654 FOX AT CHARING CROSS 139 

a trouble upon him for it. So his son, who told his 
father I had reigned too long, and that it was time to 
have me cut off, might observe how his father was cut 
off afterwards, he being hanged at Tyburn. 

Fox Writes to Oliver Cromwell 

Now was I carried up a prisoner by Captain Drury 
from Leicester ; and when we came to Harborough, he 
asked me if I would go home and stay a fortnight? 
" I should have my liberty," he said, " if I would not go 
to, nor keep meetings." I told him, " I could not 
promise any silch thing." Several times upon the road 
did he ask, and try me after the same manner, and still 
I gave him the same answers. So he brought me to 
London, and lodged me at the Mermaid over-against 
the Mews at Charing Cross. As we travelled, I was 
moved of the Lord to warn people at the inns and 
places where I came of the day of the Lord that was 
coming upon them. William Dewsbury and Marmaduke 
Storr being in prison at Northampton, he let me go and 
visit them. 

After Captain Drury had lodged me at the Mermaid, 
he left me there, and went to give the Protector an 
account of me. When he came to me again^ he told 
me the Protector required that I should promise not to 
take up a carnal sword or weapon against him or the 
government, as it then was, and that I should write it in 
wliat words I saw good, and set my hand to it. I said 
little in reply to Captain Drury. But the next morning 
I was moved of the Lord to write a paper to the Pro- 
tector, Oliver Cromwell. 

" Wherein I did in the presence of the Lord God 
declare that I denied the wearing or drawing of a carnal 
3word, or any other outward weapon, against bim or any 



uo FOX AT WHITEHALL 1654 

man ; and that I was sent of God to stand a witness 
agiiinst all violence and gainst the works of darkness ; 
and to turn people from darkness to light ; and to bring 
tliL-ai from the causes of war and fighting, to the 
peaceable gospel, and from evil-doers, whictj the magis- 
trates' swords should be a terror to." When I had 
written what the Lord had given me to write, I set my 
name to it, and gave it to Captain Drury to hand to 
Oliver Cromwell, which he did. 

After some time Captain Drury brought me before 
the Protectorhimself at Whitehall. It was in a morning, 
before he was dressed, and one Harvey, who had come 
a little among Friends, but was disobedient, waited upon 
him. When I came in I was moved to say, " Peace be 
in this house " ; and I exhorted him to keep in the fear 
of God, that he might receive wisdom from him, that 
by it he mi^t be directed, and order all things under 
his hand to God's glory. 

Fox Talka to Cromwell 
I spoke much to him of truth, and much discourse I 
had with him about religion ; wherein he carried himself 
very iiioderatety. But he said we quarrelled with priests, 
whom he called ministers. I told him, " I did not 
r]uarrel with them, but they quarrelled with me and my 
friends. But," said I, " if we own the prophets, Christ, 
and the apostles, we cannot hold up such teachers, 
prophets, and shepherds as the prophets, Christ, and 
the apostles declared against; but we must declare 
against them by the same power and Spirit." Then I 
showed him, '* that the prophets, Christ, and the apostles 
declared freely, and against them that did not declare 
freely ; such as preached for filthy lucre, and divined for 
money, and preached for hire, and were covetous and 



i6s4 POX AND CROMWELL 141 

greedy, that can never have enough ; and that they that 
have the same Spirit that Christ, and the prophets, and 
the apostles had, could not but declare against all such 
now, as they did then." As I spoke, he several times 
said it was very good, and it was truth.! 

I told him, " that all Christendom (so-called) possessed 
the Scriptures, but wanted the power and Spirit that 
they liad who gave forth the Scriptures, and that was 
the reason they were not in fellowship with the Son, nor 
with the Father, nor with the Scriptures, nor one with 
another." Many more words I had with him, but people 
coming in, I drew a little back ; and as I was turning 
he caught me by the hand, and with tears in his eyes 
said, '* Come again to my house, for if thou and I were 
but an hour a day together, we should be nearer one to 
the other " ; adding that he yrished me no more ill than 
he did to his own soul. I told him, " if he did, he 
wronged his own soul " ; and I bid him " hearken to 
God's voice, that he might stand in his counsel and 
obey it ; and if he did so, that would keep him from 
hardness of heart : but if he did not hear God's voice, 
his heart would be hardened." He said it was true. 

Then I went out ; and when Captain Drury came out 
after me, he told me, " his lord Protector said I was at 
liberty, and might go whither I would." Then I was 
brought into a great hall, where the Protector's gentle- 
men were to dine ; and I asked them what they brought 
me thither for ? they said it was by the Protector's 
order, that I might dine with them. I bid them let the 
Protector know I would not eat of his bread nor drink 
of his drink. When he heard this he said, " Now I see 
there is a people risen and come up that I cannot win 
either with gifts, honours, offices, or places; but all 
Qther sects and people I can." It was told him again, 






Hi CROMWELL'S NEWS-MOMGER 1654. 

" that we had forsaken our own, and were not likely to 
look for such things from him." 

When I came from Whitehall to the Mermaid at 
Charing-Cross, I stayed not long there ; but went into 
the city of London, where we had great and powerful 
meetings ; so great were the throngs of people that I 
could hardly get to and from the meetings for the 
crowds ; and the truth spread exceedingly. Thomas 
Aldam and Robert Craven, who had been sheriff of 
Lincoln, and many Friends, came up to London after 
me J but Alexander Parker abode with me. 

One of Oliver's Priests 

After a while I went to Whitehall again, and was moved 
" to declare the day of the Lord amot^t them, and that 
the Lord was come to teach his people himself"; so I 
preached truth both to the officers and to them that 
were called Oliver's gentlemen, who were of his guard. 
But a priest opposed while I was declaring the word of 
the Lord amongst them ; for Oliver had several priests 
about him, of which this was his news-monger ; an 
envious priest, and a light, scornful, chafiy man. I bid 
him repent ; and he put it in his newspaper the next 
week that I had been at Whitehall, and had bid a godly 
minister there repent. When I went thither again I 
met with him ; and abundance of people gathered about 
me. I manifested the priest to be a liar in several things 
that he had affirmed ; and so he was silenced. He put 
in the news that I wore silver buttons, which was felse, 
for they were but alchymy. Afterwards he said in the 
news that I hung ribands on people's arms, which made 
them follow me ; this was another of his lies, for I never 
wore or used ribands in my life. 

Three Friends went to examine this priest, that gave 



[^iT* 



m 



1654 CORNERING A LIAR 145 

forth this false intelligence, and to know of him where 
he had that information. He said it was a woman that 
told him so ; and if they would come again he would 
tell them her name. When they returned he said it 
was a man, but would not mention his name then ; but 
if they would come again he would tell them his name, 
and where he lived. They went the third time, and 
then he would not say who told him ; but offered, if I 
would give it under my hand that there was no such 
thing, he would put that into the news. Thereupon 
the Friends carried it to him under my hand ; but when 
they came, he broke his promise, and would not insert it ; 
but was in a rage, and threatened them with the constable. 
This was the deceitful doing of this forger of lies; 
which he spread over all the nation in the news, to 
render truth odious, and to put evil into people's minds 
against Friends and truth; of which a more large 
account may be seen in a book printed soon after this 
time, for the clearing of Friends and truth from the 
slanders, lies^ and false reports raised and cast upon 
them. These priests, the news-mongers, were of the 
Independent sect, like those in Leicester ; but the Lord's 
power came over all their lies, and swept them away ; 
and many came to see the wickedness of these priests. 
The God of heaven carried me over all in his power, 
and his blessed power went over the nation : insomuch 
that many Friends about this time were moved to go 
up and down, to sound forth the everlasting gospel in 
most parts of it, and also in Scotland ; and the glory of 
the Lord was felt over all to his everlasting praise. A 
great convincement there was in London, and some in 
the Protector's house and family ; I went to see him 
again, but could not get access to him, the officers were 
grown so rude. 



144 POX ARRESTED i6ss 

Foz in Suffolk 

1655. — From Colchester I went to Ipswich, where we 
had a iitlk meeting, and very rude; but the Lord's 
power came over them. After the meeting I said, " if 
any had a desire to hear further, they might come to the 
inn " : and there came in a company of rude butchers, 
that had abused Friends; but the I-ord's power so 
chained Ihem that they could not do mischief. Then 
I wrote a paper, and gave it forth to the town, " warning 
them of the day of the Lord, that they might repent of 
the evils they lived in : directing them to Christ, their 
teacher, and way; and exhorting them to forsake their 
hireling teachers." 

We passed from Ipswich to Mendelsham, in Suffolk, 
wliere Robert Duncan lived. There we had a lai^e 
quiet meeting, and the Lord's power was preciously felt 
amongst us. Then we passed to a meeting at Captain 
Lawrence's in Norfolk, where, it was supposed, were 
above a thousand people ; and all was quiet. 

Arrested for House Breaking 
[Arriving at a town twenty-five miles from Yarmouth], 
we bid the hostler have our horses ready by three in the 
morning ; for we intended to ride to Lynn, about three 
and thirty miles, next morning. But when we were in 
bed at out inn, about eleven at night, the constable and 
officers came, with a great rabble of people, into the inn, 
iind said they were come with a hue and cry from a 
justice of peace, that lived near the town about five 
miles olf, where I had spoken to the people in the 
streets, as I rode along, to search for two horsemen, 
that rode upon gray horses, and in gray clothes; a house 
having been broken up on the Seventh-day before at 



1655 A PLOT 145 

night. We told them "we were honest, innocent men, 
and abhorred such things " ; yet they apprehended us, 
and set a guard with halberts and pikes upon us that 
night ; making some of those friendly people, with others, 
to watch us. 

Next morning we were up betimes, and the constable 
with his guard carried us before a justice of peace about 
five miles off. We took two or three of the sufficient 
men of the town with us, who had been with us at the 
great meeting at Captain Lawrence's, and could testify 
that we lay both the Seventh-day night and the First- 
day night at Captain Lawrence's; and it was the 
Seventh-day night that they said the house was broken 
up. 

The Justices* Plot 

The reader is to be informed that during the time 
that I was a prisoner at the Mermaid at Charing-Cross, 
this Captain Lawrence brought several Independent 
justices to see me there, with whom I had much dis- 
course ; which they took offence at. For they pleaded 
for imperfection, and to sin as long as they lived ; but 
did not like to hear of Christ teaching his people himself, 
and making people as clear, whilst here upon the earth, 
as Adam and Eve were before they fell. These justices 
had plotted together this mischief against me in the 
country, pretending a house was broken up ; that they 
might send their hue and cry after me. They were 
vexed also, and troubled, to hear of the great meeting at 
John Lawrence's aforesaid ; for a colonel was convinced 
there that day, who lived and died in the truth. 

But Providence so ordered that the constable carried 
us to a justice about five miles onward in our way towards 
Lynn, who was not an independent justice, as the rest 



146 FOX REBUKES A JUDGE 1655 

were. When we were brought before him he began to 
be angry because we did not put off our hats to him. 
I told him I had been before the Protector, and he was 
not offended at my hat ; and why should he be offended 
at it who was but one of his servants ? Then he read 
the hue and cry ; and I told him, « that that night, 
wherein the house was said to be broken up, we were at 
Captain Lawrence's house; and that we had several 
men present who could testify the truth thereof." 
Thereupon the justice, having examined us and them, 
said " he believed we were not the men that had broken 
the house 5 but he was sorry," he said, " that he had no 
more against us." 

We told him " he ought not to be sorry for not having 
evil against us, but rather to be glad; for to rejoice 
when he got evil against people, as for housebreaking 
or the like, was not a good mind in him.^' It was a 
good while yet before he could resolve whether to let 
us go or send us to prison ; and the wicked constable 
stirred him up against us, telling him << we had good 
horses, and that if it pleased him he would carry us to 
Norwich jail." But we took hold of the justice's con- 
fession, that " he believed we were not the men that had 
broken the house " ; and after we had admonished him 
to fear the Lord in his day, the Lord's power came over 
him, so that he let us go ; so their snare was broken. 
A great people were afterwards gathered to the Lord in 
that town, where I was moved to speak to them in the 
street, and from whence the hue and cry came. 

Riots at Cambridge 

I passed to Cambridge. When I came into the town, 
the scholars hearing of me were up and were exceed- 
ingly rude. T kept on my horse's back and rode through 



1 65 5 RUDE CAMBRIDGE STUDENTS 147 

them in the Lord's power; but they unhorsed Amor 
Stoddard before he could get to the inn. When we 
were in the inn they were so rude in the courts and in 
the streets that miners, colliers, and carters could never 
be ruder. The people of the house asked us " what we 
would have for supper." " Supper ! " said I, " were it 
not that the Lord's power is over them, these rude scholars 
look as if they would pluck us in pieces and make a 
supper of us." They knew I was so against the trade 
of preaching, which they were there as apprentices to 
learn, that they raged as much as ever Diana's craftsmen 
did against Paul. 

When it was within night, the mayor of the town, 
being friendly, came and fetched me to his house ; and 
as we walked through the streets there was a bustle in 
the town ; but they did not know me, it being darkish. 
They were in a rage, not only against me, but against 
the mayor also; so that he was almost afraid to 
walk the streets with me, for the tumult. We sent 
for the friendly people, and had a fine meeting there 
in the power of God; and I stayed there all night. 
Next morning, having ordered our horses to be ready by 
six, we passed peaceably out of town ; and the destroyers 
were disappointed ; for they thought I would have stayed 
longer, and intended to do us mischief; but our passing 
away early in the morning frustrated their evil purposes 
against us. 

Warning to Persecutors of Quakers 

Amongst other services for the Lord which then lay 
upon me in the city, I was moved to give forth a paper 
to those that made a scorn of trembling and quaking ; 
which is as follows: — 

" The word of the Lord to all you that scorn trembling 



I 148 A WARNING TO SCORNERS , 1655 

and quaking ; who scoff at, scorn, stone, and belch 
forth oaths against those who are trembling and quaking ; 

i threatening them, and beating them. Strangers ye are 

to all the apostles and prophets ; and are of the genera- 
tion that stoned them and mocked them in those ages. 
Ye are the scoffers of whom they spoke, that are come 
in the last times. Be ye witnesses against yourselves. 
' To the l^ht in all your consciences 1 speak, that with 

I it you may see yourselves to be out of the life of the 

holy men of God. . . . 

" Take warning, all ye powers of the earth, how ye 
persecute them whom the world nickname and call 
Quakers, who dwell in the eternal power of God ; lest 
the hand of the Lord be turned ag^nst you, and ye be 
all cut off. To you this is the word of God. Fear and 
tremble, and take warning ! for this is the man whom 
the Lord doth regard, who trembles at his word ; whom 
you, who are of the world, scoff and scom, stock, per- 
secute, and imprison. Here ye may see ye are contrary 
to God and to the prophets ; and are such as hate what 
the Lord regards; which we, whom the world scorns, 
and calls Quakers, own. We exalt and honour that 
power that makes the devils tremble, shakes the earth, 
and throws down the loftiness and the haughtiness of 
man ; which makes the beasts of the field to tremble, 
and the earth to reel to and fro ; which cleaves the earth 
asunder, and overturneth the world. This power we 
own, and honour, and preach ; but all scoffers and per- 
secutors, railers and scorners, stockers and whippers, we 
deny by that power which throweth down all that 
nature; seeing that all who act such things, without 
repentance, shall not inherit the kingdom of God, but 
are for destruction. 

" Rejoice all ye righteous ones, who are persecuted 



i65S OATH OF ABJURATION 149 

for righteousness' sake; for great is your reward in 
heaven. Rejoice, ye that suffer for well-doing ; for ye 
shall not lose your reward. Wait in the light, that you 
may grow up in the life that gave forth the Scriptures ; 
that with it you may see the saints' conditions, and all 
that which they testified against ; and there with it ye 
will «ee the state of those that reproached and scoffed 
at them ; that mocked and persecuted them ; that 
whipped and stocked them, and haled them out of the 
synagogues before magistrates. 

To you, who are in the same light and life, the same 
things do they now ; that they may fill up the measure 
of their fathers. With the light now they are seen, 
where the light, and life, and power of God is made 
manifest ; for as they did unto them, so they will do 
unto you. Here is our joy ; the Scripture is fulfilled, 
and fulfilling ; and with the light which was before 
the world was, which is now made manifest in the 
children of light, they see the world and comprehend 
it, and the actions of it ; for he that loves the worldi 
and turns from the light, is an enemy to God ) he turneth 
into wickedness ; for the whole world lieth in wicked- 
ness. He who turns from the light, turns into the 
works of evil, which the light of Christ testifies against ; 
and by this light, where it is made manifest, all the 
works of the world are seen and made manifest. 

"G. F." 

This year came out the oath of abjuration, by which 
many Friends suffered ; and several went to speak to 
the Protector about it ; but he began to harden. And 
sufferings increasing upon Friends, by reason that 
envious magistrates made use of that oath as a snare to 
catch Friends in, who, they knew, could not swear at 
all ; I was moved to write to the Protector as follows : 



150 A LETTER TO CROMWELL 1655 

A. Lctttf to tlie PfoCector 

''The ma^stiate is not to bear die sword in ¥adn who 
ong^t to be a terror to evikdoeis; hot as the magistrate 
that doth bear the sword in vain is not a terror to evil- 
doers, fo he is not a praise to them that do wdL Now 
hath God raised ap a people by his power, whom people, 
priests, and magistrates, who are out of the fear of God, 
scornfully call Quakers, who cry agadnst drunkenness 
(for drunkards destroy God's creatures), and against 
oaths (for because of oaths the land mourns), and these 
drunkards and swearers, to whom the magistrate's sword 
should be a terror, are, we see, at liberty; but for crying 
against such many are cast into prison; as also for 
testifying against their pride and filthiness, their deceitful 
merchandise in markets, their cozening and their cheat- 
ing, their excess and naughtiness, their playing at bowls 
and shuffle-boards, at cards and at dice, and their other 
rain and wanton pleasures. They who live in pleasures 
are dead while they live; and they who live in wanton- 
ness kill the just 

This we know by the Spirit of God, which gave 
forth the Scriptures, which the Father has given to 
us, and hath placed his righteous law in our hearts; 
which law is a terror to evil-doers, and answers that 
which is of God in every man's conscience. They 
who act contrary to the measure of God's Spirit in every 
man's conscience cast the law of God behind their backs, 
and walk despitefully against the Spirit of grace. The 
magistrate's sword, we see, is borne in vain, whilst the 
evil-doers are at liberty to do evil ; and they that cry 
against such are for so doing punished by the magis- 
trate, who hath turned his sword backward against the 
Lord* 



1655 FOX'S WARNINGS 151 

" Now the wicked one fenceth himself, and persecutes 
the innocent as vagabonds and wanderers, for crying 
against sin, and against unrighteousness and ungodliness 
openly in the markets and in the highways; or as 
railers, because they tell them what judgment will come 
upon them that follow such practices. Here they that 
depart from iniquity are become a prey, and few lay it 
to heart. But God will thrash the mountains, beat the 
hills, cleave the rocks, and cast into his press, which is 
trodden without the city, and will bathe his sword in the 
blood of the wicked and unrighteous. You that have 
drunk the cup of abominations, a hard cup have you 
had to drink ; you are the enemies of God, and of you 
he will be avenged. 

'^Consider the Days you have Spent ^ 

" Now ye, in whom something of God is remaining, 
consider ; if the sword was not borne in vain, but turned 
against the evil-doers, then the righteous would not 
suffer, and be cast into holes, dungeons, comers, prisons, 
and houses of correction, as peace-breakers, for testifying 
against sin openly, as they are commanded of the Lord, 
and against the covetousness of the priests and their 
false worships ; who exact money of poor people, whom 
they do no work for. O ! where will you appear in the 
day of the Lord ? or how will you stand in the day of 
his righteous judgment ? How many jails and houses 
of correction are now made places to put the lambs of 
Christ in, for following him and obeying his commands, 
which are too numerous to mention. 

" The royal law of Christ, * to do as ye would be done 
by,' is trodden down under foot ; so that men can pro- 
fess him in words, but crucify him wheresoever he 
appears, and cast him into prison, as the talkers of him 



15t "O MAN, CONSIDER I" 165; 

always did in the generations and ages past. The 
labourers which God, the master of tlie harvest, hath 
sent into hb vineyard, do the chief of the priests and 
the rulers now take counsel together against, to cast 
them into prison : and here are the fruits of priests, and 
people, and rulers without the fear of God. The day 
is come and coming, that every man's work doth appear, 
and shall appear ; glory be to the Lord God for ever. 
So see, and consider the days you have spent, and do 
spend ; for this is your day of visitation. 

'■ Many have suffered great fines, because they could 
not swear, but obey Christ's doctrine, who saith, ' Swear 
not at all ' : and are made a prey upon for abiding in the 
command of Christ. Many are cast into prison because 
they cannot take the oath of abjuration, though they 
denied all that is abjured in it ; and by that means 
many of the messengers and ministers of the Lord Jesus 
Christ are cast into prison because they will not swear 
nor go out of Christ's command. Therefore, O man. 
consider ; to the measure of the life of God in thee I 
speak. Many also lie in jaiU because they cannot pay 
the priest's tithes ; many have their goods spoiled and 
treble damages taken of them ; and many are whipped 
and beaten in the house of correction without breach of 
any law. These things are done in thy name, in order 
to protect them in these actions. 

" If men fearing God bore the sword, if covetousness 
were hated, and men of courage for God were set up, 
then they would be a terror to evil-doers and a praise 
to them that do well ; and not cause them to suffer. 
Here equity would be heard in our land, and righteous- 
ness would stand up and take place ; which giveth not 
place to the unr^hteous, but judgeth it. To the measure 
of God's Spirit in thee I speak, that thou mayest coo- 



J 



i6s5 SPOILING OF GOODS 153 

sider, and come to rule for God ; that thou mayest 
answer that which is of God in every man's coftscience ; 
for this is that which bringeth to honour all men in the 
Lord. Therefore consider for whom thou dost rule, 
that thou mayest come to receive power from God to 
rule for him ; and all that is contrary to God may by 
his light be condemned. 

** From a lover of thy soul, who desires thy eternal 
good. G. F." 

False Reports 

After clearing myself of those services for the Lord 
which lay upon me in London, I passed into Bedford- 
shire and Northamptonshire. At Wellingborough I 
had a great meeting, in which the Lord's everlasting 
power and truth was over all ; and many in that country 
were turned to the Lord. Great rage was amongst the 
professors, for the wicked pxiests, Presbyterians, and 
Independents falsely reported " that we carried bottles 
about with us, which we gave people to drink of; which 
made them follow us" : but the Power, and Spirit, and 
Truth of God kept Friends over the rage of the people. 
Great spoiling also there was of Friends' goods for 
tithes, by the Independent and Presbyterian priests, 
and some Baptist priests, that had got into the steeple- 
houses. 

From Wellingborough I went into Leicestershire, 
where Colonel Hacker had threatened that if I came 
there he would imprison me again, though the Protector 
had set me at liberty : but when I was come to Whet- 
stone (the meeting from which he took me before) all 
was quiet there. Colonel Hacker's wife and his mar- 
shal came to the meeting, and were convinced : for the 
glorious powerful day of the Lord was exalted over all. 



..M 



tH FOX AT WARWICK 1655 

and many were convinced that day. There were at that 
meeting two justices of the peace, that came out of 
Wales, whose names were Peter Price and Walter Jenkin ; 
who came both to be ministers of Christ. 

Fox "Clears" Himself at Warwick 
Leaving Tewkesbury, we came to Warwick, where in 
the evening we had a meeting at a widow's house, with 
many sober people. A precious meeting we had in the 
Lord's power, and several were convinced and turned to 
the Lord. After it, as I was walking out, a Baptist in 
the company b^jan to jangle; and the baitiff of the 
town with his officers came in and said, "What do these 
people here at this time of night ? " So he secured 
John Crook, Amor Stoddart, Gerrard Roberts, and 
myself, but we had leave to go to our inn, and to be 
forthcoming in the morning. Next morning many rude 
people came to the inn and into our chambers, despe- 
rate fellows ; but the Lord's power gave us dominion 
over them. Gerrard Roberts and John Crook went up 
to the bailiff to speak with him, and to know what he 
had to say to us. He said we might go our ways, for he 
had little to say to us. 

As we rode out of town, it lay upon me to ride to his 
house to let him know " that the Protector having given 
forth an instrument of government, in which liberty of 
conscience was granted, it was very strange that, contrary 
to that instrument of government, he would trouble 
peaceable people that feared God." The Friends went 
with me, but the rode people gathered about us with 
stones ; and one of them took hold of my horse's bridle 
and broke it; but the horse drawing back threw him 
under him. Though the bailiff saw this, yet he did not 
stop nor so much as rebuke the rude multitude, so that 



1 65 5 FOX SEPARATES FIGHTERS 155 

it was much we were not slain or hurt in the streets ; 
for the people threw stones, and struck at us, as we rode 
along the town. 

When we were quite out of the town I told Friends 
** it was upon me from the Lord that I must go back 
into it again ; and if any one of them felt any thing 
upon him from the Lord he might follow me, and the 
rest that did not might go on to Dun-Cow." So I 
passed up through the market in the dreadful power of 
God, declaring the word of life to them, and John Crook 
followed me. Some struck at me; but the Lord's 
power was over them, and gave me dominion over all. 
I showed them their unworthiness of the name of 
Christians, and the unworthiness of their teachers who 
had not brought them into more sobriety ; and what a 
shame they were to Christianity ! 

Having cleared myself, I turned back out of the town 
again, and passed to Coventry ; where we found the 
people closed up with darkness. I went to a professor's 
house tliat I had formerly been at, and he was drunk, 
which grieved my soul so that I did not go into any 
house in the town ; but rode into some of the streets 
and into the market-place. I felt the power of the 
Lord God was over the town. 

We returned to our inn at Baldock, where were two 
desperate fellows fighting so furiously that none durst 
come nigh to part them. But I was moved in the Lord's 
power, to go to them; and when I had loosed their 
hands, I held one of them by one hand, and the other 
by the other, showed them the evil of their doings, and 
reconciled them one to the other, and they were so loving 
and thankful to me that people admired at it. 

Now after I had tarried some time in London, and 
had visited Friends in their meetings, I went out of 



\^ 



156 DISPUTE WITH BAPTISTS 1655 

town, leaving James Naylor in the city. As I passed 
from him I cast my eyes upon him, and a fear struck me 
concerning him ; but I went away, and rode down to 
Ryegate in Surrey, where I had a little meeting. 

We went to Dorchester, and alighted at an inn, a 
Baptist's house ; we sent into the town to the Baptists 
to let us have their meeting-house to meet in, and to 
invite the sober people to the meeting ; but they denied 
it us. We sent to them again to know why they would 
deny us their meeting-house ; so the thing was noised in 
the town. Then we sent them word, if they would not 
let us come to their house, they, or any people that 
feared God, might come to our inn if they pleased. They 
were in a great rage ; and their teacher and many of 
them came up, and slapped their Bibles on the table. 

Angfy Baptists 

I asked them why they were so angry; were they 
angry with the Bible ? But they fell into a discourse 
about their water-baptism. I asked them whether they 
could say they were sent of God to baptize people, as 
John was ; and whether they had the same Spirit and 
power that the apostles had ? They said they had not. 
Then I asked them how many powers there are; 
whether there are any more than the power of God and 
the power of the devil ? They said there was not any 
other power than those two. Then said I, ** if you have not 
the power of God that the apostles had, then you act by 
the power of the devil.*' Many sober people were 
present, who said, " they have thrown themselves on their * 

backs." Many substantial people were convinced that 
night ; a precious service we had there for the Lord, and 
his power came over all. Next morning, as we were 
passing away, the Baptists, being in a rage, began to 






1 6s 5 FOX AND THE MERRY MAN 157 

shake the dust off their feet after us. " What," said I, 
" in the power of darkness ! We, who are in the powa: 
of God, shake off the dust of our feet against you." 

''The Meivicst Man I Met** 

Leaving Dorchester, we came to Weymouth; where 
also we inquired after the sober people, and about four 
score of them gathered together at a priest's house. 

There was a captain of horse in the town, who sent to 
me, and would fain have had me to stay longer ; but I 
was not to stay. He and his man rode out of town with 
me about seven miles, Edward Pyot also being with me. 
The captain was the fattest, merriest man, the most 
cheerful, and the most given to laughter that ever I met 
with ; insomuch that I was several times moved to speak 
in the dreadful power of the Lord to him ; and yet it was 
become so customary to him that he would presently 
laugh at any thing he saw. But I still admonished him 
to come to sobriety, sincerity, and the fear of the Lord. 
We staid at an inn that night; and in the morning I was 
moved to speak to him again, when he parted from us. 
Next time I saw him, he told me that when I spoke to ''^ 

him at parting the power of the Lord so struck him 
that before he got home he was serious enough, and 
had discontinued his laughing. He afterwards was con- 
vinced, and became a serious and good man, and died in j 
the truth. 

Uncivil Innkeepers 

We passed to Topsham, and stayed over the First-day ; 
but the innkeeper and his people were rude. Next 
morning we gave forth some queries to the priests and 
professors ; whereupon some rude professors came into 
our inn ; and had we not gone when we did, they would 






1 • 



%.: 



I 



X 



>> 






.n 



158 FOX AND THE INNKEEPERS 1655 

have stopped us. I wore a girdle, which through forget- 
fulness I left behind me at the inn, and afterwards sent 
to the innkeeper for, but he would not let me have it 
again. Afterwards, when he was tormented in his mind 
about it, he took it and burnt it, lest he should be 
bewitched by it, as he said ; yet when he had burnt it 
he was more tormented than before. Some, notwith- 
standing the rudeness of the place, were convinced; and 
a meeting was afterwards settled in that town, which has 
continued ever since. 

After this we passed to Totness, a dark town. We 
lodged at an inn, and at night Edward Pyot was sick, 
but the Lord's power healed him, so that next day we 
got to Kingsbridge, and at our inn inquired for the 
sober people of the town. They directed us to Nicholas 
Tripe and his wife, and we went to their house. They 
sent for the priest, with whom we had some discourse ; 
but he being confounded, quickly left us. Nicholas Tripe 
and his wife were convinced ; and there is since a good 
meeting of Friends in that country. In the evening we 
returned to our inn ; and there being many people 
drinking in the house, I was moved of the Lord to go 
amongst them, and to direct them to the light, which 
Christ, the heavenly Man, had enlightened them withal ; 
by which they might see all their evil ways, words, and 
deeds, and by the same light they might also see Jesus 
Christ their Saviour. The innkeeper stood uneasy, 
seeing it hindered his guests from drinking ; and as soon 
as the last words were out of my mouth, he snatched up 
the candle, and said, "Come, here is a light for you to 
go into your chamber.*' Next morning, when he was cool, 
I represented to him ** what an uncivil thing it was for 
him to do so " ; then warning him of the day of the 
Lord, we got ready and passed away. 



i65S FOX IN CORNWALL 159 

We travelled through Penryn to Helston ; but could 
not obtain knowledge of any sober people, through the 
badness of the innkeepers. At length we came to a 
village where some Baptists and sober people lived, with 
whom we had some discourse ; and some of them were 
brought to confess that they stumbled at the light of 
Christ. They would have had us to stay with them, but 
we passed thence to Market-Jew ; and having taken up 
our lodging at an inn, we went out over-night to inquire 
for such as feared the Lord. Next morning the mayor 
and aldermen gathered together, with the high sheriff of 
the county, and they sent first the constables to bid 
us come before them. We asked them for their warrant, 
and they saying they had none, we told them we 
should not go along with them without. Upon the 
return of the constables without us, they sent their 
Serjeants, and we asked them for their warrant. They 
said they had none; but they told us the mayor and 
aldermen stayed for us. We told them the mayor 
and his company did not well to trouble us in our inn, 
and we should not go before them without a warrant. 

Troublesome Magistrates 

So they went away and came again; and when we 
asked them for their warrant, one of them pulled his 
mace from under his cloak; we asked them whether 
this was their custom to molest and trouble strangers 
in their inns and lodgings ? After seme time Edward 
Pyot went to the mayor and aldermen, and had much 
discourse with them; but the Lord*s power gave him 
dominion over them all. When he returned, several 
of the officers came to us, and we laid before them 
the incivility and unworthiness of their conduct towards 
us, who were the servants of the Lord God, thus to 






* 




160 MESSAGE FOR LAND'S END 1655 

stop and trouble us in out loc^ngs ; and what an un- 
christian act it was. 

Before we left the town I wrote a paper, to be 
sent to the seven parishes at the Land's End. A copy 
of which follows : 

"If You Hate this Light" 
" The mighty day of the Lord is come, and coming, 
wherein all hearts shall be made manifest, and the 
secreis of every one's heart shall be revealed by the l^ht 
of Jesus, who Ughteth every man that cometh into the 
world, that all men through him might believe, and 
that the world might have life through him, who sdth, 
' Learn of me,' and of whom God saith, ' This is my 
beloved Son, hear ye him.' Christ is come to teach his 
people himself; and every one that will not hear this 
Prophet, which God hath raised up, and which Moses 
spoke of, when he said, ' Like unto me will God nose 
you up a Prophet, him shall you hear ' ; every one (I 
say) that will not hear this Prophet is to be cut off. 
They that despised Moses's law died under the hand 
of two or three witnesses ; but how much greater punish- 
ment will come upon them that n^lect this great salva- 
tion. Christ Jesus, who saith, < Learn ot me : I am the 
way, the truth, and the life ' ; who lighteth every man 
that cometh Into the world ; and by his light lets him see 
his evil ways and hb evil deeds. But ifyou hate this light, 
and go on in evil, this light will be your condemnation. 

" Therefore, now ye have time, prize it ; for this is 
the day of your visitation, and salvation oflerM to you. 
Every one of you hath a light from Christ, which lets 
you see you should not lie, nor do wrong to any, nor 
swear, nor curse, nor take God's name in vjun, nor steal. 
It is the light that shows you these evil deeds ; which 



i65f TROUBLE AT ST. IVES l6l 

if you love, and come unto it and follow it, will lead you 
to Christ, who is the way to the Father, from whom it 
comes; where no unrighteousness enters, nor ungodli- 
ness. If you hate this light, it will be your condemnation; 
but if you love it and come to it, you will come to 
Christ; and it will bring you off from all the world's 
teachers and ways, to learn of Christ, and will preserve 
you from the evils of the world, and all the deceivers in 
it. G. F." 

Upfoaf at St* Ives 

This paper a Friend who was then with me had ; and 
when we were gone three or four miles from Market- 
Jew towards the West, he meeting with a man upon the 
road, gave him a copy of the paper. This man proved 
to be a servant to one Peter Ceely, major in the army, 
and a justice of peace in that county ; and he riding 
before us to a place called St. Ives, showed the paper to 
his master. Major Ceely. When we came to Ives, 
Edward Pyot's horse having cast a shoe, we stayed 
to have it set; and while he was getting his horse 
shod, I walked down to the sea-side. When I returned 
I found the town in an uproar ; and they were haling 
Edward Pyot and the other Friend before Major Ceely. 
I followed them into the justice's house, though they 
did not lay hands upon me. When we came in, the 
house was full of rude people; whereupon I asked 
whether there were not an officer among them to keep 
the people civil ? Major Ceely said he was a magistrate. 
I told him " he should show forth gravity and sobriety 
then, and use his authority to keep the people civil ; for 
I never saw any people ruder : the Indians were more 
like Christians than they." 

After a while they brought forth the paper aforesaid, 

L 



162 FOX'S LONG HAIR 1655 

and asked whether I would own it ? I said Yes. 
Then he tendered the oath of abjuration to us ; where- 
upon I put my hand in my pocket and drew forth the 
answer to it, which had been given to the Protector. 
After I had given him that, he examined us severally, 
one by one. He had with him a silly young priest, who 
asked us many frivolous questions, and amongst the rest 
he desired to cut my hair, which then was pretty long ; but 
T was not to cut it though many times many were offended 
at it. I told them " I had no pride in it, and it was not of 
my own putting on." At length the justice put us under 
a guard of soldiers, who were hard and wild, like the 
justice himself; nevertheless "we warned the people of 
the day of the Lord, and declared his truth to them." 

At Redruth 

The next day he sent us, guarded by a party of horse 
with swords and pistols, to Redruth. On First-day the 
soldiers would have taken us away ; but we told them it 
was their Sabbath, and it was not usual to travel on that 
day. Several of the town's-people gathered about us, 
and whilst I held the soldiers in discourse, Edward Pyot 
spoke to the people ; and afterwards he held the soldiers 
in discourse whilst I spoke to the people ; and in the 
mean time the other Friend got out the back way, and 
went to the steeple-house to speak to the priest and 
people. The people were exceedingly desperate, in a 
mighty rage against him, and abused him. The soldiers 
also missing him, were in a great rage, ready to kill us ^ 
but I declared the day of the Lord, and the word 
of eternal life to the people that gathered about us. In 
the afternoon the soldiers were resolved to have us 
away, so we took horse. When we were got to the 
town*s-end; I was moved of the Lord to go back again. 



i65S CAPTAIN KEATS PLOT l63 

to speak to the old man of the house ; the soldiers drew 
out their pistols, and swore I should not go back. I 
heeded them not, but rode back, and they rode after 
me. I cleared myself to the old man and the people, 
and then returned with them, and reproved them for 
being so rude and violent. 

At night we were brought to a town called Smethick 
then, but since Falmouth. It being the evening of the 
First-day, there came to our inn the chief constable 
of the place, and many sober people, some of whom 
began to inquire concerning us. We told them we were 
prisoners for truth's sake ; and much discourse we had 
with them concerning the things of God. They were 
very sober, and loving to us. Some were convinced, and 
stood faithful ever after. 

^'Keat, Dost Thou Allow This?** 

After the constable and these people were gone, other 
people came in, who also were very civil; and went 
away very loving. When all were gone we went to our 
chamber to go to bed, and about eleven o'clock Edward 
Pyot said, " I will shut the door, it may be some may 
come to do us a mischief." Afterwards we understood 
that Captain Keat, who commanded the party, had 
purposed to do us some mischief that night ; but 
the door being bolted, he missed his design. Next 
morning Captain Keat brought a kinsman of his, a rude, 
wicked man, and put him into the room, he himself 
standing without. This evil-minded man, walking 
^ huffing up and down the room, I bid him fear the Lord ; 
whereupon he ran upon me, struck me with both 
his hands; and placing his leg behind me, would fain 
have thrown me down, but he could not, for I stood 
stiff and still and let him strike. 



164 A BROKEN ORDER 1655 

As I looked towards the door I saw Captain Keat 
look on and see his kinsman thus beat and abuse me. 
Whereupon I said, " Keat, dost thou allow this ? " and 
he said he did. "Is this manly or civil," said I, **to 
have us under a guard and put a man to abuse and beat 
us ? is this manly, civil, or Christian ? " I desired one of 
our friends to send for the constables, and they came. 
Then I desired the captain to let the constables see his 
warrant or order, by which he was to carry us ; which 
he did ; and his warrant was to conduct us safe to Captain 
Fox, governor of Pendennis Castle ; and if the governor 
should not be at home he was to convey us to 
Launceston jail. I told him he had broken his order 
concerning us ; for we, who were his prisoners, were to 
be safely conducted, but he had brought a man to beat 
and abuse us ; so he having broken his order, I wished 
the constable to keep the warrant. Accordingly he did, 
and told the soldiers they might go, for he woujd take 
charge of the prisoners ; and if it cost twenty shillings 
in charges to carry us up, they should not have, the 
warrant again. 

Base Soldiers 

I showed the soldiers the baseness of their carriage 
towards us ; and they walked up and down the house, 
being pitifully blank and down. The constables went to 
the castle and told the officers what they had done. 
The officers showed great dislike of Captain Keat*s base 
carriage towards us; and told the constables that 
Major-General Desborough was coming to Bodmin, and 
that we should meet him ; and it was likely he would 
free us. Meanwhile our old guard of soldiers came by 
way of entreaty to us, and promised that they would be 
civil to us if we would go with them. Thus the 



1 65 5 ANOTHER KEAT TRICK 165 

morning was spent till it was about eleven o'clock ; and 
then, upon the soldiers' entreaty and promise to be 
more civil, the constables gave them the order again 
and we went with them. Great was the civility and 
courtesy of the constables and people of that town 
towards us, who kindly entertained us; and the Lord 
rewarded them with his truth ; for many of them have 
since been convinced thereof, and are gathered into the 
name of Jesus, and sit under Christ, their teacher and 
Saviour. 

Captain Keat, who commanded our guard, under- 
standing that Captain Fox, who was the governor of 
Pendennis Castle, was gone to meet Major-General 
Desborough, did not not take us thither; but went 
with us directly to Bodmin. We met Major-General 
Desborough on the way ; the captain of his troop that 
rode before him knew me, and said, " O, Mr. Fox, 
what do you here ? " I replied, " I am a prisoner." 
" Alack," said he, « for what ? " I told him, " I was 
taken up as I was travelling." " Then," he said, " I 
will speak to my lord, and he will set you at liberty." 
So he came from the head of his troop, rode up to the 
coach, and spoke to the major-general. We al§o told 
him how we were taken. He began to speak against the 
light of Christ, for which I reproved him ; then he told 
the soldiers they might carry us to Launceston ; for he 
could not stay to talk with us, lest his horses should 
take cold. 

So to Bodmin we were conveyed that night; and 
when we were come to our inn. Captain Keat, who was 
in before us, put me into a room, and went his way. 
When I was come in, there stood a man with a naked 
rapier in his hand. Whereupon I turned out again, 
called for Captain Keat, and said unto him, "What 



ifis THE JUDGE 6EtS ANGRV 1^56 

grew very angry, and said, " I do not carry my law-books 
on my back." " But," said I, " tell me where it is 
piinted in any statute-book, that I may read it." Then 
said the judge, " Take hitn away, prevaricator ! Ill ferk 
him." So they took us away, and put us among the 
thieves. 

Presently after he calls to the jailer, •' Bring them up 
again." " Come," said he, " where had they hats from 
Moses to Daniel ; come, answer me : I have you fast 
now," said he. I replied, " Thou mayest read in the 
third of Daniel that the three children were cast into 
the fiery furnace by Nebuchadnezzar's command, with 
their coats, their hose, and their hats on." This plain 
instance stopped him : so that not having anything else 
to say to the point, he cried again, " Take them away, 
jailer." Accordingly we were taken away, and thrust in 
among the thieves, where we were kept a great while ; 
and then, without being called again, the sherifTs men 
and the troopers made way for us (but we were almost 
spent) to get through the crowd of people, and guarded 
us to the prison again, a multitude of people following 
us, with whom we had much discourse and reasoning at 
the jail. 

We had some good books to set forth our principles 
and to inform people of the truth ; which the judge and 
justices hearing of, they sent Captain Bradden for them, 
who came into the jail to us and violently took our 
books from us, some out of Edward Fyot's hands, and 
carried them away ; so we never got them again. 

In the afternoon we were had up again into the court 
by the jailer and sheriffs men and troopers, who had a 
mighty toil to get us through the crowd of people. 
When we were in the court, waiting to be called, I seeing 
both the jurymen and such a multitude of others swear- 



t6s6 AGAINSr SWEARING \69 

iJ^gj it grieved my life that such as professed Christianity 
should so openly disobey and break the command of 
Christ and the apostle. And I was moved of the Lord 
to give forth a paper against swearing, which I had 
about me, to the grand and petty juries ; which was as 
follows : 

''Concerning Swearing 

"Take heed of giving people oaths to swear: for 
Christ our Lord and Master saith, * Swear not at all ; 
but let your communications be yea yea, and nay nay ; 
for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil.' If 
any man was to suffer death, it must be by the hand of 
two or three witnesses ; and the hands of the witnesses 
were to be first put upon him, to put him to death. 
And the apostle James saith, ' My brethren, above all 
things swear not, neither by heaven, nor by earth, nor 
by any other oath, lest ye fall into condemnation.' 
Hence you may see, those that swear fall into condem- 
nation, and are out of Christ's and the apostle's doctrine. 
Therefore, every one of you having a light from Christ, 
who saith, * I am the light of the world,' and doth 
enlighten every man that cometh into the world ; who 
also saith, * Learn of me,' whose doctrine is, not to 
swear ; * let your yea be yea, and your nay be nay, in 
all your communications; for whatsoever is more 
cometh of evil.' Then they that go into more than yea 
and nay go into evil, and are out of the doctrine ot 
Christ. 

" Now if you say ' that the oath was the end of con- 
troversy and strife,' they who are in strife are out of 
Christ's doctrine, for he is the covenant of peace : and 
they who are in it are in the covenant of peace. And 
the apostle brings that but as an example : as, men 



Ho THE INWARD LIGHT 1656 

swearing by the greater ; and the oath was the end of 
controversy and strife among men ; and said, verily, men 
swear by the greater : but God could not find a greater, 
but swears by himself, concerning Christ ; who, when 
he was come, taught not to swear at all. So such as are 
in him, and follow him, cannot but abide in his doctrine. 

**A Light that Comes from Christ** 

** If you say, * they swore under the law and under the 
prophets,' Christ is the end of the law, and of the 
prophets, to every one that believeth for righteousness' 
sake. Now mark ; if you believe, * I am the light of the 
world, which doth enlighten every man that cometh into 
the world,' saith Christ, by whom it was made ; and every 
man of you that is come into the world is enlightened 
with a light that comes from Christ, by whom the world 
was made, that all of you through him might believe ; 
that is the end for which he doth enlighten you. Now 
if you do believe in the light, as Christ commands, and 
saith, * believe in the light, that you may be children of 
light/ you believe in Christ, and come to learn of him 
who is the way to the Father. This is the light which 
shows the evil actions you have all acted, the ungodly 
deeds you have committed, and all the ungodly speeches 
you have spoken ; and all your oaths, cursed speaking, 
and ungodly actions. Now if you attend to this light, it 
will let you see all that you have done contrary to it ; 
and loving it, it will turn you from your evil deeds, evil 
actions, evil words, to Christ, who is not of the world ; 
who is the light which lighteth every man that cometh 
into the world; who testifies against the world, that 
the deeds thereof are evil. So doth the light in every 
man, that he hath received from him, testify against his 
works and deeds that are evil, that they are contrary to 



i6s6 kEAt) IN COURT 17i 

the light ; and each shall give an account at the day of 
judgment for every idle word that is spoken. This 
light shall bring every tongue to confess, yea, and every 
knee to bow at the name of Jesus ; in which light, if you 
believe, you shall not come into condemnation, but come 
to Christ, who is not of the world ; to him by whom it 
was made ; but if you believe not in the light, this, the 
light, is your condemnation, saith Christ. G. F." 

Fox Argues Furthet* with the Judge 

This paper passing among them from the jury to the 
justices, they presented it to the judge; so that when we 
were called before the judge, he bade the clerk give me 
that paper ; and then asked me, " whether that seditious 
paper was mine " ; I told him " If they would read it 
up in open court, that I might hear it, if it was mine I 
would own it, and stand by it." He would have had 
me to take it, and look upon it in my own hand ; but 
" I again desired that it might be read, that all the 
country might hear it, and judge whether there was any 
sedition in it or not ; for if there were I was willing to 
suffer for it." At last the clerk of the assize read it with 
an audible voice, that all the people might hear it : and 
when he had done I told them " it was my paper ; 1 
would own it ; and so might they too, except they would 
deny the Scripture : for was not this Scripture language, 
and the words and commands of Christ and the apostle, 
which all true Christians ought to obey ? " 

Then they let fall that subject; and the judge fell 
upon us about our hats again, bidding the jailer take 
them off, which he did, and gave them to us ; and we 
put them on again. Then we asked the judge and the 
justices what we had lain in prison for these nine weeks, 
seeing they now objected nothing to us but about our 



172 LORD CHIEF JUSTICE 1656 

hats ; and as for putting off our hats, I told them that 
^•as the honour which God would lay in the dust, though 
they made so much to do about it ; the honour which is 
of men, and which men seek one of another, and is the 
mark of unbelievers. For " how can ye believe," saith 
Christ, **who receive honour one of another, and seek 
not the honour that cometh from God only?" and 
Christ saith, "I receive 'not honour from men"; and all 
true Christians should be of his mind. 

Then the judge began to make a great speech, how 
he represented the lord Protector's person; who had 
made him lord chief justice of England, and sent him to 
come that circuit, &c. We desired him then that he 
would do justice for our false imprisonment, which we 
had suffered nine weeks wrongfully. But instead of 
that they brought in an indictment that they had 
framed against us ; so strange a thing, and so full of lies, 
that I thought it had been against some of the thieves ; 
that we came "by force and arms and in a hostile 
manner into the court " ; who were brought, as aforesaid. 
I told them " it was false " ; and still we cried for justice 
for our false imprisonment, being taken up in our journey 
without cause by Major Ceely. 

False Witness Against Pox 

Then Peter Ceely spoke to the judge and said, " May 
it please you, my lord, this man (pointing to me) went 
aside with me, and told me how serviceable I might be 
for his design ; that he could raise forty thousand men 
at an hour's warning, and involve the nation in blood, 
and so bring in King Charles. I would have aided him 
out of the country, but he would not go. If it please 
you, my lord, I have a witness to swear it." So he 
called upon his witness ; but the judge not being forward 



1656 A SCENE IN COURT 173 

to examine the witness, I desired that he would be 
pleased to let my mittimus be read in the face of the 
court and country, in which my crime was signified, for 
which 1 was sent to prison. The judge said, " It should 
not be read " ; I said, " It ought to be, seeing it con- 
cerned my liberty and my life." The judge said again, 
<* It shall not be read " ; but I said, *< It ought to be 
read ; for if I have done anything wbrthy of death, or of 
bonds, let all the country know it." Then seeing they 
would not read it, I spoke to one of my fellow-prisoners. 
« Thou hast a copy of it, read it up," said I. " It shall 
not be read," said the judge ; " Jailer," said he, " take 
him away, I will see whether he or I shall be master." 

So I was taken away; and a while after called for 
again. I still cried to have my mittimus read, for that 
signified the cause of my commitment : wherefore I again 
spoke to the Friend, my fellow-prisoner, to read it. He 
did read it, and the judge, justices, and whole court were 
silent ; for the people were eager to hear it. It was as 
follows : 

Peter Ceely, one of the Justices of the Peace of this County^ 
to the Keeper of His Highnesses Jail at Launceston^ 
or his lawful Deputy in that behalf Greeting : — 

" I send you herewithal by the bearers hereof, the 
bodies of Edward Pyot of Bristol, and George Fox of 
Drayton-in-the-Clay, in Leicestershire, and William Salt 
of London, which they pretend to be the places of their 
habitations, who go under the notion of Quakers, and 
acknowledge themselves to be such ; who have spread 
several papers, tending to the disturbance of the public 
peace, and cannot render any lawful cause of coming into 
these parts, being persons altogether unknown, and 
having no pass for their travelling up and down the 



174 MAJOR CEELY'S PERJURY 1656 

country, and refusing to pve sureties of their good 

behaviour, according to the law in that behalf provided ; 

and refiise to take the oath of abjuration, &c. These 

i are therefore, in the name of his Highness the lord Pro- 

; lector, to will and command you, that when the bodies 

; of the said Edward Pyot, George Fox, and William Salt 

' shall be unto you brought, you them receive, and in his 

highness's prison aforesaid you safely keep them until 
, by due course of law they shall be delivered. Hereof 

fail you not, as you will answer the contrary at your 
W perils. Given under my hand and seal, at St. Ives, the 

eighteenth day of January, 1655, P. Ceely." 

"Thou Sayest thou art Chief Justice" 

When it was read I spoke thus to the judge and 

justices: "Thou that sayest thou art chief justice of 

England, and you justices know, that if I had put in 

,t sureties I might have gone whither I pleased ; and have 

carried on the design (if I had had one) which Major 
Ceely hath charged me with ; and if I had spoken those 

'. words to him, which he hath here declared, judge ye 

* whether bail or mainprize could have been taken in that 

i case." 

^ Then, turning my speech to Major Ceely, I said, 

" When or where did I take thee aside? Was not thy 

I house full of rude people, and thou as rude as any of 

them at our examination : so that I asked for a con- 
stable or some Other officer to keep the people civil ? 
But if thou art my accuser, why sittest thou on the 
bench ? This is not a place for thee to sit in ; for 
accusers do not use to sit with the judge : thou oughtest 
to come down, and stand by me, and look me in the 
face. Besides, I would ask the judge and jusiices 
whether or not Major Ceely is not guilty of this treason 



1656 A SORT OF A BLOW 175 

which he charges against me, in concealing it so long as 
he hath done ? Does he understand his place either as 
a soldier or a justice of the peace ? For he tells you 
here that I went aside with him, and told him what a 
design I had in hand, and how serviceable he might be 
for my design : that I could raise forty thousand men in 
an hour's time, and bring in King Charles, and involve 
the nation in blood. 

" He saith, moreover, he would, have aided me out of 
the country, but I would not go ; and therefore he com- 
mitted me to prison for want of sureties for the good 
behaviour, as the mittimus declares. Now do not you 
see plainly that Major Ceely is guilty of this plot and 
treason that he talks of, and hath made himself a party 
to it, by desiring me to go out of the country, and de- 
manding bail of me, and not charging me with this 
pretended treason till now, nor discovering it ? But I 
f deny and abhor his words, and am innocent of his 

[ devilish design." So that business was let fall : for the 

L judge saw clearly enough that, instead of ensnaring me, 

he had ensnared himself. 

The Accuset* as Judge 

Major Ceely then got up again and said, " If it please 
you, my lord, to hear me : this man struck me, and gave 
me such a blow as I never had in my life." At this I 
smiled in my heart and said, " Major Ceely, thou art a 
justice of peace and a major of a troop of horse, 
and tells the judge here in the face of the court and 
country that I (who am a prisoner) struck thee, and 
gave thee such a blow as thou never hadst the like in 
thy life ? What ! art thou not ashamed ? Prithee, 
Major Ceely," said I, "where did I strike thee? and 
who is thy witness for that ? who was by ? " He said it 









176 FINED TWENTY MARKS 1656 

w.ts in the Castle-Green, and that Captain Bradden was 
standing by when I struck him. 

I desired the judge to let him produce his witness 
for that, and I called again upon Major Ceely to come 
down from o(f the bench, telling him it was not fit that 
tlie accuser should sit as judge over the accused. 
When I called ^ain for his witnesses, he said Captain 
Rradden was his witness. Then I said, "Speak, Cap- 
tain Bradden, didst thou see me give him such a blow, 
and strike him, as he saith ? " Captain Bradden made 
no answer ; but bowed his head towards me. I desired 
him to speak up. if he knew any such thing: but he 
only bowed his head again. " Nay," said I, " speak up, 
and let the court and country hear, and let not bowing 
of the head serve the turn. If I have done so, let the 
law be infiicted on mej I fear not sufTerings, nor 
death itself, for I am an innocent man concerning all 
this charge." But Captain Bradden never testified to 
it : and the judge finding those snares would not hold, 
crieii, " Take him away, jailer " : and then, when we 
were taken away, he fined us twenty marks a-piece for 
not putting oEF our hats; and to be kept in prison till 
we paid it ; so he sent us back to the jwL 

How Fox " Gave a Blow " 
At night Captain Bradden came to see us, and seven 
or eight justices with him, who were very ci«l to us, and 
I old us they believed neither the judge nor any in the 
court gave credit to the chaises which Major Ceely 
had brought forward against me in the face of the 
country. And Captain Bradden said Major Ceely had 
an intent to take away my life if he couU have got 
another witness. " But," said I, " Captain Bradden, 
why didst not thou witness for me or against mc, seeing 



1656 MAJOR CEELrS PERJURY 177 

Major Ceely produced thee for a ¥ntness that thou saw 
me strike him ? and when I desired thee to speak either 
for me or against me, according to what thou saw or 
knew, thou wouldst not speak." "Why," said he, 
" when Major Cedy and I came by you as you were 
walking in the Castle-Green, he put off his hat to you, 
and said, * How do you do, Mr. Fox ? Your servant. 
Sir.' Then you said to him, * Major Ceely, take heed of 
hypocrisy and of a rotten heart : for when came I to be 
thy master and thou my servant? Do servants cast 
their masters into prison ? ' This was the great blow he 
meant you gave him." Then I called to mind that they 
walked by us, and that he spoke so to me and I to him ; 
which hypocrisy and rotten-heartedness he manifested 
openly when he complained of this to the judge in open 
court and in the face of the country, and would have 
made them all believe that I struck him openly with my 
hand. 

JJP*8 Convinced 

Now we were kept in prison, and many came from far 
and near to see us; of whom some were people of 
account in the world ; for the report of our trial was 
spread abroad, and our boldness and innocency in our 
answers to the judge and court were talked of in town 
and country. Amongst others came Humphrey Lower 
to visit us, a grave, sober old man, who had been a 
justice of the peace ; he was very sorry we should lie in 
prison ; telling us how serviceable we might be if we 
were at liberty. We reasoned with him concerning 
swearing ; and having acquainted him how they tendered 
the oath of abjuration to us as a snare, because they 
knew we could not swear, we showed him that no people 
could be serviceable to God if they disobeyed the 

M 



A GREAT TALKER SILENCED 



■60 



command of Christ j and that they that imprisoned us 
for the hat-honoor, which was of men, and which men 
sought for, prisoned the good and vexed and grieved 
the Spirit of God in themselves, which should have 
turned their minds to God. So we directed him to 
the Spirit of God in his heait, and to the light of 
Christ Jesus ; and he was thoroughly convinced, and 
continued so to his death, and became very serviceable 



Colonel Rouse's Airy Words 
There came also to see us one Colonel Rouse, a 
justice of peace, with a great company with him. He 
was as full of words and talk as ever I heard any man 
in my life, so that there was no speaking to him. At 
length I asked him " whether he had ever been at 
school, and knew what belonged to questions and 
answers"; (this I said to stop him), "At school!" 
said he, " yes." "At school!" said the soldiers; 
"doth he say so to out colonel, that is a scholar?" 
Then said I, " If he be so, let him be still, and receive 
answers to what he hath said." Then I was moved to 
speak the word of life to him in God's dreadful power ; 
which came so over him that he could not open his 
mouth : his &ce swelled and was red like a turkey ; his 
lips moved, and he mumbled something; but the 
people thought he would have fallen down. I stepped 
to him, and he said he was never so in his life before : 
for the Lord's power stopped the evil power in him, 
so that he was almost choked. The man was ever 
after very loving to Friends, and not so fiill of airy 
words to us i though he was full of pride ; but the 
Lord's power came over him and the rest that were 
with him. 



1656 A TERRIBLE PRISON 179 

The assize being over, and we settled in prison upon 
such a commitment that we were not likely to be soon 
released, we discontinued giving the jailer seven shillings 
a-week each for our horses, and seven for ourselves ; 
and sent our horses out into the country. Upon which 
he grew very wicked and devilish ; and put us down into 
Doomsdale, a nasty, stinking place, where they put 
murderers after they were condemned. The place was 
so noisome that it was observed few that went in ever 
came out again in health. There was no house of 
office in it; and the excrements of the prisoners 
that from time to time had been left there had not 
been carried out (as we were told) for many 
yeats. So that it was all like mire, and in some 
places to the top of the shoes in water and urine; 
and he would not let us cleanse it, nor suflfer us 
to have beds or straw to lie on. At night some 
friendly people of the town brought us a candle and 
a little straw, and we burnt some of it to take away 
the stink. 

The Horrors of Fox*s Prison 

The thieves lay over our heads, and the head jailer in 
a room by them over us also. It seems the smoke went 
up into the jailer's room ; which put him into such a 
rage that he took the pots of excrements of the thieves 
and poured them through a hole upon our heads in 
Doomsdale ; whereby we were so bespattered that we 
could not touch ourselves nor one another. And the 
stink increased upon us, so that what with that and 
what with smoke, we had nearly been choked and 
smothered. We had the stink under our feet before, 
but now we had it on our heads and backs also ; and 
he having quenched our straw with the filth he poured 



i80 A SHORTHAND WRITER 1656 

down, had made a great smother in the place. More- 
over he railed at us most hideously, calling us hatchet- 
faced dogs and such strange names as we had never 
heard. In this manner were we fain to stand all night, 
for we could not sit down, the place was so full of 
filthy excrements. 

A great while he kept us in this manner before he 
would let us cleanse it or suffer us to have any victuals 
brought in but what we had through the grate. Once a 
girl brought us a little meat, and he arrested her for 
breaking his house, and sued her in the town-court for 
breaking the prison. Much trouble he put her to, 
whereby others were so discouraged that we had much 
to do to get water or victuals. Near this time we sent 
for a young woman, Ann Downer, from London, that 
could write and take things well in short-hand, to buy 
and dress our meat for us, which she was very willing to 
do, it being also upon her spirit to come to us in the 
love of God ; and she was very serviceable to us. 

An Appeal to Cromwell 

This head-jailer, we were informed, had been a thief, 
and was branded in the hand and in the shoulder : his 
wife too had been branded in the hand. The under- 
jailer had been branded in the hand and shoulder ; and 
his wife in the hand also. Colonel Bennet, who was a 
Baptist teacher, having purchased the jail and lands 
belonging to the castle, had placed this head-jailer 
therein. The prisoners and some wild people talked 
of spirits that haunted Doomsdale, and how many had 
died in it; thinking perhaps to terrify us therewith. 
But I told them that if all the spirits and devils in hell 
were there, I was over them in the power of God, and 
feared no such thing; for Christ, our priest, would 



i6s6 ABUSING PRISONERS 181 

sanctify the walls and the house to us, he who bruised 
the head of the devil. The priest was to cleanse the 
plague out of the walls of the house under the law, 
which Christ, our priest, ended ; who sanctifies both 
inwardly and outwardly the walls of the house, the walls 
of the heart, and all things to his people. 

By this time the general quarter-sessions drew nigh ; 
and the jailer still carrying himself basely and wickedly 
towards us, we drew up our suffering case, and sent it to 
the sessions at Bodmin. On the reading of which the 
justices gave order " that Doomsdale door should be 
opened, and that we should have liberty to cieanse it, 
and to buy our meat in the town." We also sent a 
copy of our sufferings to the Protector, setting forth how 
we were taken and committed by Major Ceely; and 
abused by Captain Keat as aforesaid, and the rest in 
order. The Protector sent down an order to Captain 
Fox, governor of Pendennis Castle, to examine the 
matter about the soldiers abusing us and striking me. 
There were at that time many of the gentry of the 
country at the castle; and Captain Keat's kinsman, 
that struck me, was sent for before them and much 
threatened. They told him " that if I should change my 
principle I might take the extremity of the law against 
him, and might recover sound damages of him." 
Captain Keat also was checked for suffering the prisoners 
under his charge to be abused. 

Foz^s Imprisonment a Great Service 

This was of great service in the covmtry; for after- 
wards Friends might have spoken in any market or 
steeple-house thereabouts, and none would meddle with 
them. I understood that Hugh Peters, one of the Pro- 
tector's chaplains, told him they could not do George 



182 BOWING TO A WITCH 1656 

Fox a greater service for the spreading of his principles 
in CornwaJI than to imprison him there. And indeed 
my imprisonment there was of the Lord, and for his 
service in those parts ; for after the assizes were over, 
and it was known we were likely to continue prisoners, 
several Friends from most parts of the nation came into 
the country to visit us. Those parts of the West were 
very dark countries at that time ; but the Lord's light 
and truth broke forth, shone over all, and many were 
turned from darkness to light, and from Satan's power 
unto God. Many were moved to go to the steeple- 
houses ; and several were sent to prison to us ; and a 
great convincement began in the country. 

For now we had liberty to come out, and to walk in 
the Castle-Green ; and many came to us on First-days, to 
whom we declared the word of life. Great service we 
had among them, and many were turned to God up and 
down the country ; but great rage got up in the priests 
and professors against the truth and us. One of the 
envious professors had collected many Scripture sen- 
tences to prove that we ought to put off our hats to 
the people ; and he invited the town of Launceston to 
come into the castle-yard to hear him read them : 
amongst other instances that he there brought, one was 
that Saul bowed to the witch of Endor. When he had 
done, we got a little liberty to speak ; and we showed 
both him and the people " that Saul was gone from God, 
and had disobeyed God, like them, when he went to the 
witch of Endor : that neither the prophets, nor Christ, 
nor the apostles ever taught people to bow to a witch." 
The man went away with his rude people ; but some 
stayed with us, and we showed them that this was not 
gospel instruction to teach people to bow to a witch. 
For now people began to be affected with the truth, 



1656 FOX AND THE CONJUROR 183 

and the devil's rage increased ; so that we were often in 
great danger. 

One time there came a soldier to us ; and whilst one 
of our friends was admonishing and exhorting him to 
sobriety, &c., I saw him begin to draw his sword. 
Whereupon I stepped to him, and told him what a shame 
it was to offer to draw his sword upon a naked man and 
a prisoner; and how unfit and unworthy he was to 
carry such a weapon; and that if he should have offered 
such a thing to some men, they would have taken his 
sword firom him and have broken it to pieces. So he 
was ashamed,' and went his way ; and the Lord's power 
preserved us. 

The Jailet^s Disputant 

Another time, about eleven at night, the jailer being 
half drunk, came and told me he had got a man now to 
dispute with me (this was when we had leave to go 
a little into the town). As soon as he spoke these words, 
I felt there was mischief intended to my body. All that 
night and the next day I lay down on a grass-plat to 
slumber, and I felt something still about my body ; 
and I started up and struck at it in the power of 
the Lord, and yet still it was about my body. Then 
I arose and walked into the Castle-Green, and the 
under-keeper came to me and told me there was a maid 
would speak with me in the prison. I felt a snare in 
his words too, therefore I went not into the prison, but 
to the grate, and looking in I saw a man that was lately 
brought to prison for being a conjuror, and he had a 
knife in his hand. I spoke to him, and he threatened 
to cut my chaps ; but being within the jail, he could not 
come at me. This was the jailer's great disputant. 

J went soon after into the jailer's house, and fpup4 



184 THE DEVIL'S INSTRUMENT 1656 

him at breakfast ; and be bad then got his conjuror out 
with him. I told the jailer his plot was discovered. 
Then he got up from the table, and cast his napkin 
away in a rage ; and I left them and went awa]' to my 
chamber ; for at this time we were out of Doomsdale. 
At the time the jailer had said the dispute should be, I 

I went down and walked in the court (the place appointed), 

till about eleven, but nobody came. Then I went up to 
my chamber :^^n, and after a while I heard one call 
for me. I stepped to the stairs' head, and there I saw 

^ the jailer's wife upon the Btairs, and the conjuror at the 

bottom of the stairs, holding his hand behind his back 
and in a great rage. 

I asked him, " Man, what hast thou in thy hand 
bdind thy back ? Pluck thy hand before thee," said I ; 
" let US see thy hand, and what thou bast in it." Then 
in a rage be plucked forth his hand with a naked knife 
in it. I showed the jailer's wile the wicked des^n of 

»hei husband and herself against me ; for this was the 
man they had brought to dispute of the things of God. 

But the Lord discovered their plot, and prevented their 
* evil design ; they both raged, and the conjuror 

I threatened. Then I was moved to speak sharply to 

him in the dreadful power of the Lord, which bound 
f him down, so that he never after durst appear before 

I me to speak to me. I saw it was the Lord alone that 

I preserved me out of their bloody hands ; for the de^l 

% had a great enmity to me, and stirred up his instru- 

9 ments to seek my hurt. But the Lord prevented them ; 

and my heart was filled with thanksgivings and praises 

unto him. 

Now while I was exerdsed with people of divers 

sorts, that came some out of good will to visit us, some 
L out of an envious, carping mind to wrangle and dispute, 

I 



1656 TO THE CHIEF JUSTICE 185 

and some out of curiosity to see us, Edward Pyot, 
who before his convincement had been a captain in the 
army, and had a good understanding in the laws and 
rights of the people, being sensible of the injustice and 
envy of Judge Glynne to us at our trial, and willing to 
lay the weight thereof upon him, and make him sensible 
thereof also, wrote an epistle to him on behalf of us all, 
thus : 

" To John Glynne^ Chief Justice of England, 

" Friend, 

" We are free men of England, free born ; our rights 
and liberties are according to law and ought to be 
defended by it : and therefore with thee, by whose hand 
we have so long suffered, and still suffer, let us reason a 
little plainly concerning thy proceedings against us, 
whether they have been according to law, and agreeable 
to thy duty and office, as chief minister of the law or 
justice of England. And in meekness and lowliness 
abide, that the witness of God in thy conscience may 
be heard to speak and judge in this matter : for thou 
and we must all appear before the judgment»seat of 
Christ, that every one may receive according to what he 
hath done, whether it be good or bad. Therefore, 
friend, in moderation and soberness weigh what is 
herein laid before thee. 

" In the afternoon, before we were brought before 
thee at the assize at Launceston, thou didst cause many 
scores of our books to be violently taken from us by 
armed men without due process of law ; which being 
perused to see if any thing in them could be found to 
be laid to our charge, who were innocent men, and then 
upon our legal issue, thou hast detained from us to this 
very day. Now our books are our goods, and our goods 



"^ 



186 A PLEA FOR JUSTICE 1656 

are our property ; and our bberty is to have and enjoy 
our property ; and of our liberty and property the 
law is the defence, which saith, ■ No free nian shall 
be disseized of his freehold, liberties, or free cus- 
toms, &a, nor any way otherwise destroyed : and we 
shall not pass upon him, but by lawful judgment of 
his peers, or by the law of the land.' Magna Charta, 
cap. 39. 

" Now, friend, consider. Is not the taking away of a 
man's goods violently, by force of arms, as aforesaid, 
contrary to the law of the land 7 Is not the keeping of 
them so taken away a disseizing him of his property, 
and a destroying of it and his liberty, yea, his very 
being, so far as the invading of the guard the law sets 
about him is in order thereunto? Calls not the law 
this a destroying of a man ? Is there any more than 
one common guard or defence to property, liberty, and 
life, viz., the law? And can this guard be broken on 
the former (viz., property and liberty), and the latter (viz., 
life) be sure? Doth not he that makes an invasion 
upon a man's property and liberty (which he doth who, 
contrary to law, which is the guard, acts against either), 
make an invasion upon a man's Ufe ; since that which is 
the guard of the one is also of the other ? If a penny, 
or a penny's- worth, be taken from a man contrary to 
law, may not by the same rule all that a man hath be 
taken away ? If the bond of the law be broken upon 
a man's property, may it not on the same ground be 
broken upon his person ? And by the same reason, as 
it is broken on one man, may it not be broken upon all, 
since the Uherty, and property, and beings of all men 
under a government are relative, a communion of wealth, 
as the members in the body, but one guard and defence 
to all, the law ? 



s. 



1656 AN UNJUST JUDGE 187 

" One man cannot be injured therein but it redounds 
to all. Are not such things in order to the subversion 
and dissolution of government ? Where there is no law 
what is become of government ? And of what value is 
the law made when the ministers thereof break it at 
pleasure upon men's properties, liberties, and persons ? 
Canst thou clear thyself of these things as to us? To 
that of God in thy conscience, which is just, do I speak. 
Hast thou acted like a minister, the chief minister, of 
the law, who hast taken our goods, and yet detainest 
them, without so much as going by lawful warrant, 
grounded upon due information, which in this our case 
thou couldst not have; for none had perused them 
whereby to give thee information ? 

''Shouldst Thou do Wrong?** 

Shouldst thou exercise violence and force of arms on 
prisoners' goods in their prison-chamber, instead of pro- 
ceeding orderly and legally, which thy place calls upon 
thee, above any man, to tender, defend, and maintain 
against wrong, and to preserve entire the guard of every 
man's being, liberty, life, and livelihood ? Shouldst thou, 
whose duty it is to punish the wrongdoer, do wrong 
thyself? who ought to see that the law is kept and 
observed, break the law, and turn aside the due adminis- 
tration thereof ? Surely from thee, considering thou art 
chief justice of England, other things were expected, 
both by us and by the people of this nation. 

** And when we were brought before thee and stood 
upon our legal issue, and no accuser or accusation came 
in against us, as to what we had been wrongfully im- 
prisoned, and in prison detained for nine weeks, shouldst 
not thou have caused us to be acquitted by proclama- 
tion? Saith not the law so? Oughtest thou not to 



188 CONTRARY TO MAGNA CHARTA 1656 

have examined the cause of our commitment? And 
there not appearing a lawful cause, oughtest thou not to 
have discharged us ? Is it not the substance of thy 
office and duty to do justice according to the law and 
custom of England ? Is not this the end of the admin- 
istration of the law ? of the general assizes ? of the jail 
delivery ? of the judges going the circuits ? Hast not 
thou by doing otherwise acted contrary to all these, and 
to Magna Charta? which, cap. 39, saith, * We shall sell 
to no man, we shall deny or defer to no man, either 
justice or right.' Hast thou not both deferred and 
denied to us, who had been so long oppressed, this 
justice and right ? 

Justice's Justice 

<< And when of thee justice we demanded, saidst thou 
not, * If we would be uncovered, thou wouldst hear us, 
and do us justice ? * — * We shall sell to no man, we shall 
deny or defer to no man, either justice or right,' saith 
Magna Charta, as aforesaid. Again, < We have com- 
manded all our justices that they shall henceforth do 
even law and execution of right to all our subjects, rich 
and poor, without having regard to any man's person, 
and without letting to do right for any letters or com- 
mandments, which may come to them from us, or from 
any other, or by any other cause, &c., upon pain to be 
at our will, body, lands, and goods, to do therewith as 
shall please us, in case they do contrary,' saith Stat. 20. 
Edw. III. cap. I. Again, < Ye shall swear that ye shall 
do even law and execution of right to all, rich and poor, 
without having regard to any person ; and that ye deny 
to no man common right by the king's letters, or other 
man's, nor for any other cause. And in case any letter 
come to you contrary to the law, that ye do nothing by 



i6s6 JUDGE-MADE LAW 189 

such letter, but certify the king thereof, and go forth to 
do the law notwithstanding those letters. And in case 
ye be from henceforth found in default in any of the 
points aforesaid, ye shall be at the king's will of body, 
lands, and goods, thereof to be done as shall please 
him,' saith the oath appointed by the statute to be 
taken by all the judges, Stat. i8, Edw. III. 

" But none of these nor any other law hath such an 
expression or condition in it as this, viz., 'provided he 
will put oflf his hat to you, or be uncovered ' ; nor doth the 
law of God so say, or that your persons be respected ; 
but the contrary. From whence then comes this new 
law, * If ye will be uncovered, I will hear you and do 
you justice?' This hearing complaint of wrong, this 
doing of justice, upon condition, wherein lies the equity 
and reasonableness of that? When were these funda- 
mental laws repealed, which were the issue of much 
blood and war ; to uphold which cost the miseries and 
blood of the late wars, that we shall now be heard, as 
to right, and have justice done us but upon condition, 
and that too such a trifling one as putting off the hat ? 
Doth thy saying so, who art commanded, as aforesaid, 
repeal them, and make them of none effect, and all the 
miseries undergone and the blood shed for them of old 
and of late years ? 

*' Deceive not Thyself** 

** Whether it be so or not indeed, and to the nation, 
thou hast made it so to us, to whom thou hast denied 
the justice of our liberty (when we were before thee, and 
no accuser nor accusation came in against us), and the 
hearing of the wrong done to us, who are innocent, and 
the doing us right. And bonds hast thou cast, and 
continued upon us until this day, under an unreasonable 



1 



190 A STATELY WARNING 1656 

and cruel jailCT, for not performing that thy condition, 
for conscience-sake. But thinkest thou that this thine 
own condiUonal justice maketh void the law? or can it 
do so ? or absolve thee before God or man ? or acquit the 
penalty mentioned in the laws aforesaid? unto which 
hast thou not consented and sworn ? viz., ' And in case 
ye be from henceforth found in default in any of the 
points aforesaid, ye shall be at the king's will, of body, 
lands, and goods, thereof to be done as shall please 

" And is not thy saying ' If ye will be uncovered (or 
put ofT your hats), I will hear you and do you justice'; 
and because we could not put them off for consdence- 
sake, thy denying us justice and refusing to hear us, as 
to wrong, who had so unjustly sulTered, & de&utt in thee 
against the very essence of those laws, yea, an over- 
throw [hereof, for which thing's sake (being of the 
highest importance to the well-being of men), so just, 
so equal, so necessary, those laws were made and all 
the provisions therein? To make a defoult in any 
one point of which provisions exposeth to the said 
penalty. 

" Dost not thou by this time see where thou art? Art 
thou sure thou shalt never be made to understand and 
feel the justice thereof? Is thy seat so high, and thy 
fence so great,, and art thou so certain of thy time and 
station, above all that have gone before thee, whom 
justice hath cut down and given them their due, that 
thou shalt never be called to an account, nor with its 
long and sure stroke be reached ? Decdve not thyself, 
God is come nearer to judgment than the workers of 
iniquity in this age im^ine^ who persecute and evil- 
entreat those that witness the Just and Holy One, for 
their witnessing of him who is come to reign for ever and 






1656 HATS r. JUSTICE 191 

ever. Saith he not he will be a swift witness against 
the false swearers ? God is not mocked. 

The Regarding of Persons 

"Surely, friend, that must needs be a very great 
offence which deprives a man of justice, of being heard 
as to wrong, of the benefit of the law, and of those 
laws afore-rehearsed ; to defend the justice and equity 
of which a man hath adventured his blood and all 
that is dear to him. But to stand covered (or with 
the hat on), in conscience to the command of the Lord, 
is made by thee such an offence (which is none in law), 
and rendered upon us (who are innocent, serving the 
living God), effectual to deny us justice^ though the laws 
of God, and of man, and the oath, equity and reason 
say the contrary, and on it pronounce such a penalty. 
* If ye will be uncovered (uncovered, saidst thou), I will 
hear you and do you justice ' ; but justice we had not, 
nor were we heard, because Jesus Christ, who is the 
higher power, the lawgiver of his people, in our con- 
sciences commanded us not to respect persons, whom 
we choose to obey rather than man. And for our 
obedience unto him hast thou cast us into prison, and 
continue us there till this very day, having showed us 
neither law for it, nor Scripture, nor instances of either, 
nor examples of heathens nor others. 

" Friend, come down to that of God, that is just in 
thee, and consider was ever such a thing as this heard of 
in this nation ? What is become of seriousness, of true 
judgment, and of righteousness ? An unrighteous man 
standing before thee with his hat off shall be heard ; but 
an innocent man, appearing with his hat on in conscience 
to the Lord, shall neither be heard nor have justice. Is 
not this regarding of persons contrary to the laws afore- 



192 LIBERTY OF CONSCIENCE 1656 

said, and the oath and the law of God ? Understand 
and judge: Did we not own authority and government 
oftentimes before the court ? Didst not thou say in the 
court thou wast glad to hear so much from us of our 
owning m^istracy ? Pleaded we not to the indictment, 
though it was such a new-found one as England never 
heard of before ? Came we not when thou sent for us 7 
Went we not when thou bade us go ? And are we not 
still prisoners at thy command and at thy will ? If the 
hat had been such an offence to thee, couldst not thou 
have caused it to be taken off when thou heard us so 
often declare we could not do it in conscience to the 
commands of the Lord, and that for that cause we 
forbore it, not in contempt of thee or of authority, nor 
in disrespect to thine or any man's person (for we said 
we honoured all men in the Lord, and owned 
authority, which was a terror to evil-doers, and a 
praise to them that do well; and our souls were 
subject to the higher powers for conscience-sake) : as 
thou caused them to be taken off, and to be kept so, 
when thou called the jury to find us transgressors with- 
out a law ? 

"Not the Language of ttie Law" 
■' What ado has thou made to take away the righteous- 
ness of the righieous from him, and to cause us to suffer 
further, whom thou knew to have been so long wrong- 
fully in prison contrary to law ? Is not liberty of con- 
science a natural r^ht ? Had there been a law in this 
case, and we bound up in our consciences that we could 
not have obeyed it, was not liberty of conscience there 
to take place? For where the law saith not against, 
there needs no plea of Uberty of conscience; but the 
law have we not offended, yet in thy wilt hast thou 



i6s6 ACTING AGAINST NATURE 193 

caused, and dost thou yet cause us to suffer for our 
consciences, where the law requires no such thing ; and 
yet for liberty of conscience hath all the blood been 
spilt, and the miseries of the late wars undergone, and 
(as the Protector saith) this government undertaltes to 
preserve it ; and a natural right, he saith, it is ; and 
he that would have it, he saith, ought to give it. And 
if it be a natural right, as is undeniable, then to 
attempt to force it, or to punish a man for not doing 
contrary to it, is to act against nature; which, as it is 
unreasonable, so it is the same as to offer violence to a 
man's life, 

"And what an offence that is in the law thou knowest; 
and how, by the common law of England, all acts, agree- 
ments, and laws that are against nature are mere 
nullities ; and all the judges cannot make one case to be 
law that is against nature. But put the case, had our 
standing with our hats on been an offence in law, and we 
wilfully and in contempt and not out of conscience had 
Stood so (which we deny as aforesaid), yet that is not a 
ground wherefore we should be denied justice, or be 
heard as to the wrong done to us. ' If ye will not offend 
in one case, I will do you justice in another'; that is not 
the language of the law, or of justice, which distributes 
to every one right ; justice to whom justice is due, 
punishment to whom punishment is due. A man who 
does wrong may also have wrong done to him ; shall he 
not have right wherein he is wronged, unless he right 
him whom he hath wronged ? The law saith not so ; but 
the wrongdoer is to suffer, and the sufferer of wrong to 
be righted. Is not to do otherwise a denying, letting, 
or stopping of even law and execution of justice, and 
a bringing under the penalties aforesaid ? Mind and 
consider. 



19* THE MAGISTRATE OF GOD 1656 

"And shouldst thou have accused when no witness 

' appeared against us, as in the particulars of striking Peter 

t Ceely and dispersing books (as thou saidst) against 

magistracy and ministry, with which thou didst falsely 

f accuse one of us ? Suth not the law, ■ the judge ought 

t not to be the accuser,' much less a lalse accuser ? And 

wast not thou such a one in affirming that he dispersed 

[books against magistracj' and ministry, when as the books 
were violently taken out.of our chamber (as liath been 
said), undispersed by Him or any of us ? Nor didst 
p thou make it appear in one particular wherein those 

books thou didst so violently cause to be taken away 
were against magistracy or ministry ; or gave one 
instance or reply when he denied what thou charged 
^ therein, and spoke to thee to bring forth those books and 

make thy charge appear. Is not the sword of the 
. magistrate of God to pass upon such evil-dMng ? 

I Judge as Accuser 

I "And according to the administration of the law, 

P ought not accusations to be by way of indictment, 

I wherein the offence is to be charged and the law 

' expressed against which it is ? Can there be an issue 

f without an indictment ? Or can an indictment be found 

before proof be made of the offence charged therein ? 

And hast thou not herein acted contrary to the law and 

the administration thereof, and thy duty as a judge ? 

J What just cause of offence gave George Fox to thee 

I when, upon thy producing a paper concerning swearing 

f sent by him (as thou said) to the grand jury, and requir- 

t ing him to say whether it was his handwriting, he 

answered, ' Read it up before the country, and when he 

heard it read, if it were his, he would own it ' ? Is it not 

equal, and according to law, that what a man is charged 



1 



» 



i6s6 JUDGE'S REPROACHFUL NAMES 195 

with before the country should be read in the hearing of 
him and of the country? When a paper is dehrered 
out of a man's hand, alterations may be made in it to his 
prejudice which, on a sudden looking over it, may not 
presently be discerned, but by hearing it read up may 
be better understood, whether any such alterations have 
been made therein? Couldst thou in justice have 
expected or required him to do otherwise ? Considering 
also that he was not insensible how much he had suffered 
already, being innocent, and what endeavours were used 
to cause him further to suffer ? Was not what he said, 
as aforesaid, a plain and single answer, and sufficient in 
the law ? Though (as hath been demonstrated) thou 
didst act contrary to law, and to thy office, in being his 
accuser therein, and producing the paper against him. 
And his liberty it was, whether he would have made thee 
any answer at all to what thou didst exhibit, or demand, 
out of the due course of law ; for to the law answer is to 
be made, not to thy will. Wherefore then wast thou so 
filled with rage and fury at his reply 7 

The Case Between Thee and Us 
" Calmly, and in the fear of the Lord, consider where- 
fore didst thou'revile him, particularly with the reproachful 
names of juggler and prevaricator ? Wherein did he 
ju^le ? wherein did he prevaricate ? Wherefore didst 
thou use such threatening language, and such menacings 
to him and us, saying, thou wouldst feri us, with such 
like ? Doth not the law forbid reviling, and rage, and 
fury, threatening and menacing of prisoners ? Soberly 
mind, is this to act like a judge or a man ? Is not this 
transgression ? Is not the sword of the magistrate of 
God to pass on this as evil-doing, which the righteous 
law condemns and the h^her power is against, which 



196 AN UNBECOMING SAYING 1656 

judgetb for God ? Take heed what ye do, for ye judge 
not foT man, but for the Lord, who is with you in the 
judgment. ' Wherefore now let the fear of the Lord be 
upon you ; take heed, and do it : for there is no iniquity 
with the Lord our God, nor respect of persons, nor 
taking of gi^,' said Jehoshaphat to the judges of 
Judah. 

"Pride and fury, passion and rage, reviling and 
threatening, are not the Lord's; these, and the prindple 
out of which they spring, are for judgment, and must 
come under the sword of the magistrate of God ; and it 
is of an ill savour, especially such an expression as to 
threaten to/erk us. Is not such a saying more becom- 
ing a schoolmaster with his rod and ferula in his hand 
than thee, who art the chief justice of the nation, who 
sittest in the behest seat of judgment, who ought to give 
a good example, and so to judge that others may hear 
and fear ? Weigh it soberly and consider, doth not 
threatening language demonstrate an inequality and 
partiality in him who sits as judge? Is it not a 
deterring of a prisoner from standing to, and pleading 
the innocency of his cause ? Provides not the law 
against it 7 Saith it not that irons and all other bonds 
shall be taken from the prisoner, that he may plead with- 
out fear and with such freedom of spirit as if he were 
not a prisoner ? 

" But when he who is to judge according to the law 
shall beforehand threaten and menace the prisoner 
contrary to the law, how can the mind of the prisoner be 
free to plead his innocency before him 7 or expect equal 
judgment from htm who, before he hears him, threatens 
what he will do unto him ? Is not this the case between 
thee and us ? Is not this the measure we have received 
at thy hands ? Hast thou herein dealt according to law 1 



1^5^ THE COURT AS COUNSEL Igt 

or to thy duty ? or as thou wouldst be done unto ? Let 
that of God in thy conscience judge. 

" And didst thou not say there was a law for putting 
off the hat, and that thou wouldst show a law ? and didst 
not thou often so express thyself? But didst thou 
produce any law, or show where that law might be 
found? or any judicial precedent, or in what king's 
reign, when we so often desired it of thee, having never 
heard of nor known any such law by which thou didst 
judge us ? Was not what we demanded of thee reason- 
able and just ? Was that a savoury answer, and accord- 
ing to law, which thou gave us, viz., * I am not to carry 
the law-books at my back, up and down the country ; I 
am not to instruct you ? * Was ever such an expression 
heard before these days to come out of a judge's mouth ? 

Aft Unjudicial Judge 

" Is he not to be of counsel in the law for the prisoner, 
and to instruct him therein ? Is it not for this cause 
that the prisoner, in many cases, is not allowed counsel 
by the law ? In all courts of justice in this nation, has 
it not been known so to have been? And to the 
prisoner has not this been often declared when he 
demanded counsel, alleging his ignorance in the law, by 
reason of which his cause might miscarry, though it 
were righteous, viz., < the court is of counsel for you ? ' 

" Ought not he that judgeth in the law to be expert 
in the law ? Couldst thou not tell by what act of 
parliament it was made, or by what judicial precedent, or 
in what king's reign, or when it was adjudged so by the 
common law (which are all the grounds the law of 
England has), had there been such a law^ though the 
words of the law thou couldst not remember ? Surely, 
to inform the prisoner when he desired it, especially as 



■ Igs LAW AND LAW BOOKS 1^55 

to a law which was neverj^heard of, by which he proceeds 
to judge him, that be may know what law it is by which 
he is to be judged, becomes him who judgeth for God J 
for so the law was read to the Jews by which they were 
to be judged, yea, every Sabbath-day ; this was the 
commandment of the Lord. But instead thereof to say, 
' I am not to carry the law-books at my back up and 
down the country ; I am not to instruct you ' ; to say 
' there is a law,' and to say ' thou wilt show it,' and yet 
not to show it, nor to tell where it is to be found ; 
consider whether it be consistent with truth or justice ? 

The Judge's Desire 

" Have not thy whole proceedings against us made it 
evidently appear that thy desire was to cause us to 
suffer, not to deliver us, who, being innocent, suffered ; 
to have us aspersed and reproached before the country, 
not to have our innocency cleared and vindicated ? 
Doth not thy taking away our books as aforesaid, and 
perusing them in such haste before our trial, and accusing 
us with something which thou said was contained in 
them, make it to appear that matter was sought out of 
them wherewithal to charge us when the Et Cetera 
warrant would not stand in law, by which we stood com- 
mitted, and were then upon our delivery, according to 
due course of law ? 

" Doth it not further appear, by thy refusing to take 
from our hands a copy of the strange Et Cetera warrant, 
by which we were committed, and of the paper for which 
we were apprehended, to read it or cause it to be read, 
that so our long sufferings by reason of both might be 
looked into, and weighed in the law, whether just or 
righteous, and the country might as well see our inno- 
cency and suffering without a cause, and the manner of 



i6s6 DELIBERATE INjUSttCfi l9d 

dealing with us as to hear such reports as went of us, a^ 
great offenders, when we called upon thee often so to do, 
and which thou ought to have done and said thoU would 
do, but did it not ; or so much as take notice before the 
country that we had been falsely imprisoned and had 
wrongfully suffered? But what might asperse and 
charge us thou broughtest in thyself contrary to law, 
and called to have us charged therewith. 

" Is not this further manifest, in that thou didst cause 
us on a sudden to be withdrawn, and the petty jury to 
be called in with their verdict, whereupon Peter Ceely's 
falsely accusing George Fox with telling him privately of 
a design, and persuading him to join therein, it was by 
G. Fox made so clear to be a manifest falsehood, and 
so plainly to be perceived that the cause of our sufferings 
was not any evil we had done, or law that we had trans- 
gressed, but malice and wickedness? And is it not 
abundantly clear from thy not permitting us to answer 
and clear ourselves of the many foul slanders charged 
upon us in the new-found indictment, of which no 
proof was made; but when we were answering there- 
unto, and clearing ourselves thereof, thou didst stop 
us, saying *thou minded not those things, but only 
the putting off the hat ' ; when as, before the country^ 
the new-found indictment charged us with those things, 
and the petty jury brought in their verdict, * guilty of the 
trespasses and contempts mentioned therein * ; of which 
(except as to the hat) not one witness or evidence was 
produced; and as to the hat, not any law or judicial 
precedent upon the transgression of which all legal 
indictments are only to be grounded ? 

" Now the law seeks not for causes whereby to make 
the innocent suffer, but helps him to right who suffers 
wrong, relieves the oppressed, and searches > out the 







\ 
\ I 



• t' 



^00 DOUBTFUL TRUE BILLS 1656 

matter, whether that of which a man stands accused 
be so 01 not, seeking judgment and hastening righteous- 
ness ; and it sailh, ' the innocent and the righteous 
slay thou not.' But whether thou hast done so to us, 
or the contrary, let the witness of God in tbee search 
and judge, as these thy fruits do also make manifest. 

"Friend, Considei-** 
" And, friend, consider how abominably wicked, and 
how highly to be abhorred, denied, and witnessed 
E^^nst, and how contrary to the laws such a proceeding 
is, to charge a man with many offences in an indict- 
ment, which they who draw the indictment, they who 
prosecute, and they who find the bill know to be false 
and to be inserted purposely to reproach and wound his 
good name, whom with some small matter which they 
can prove they charge and indict; as is the common 
practice at this day. Prove but one particular charge 
in the indictment, and it must stand (say they) for a 
true bill, though there be ever so many felsehoods 
therein, purposely to wrong him who is maliciously 
prosecuted : this is known to the judges and almost 
every man who has to do with and attends their 
courts. How contrary is this to the end and righteous- 
ness of the law, which clears the innocent and condemns 
the guilty, and condemns not the righteous with the 
wicked ? Much it is cried out against ; but what refor- 
mation is there thereof? How else shall clerks of assize 
and other clerks of courts fill up their bags (out of 
which perhaps their master must have a secret considera- 
tion), and be heightened in pride and impudence ; that 
even in op«i court they take upon them to check and 
revile men, men without reproof, when a few lines might 
I serve instead of a hundred ? How else shall the spirit 



I 



i6s6 ADULTERATIONS BY LAWYERS tOl 

that is in men, that lusteth unto envy, malice, strife, and 
contention, be cherished and nourished to feed the 
lawyers and dependents on courts with the bread of 
men's children and the ruin of their families, to maintain 
their long suits and malicious intentions. 

" For a judge to say, ' 1 mind not these things ; I will 
not hear you clear yourselves of what you are falsely 
accused : one thing I mind in your charge, the rest are 
but matter of form, set there to render you such wicked 
men before the country, as the thing that is to be 
proved against you is not sufficient to make out.' O I 
abominable wickedness, and perverting of the righteous 
end of the law, which is so careful and tender of every 
man's peace and innocency. How is the law in the 
administration thereof adulterated by lawyers, as the 
Scriptures are mangled by priests ! And that which was 
made to preserve the righteous and to punish the wicked 
perverted to the punishing of the righteous and the 
preserving of the wicked ! An eye for an eye ; a tooth 
for a tooth ; life for life ; burning for burning ; wound 
1^ for wound ; a stripe for a stripe ; he that acCUseth a 

man falsely to suffer the same as he should have suffered 
who was falsely accused if he had been guilty; this 
saith the righteous law of God, which is agreeable to that 
of God in every man's conscience. 

A Warning to the Judge 

" Are not such forms of iniquity to be denied, which 
are so contrary to the law of God and man? which 
serve for gendering strife and kindling contention ? and 
of this nature was not that with which thou didst cause 
us to be indicted ? and this form didst thou not uphold 
in not permitting us to answer to the many foul slanders 
therein ; saying, * Those things thou mindest not.' Will 



I 



iOi "^E HAVE BEEN WARI^ED" 1656 

not the wrath of God be revealed from heaven against 
all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who hold 
the truth in unrighteousness ; who are bo far from the 
power of godliness that they have not the foim, but the 
form of iniquity which is set and held up instead of, 
and as a law, to overthrow and destroy the righteousness 
of the righteous, and so to shut him up, as by the law 
he can never get out ? Is not the cry, thinkest thou, 
gone up ? 'It is time for thee to set to thine hand, O 
I.ord, for thine enemies have made void thy law I ' 
Draws not the hour nigh 7 Fills not up the measure of 
iniquity apace ? Surdy the day is coming, and 
hasteneth. 

" Ye have been warned from the presence and by the 
mouth of the Lord ; and clear will he be when he 
Cometh to judgment, and upright when he giveth 
sentence. That of God in every one of your consciences 
shall so to him bear witness and confess, and your 
mouths shall be stopped, and before your judge shall ye 
be silent, when he shall divide you your portion, and 
render unto you accordii^ to your deeds. Therefore, 
whilst thou hast time, prize it and repent : for verily 
' Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence; a fire 
shall devour before him, and it shall be very tempestuous 
round about him. He shall call to the heavens from 
above, and to the earth that he may judge his people ; 
and the heavens shall declare his righteousness : for 
God is judge himself. Consider this, ye diat forget 
God, lest he tear you in pieces, and there be none to 
deliver.' 

" And, friend, shouldst thou have given judgment 
against us (wherein thou didst fine us twenty marks 
a-piece and imprisonment till payment) without causing 
us, being prisoners, to be tn'ought before thee to hear 



I-, 



I. t 



1656 SEI4TENCED WHILE ABSENT 203 

tho judgment and to move what we had to say in arrest 
of judgment ? Is not this contrary to the law, as is 
manifest to those who understand the proceedings 
thereof ? Is not the prisoner to be called before judg- 
ment be given ? and is not the indictment to be read ? 
and the verdict thereupon ? And is not liberty to be 
given him to move in arrest of judgment ? And if it be 
a just exception in the law, ought not there to be an 
arrest of judgment? For the indictment may not be 
drawn up according to law, and may be wrong placed, 
and the offence charged therein may not be a crime in 
law ; or the jury may have been corrupted, or menaced, 
or set on by some of the justices; with other particulars, 
which are known to be legal and just exceptions. And 
the judgment ought to be in the prisoner's hearing, not 
behind his back^ as if the judge were so conscious of the 
error thereof that he dare not give it to the face of the 
prisoner. 

Denied the Law's Privileges 

" But these privileges of the law, this justice, we (who 
had so long and so greatly suffered contrary to law) 
received not nor could have at thy hands ; no, not so 
much as a copy or sight of that long and new-found 
indictment (which in England was never heard of before, 
nor that the matter contained therein was an offence in 
law, nor ever was there any law or judicial precedent 
that made it so) ; though two friends of ours in our 
names and our behalf that night, next day, and day 
following often desired it of the clerk of the assize, his 
assistants, and servants ; but they could not have it, nor 
so much liberty as to see it. And it is likely not 
unknown or unperceived by thee that, had we been 
called, as we ought to have been, or known when it was 



1 



204 NO APPEAL POSSIBLE 1656 

to be given, three or four words might have been a suffi- 
cient l^al arrest of the judgment given on that new- 
found indictment and the verdict thereupon. 

No Door Left Open 

"Therefore, as our Hberties, who are innocent, have 
not (in thy account) been worth the minding, and 
esteemed fit for nothing but to be trampled under foot 
and destroyed, so, if we find fault with what thou hast 
done, thou hast taken care that no door be left open to 
us in the law but a writ of error ; the consideration 
whereof, and the judgment to be given thereon, is to be 
had only where thyself art chief; of whom such com- 
plaint is to be made, and the error assigned for the 
reverse of thy judgment. And what the fruit of that 
may be well expected to be, by what we have already 
mentioned as having received at thy hands, thou hast 
given us to understand. 

" And here thou mayest think thou hast made thyself 
secure, and sufficiently barred up our way of relief, 
against whom (though thou knew we had done nothing 1 

contrary to the law, or worthy of bonds, much less of 
the bonds and sufferings we had sustained), thou hast 
proceeded as has been rehearsed ; notwithstanding that 
thou art (as are all the judges of the nation) entrusted, 
not with a legislative power, but to administer justice, 
and to do even law and execution of right to all, high 
and low, rich and poor, without having regard to any 
man's person ; and art sworn so to do, as has been said : 
and wherein thou dost contrary art liable to punishment, 
as ceasing from being a judge, and becoming a wrong- 
doer and an oppressor ; which what it is to be, many of 
thy predecessors have understood, some by death, others 
by fine and imprisonment. 












i6s6 SUBVERTING THE LAW 805 

" And of this thou mayest not be ignorant, that to deny 
a prisoner any of the privileges the law allows him is to 
deny him justice, to try him in an arbitrary way, to rob 
him of that liberty which the law gives him, which is his 
inheritance as a free man ; to do which is in effect to 
subvert the fundamental laws and government of England, 
and to introduce an arbitrary and tyrannical government 
against law; which is treason by the common law, 
and treasons by the common law are not taken away by 
the statutes of 25 Edw. III. r, Henry IV. i, 2, m. See 
O. St. Johns, now chief justice of the common pleas, bis 
aj^umenc against Strafford, fol. 65, in the case. 

"These things we have laid before thee in all 
plainness, that (with the light of Jesus Christ, who 
lighted every one that cometh into the world, a measure 
of which thou hast, which showeth the evil, and re- 
proveth thee for sin, for which thou must be account- 
able) thou mayest consider and see what thou hast 
done against the innocent; that shame may overtake 
thee, and thou mayest turn unto the Lord, who now 
calleth thee to repentance by his servants, whom, for 
witnessing his living truth in (hem, thou hast cast into, 
and yet continues under, cruel bonds and sufferings. 
" Edw. Pvot. 



How the Truth Spread 
By this letter the reader may observe how contrary 
to law we were made to suffer : but the Lord, who saw 
the integrity of our hearts to him, and knew the 
innocency of our cause, was with us in our sufferings, 
bore up our spirits, and made them easy to us ; and 
gave us opportunities of publishing his name and truth 



206 HOW THE EVANGEL SPREAD 1656 

amongst the people ; so that several of the town came to 
be convinced, and many were made loving to us. 
Friends from many parts came to visit us; amongst 
whom were two out of Wales who had been justices of 
peace. Also Judge Hagget's wife, of Bristol, who was 
convinced, with several of her children ; and her 
husband was very kind and serviceable to Friends, 
and had a love to God's people which he retained to his 
death. 

Now in Cornwall, Devonshire, Dorsetshire, and 
Somersetshire, truth began to spread mightily, and 
many were turned to Christ Jesus and his free teaching : 
for many Friends that came to visit us were drawn 
forth to declare the truth in those countries ; which 
made the . priests and professors rage, and they stirred 
up the m^istrates to ensnare Friends. They placed 
watches in the streets and highways, on pretence of 
taking up all suspicious persons ; under which colour they 
stopped and took up the Friends that travelled in and 
through those countries, coming to visit us in prison; 
which they did that they might not pass up and down 
in the Ix>rd*s service. But that by which they thought 
to stop the truth was the means of spreading it so much 
the more ; for then Friends were frequently moved 
to speak to one constable, and to the other officer, and 
to the justices they were brought before ; and this 
caused the truth to spread the more amongst them in all 
their parishes. And when Friends got among the watches 
it would be a fortnight or three weeks before they coulil 
get out of them again ; for no sooner had one constable 
taken them and carried them before the justices, and 
they had discharged them, than another would lake 
them up and carry them before other justices; which 
put the country to much needless trouble and charges. 



i6s6 A HEATHEN MAYOR 207 

As Thomas Rawlinson was coming out of the north 
to visit us, a. constable in Devonshire took him up, and 
at night took twenty shillings out of his pocket ; and 
after being thus robbed, he was cast into Exeter jail. 
They cast Henry Follexfen also into prison in Devon- 
shire for being a Jesuit, who had been a justice of peace 
for nearly forty years before. Many Friends were cruelly 
beaten by them ; nay, some clothiers that were going to 
the mill with their cloth, and others about their 
occupations, were taken up and whipped, though men 
of about eighty or a hundred pounds a year, and not 
above four or five miles from their families. 

Persecutiog the Friends 

The mayor of Launceston, too, was a very wicked 
man, for he took up all he could get, and cast them 
into prison; and he would search substantial grave 
women, their petticoats and their head-clothes. A young* 
man having come to see us, who came not through the 
town, I drew up all the gross, inhuman, and unchristian 
actions of the mayor (for his carrif^e was more like 
a heathen than a Christian), to him I gave it, and 
bid him seal it up, and go out again the back way ; and 
then come into the town through the gates. He did 
so; and the watch took him up, and carried him 
before the mayor, who presently searched his pockets 
and found the letter, wherein he saw all hie 
actions characterised. This shamed him so that from 
that time he meddled little with the servants of the 
Lord. 

Now from the sense I had of the snare that was laid, 
and mischief intended, in setting up those watches at 
time to stop and take up Friends, it came upon me to 
give forth the following, as — 



\ 



808 SETTING WATCHES FOR FRIENDS 1656 

An Exhortation and Warniog to tbe 
Magistrates 
" Now ye pretend liberty of conscience ; yet one shall 
not cairy a letter to a friend, nor men visit their friends, 
nor prisoners, nor carry a book about them, either for 
their own use or for their friends. Men shall not see 
their friends ; but watches are set op to catch and stop 
them; and these roust be well-armed men too, against 
an innocent people, that have not so much as a stick in 
their hands, who are in scorn called Quakers. Vet 
by such as set up these watches is pretended liberty 
of conscience ; who take up them whose consciences 
are exercised towards God and men, who worship God 
in spirit and in truth; which they that are out of the 
light call heresy. Now these set up the watches against 
them whom they in scorn call Quakers, because they 
confess and witness the true light, that lighteth every 
one that cometh into tbe world, amongst people 
as they pass through the country or among their 
friends. 

" This is the dangerous doctrine which watchmen are 
set up against, to subdue error, as they call it, which is 
the l^ht that doth enlighten every man that cometh into 
the world — him by whom the world was made; who 
■ was glorified with the Father before the world began. 
For those whom they in scorn call Quakers have they 
set their watches, able men, well-armed; to take up such 
as bear this testimony either in words, books, or letters. 
So that is the light you hate, which enlightens every man 
that cometh into the world ; and these that witness 
to this light you put in prison; and after you have 
imprisoned them, you set your watches to take Up all 
that go to visit them, and imprison them also; so that 



i6s6 WARRANT AGAINST QUAKERS 209 

by setting up your watches ye would stop all relief from 
coming to prisoners. 

" Therefore this is the word of the Lord God to you, 
and a charge to you all, in the presence of the living God 
of heaven and earth ; every man of you being enlightened 
with a light that cometh from Christ, the Saviour of 
people's souls ; to this light all take heed, that with it 
you may see Christ, from whom the light cometh, to be 
your Saviour, by whom the world was made, who saith, 
* Learn of me.' But if ye hate this light, ye hate Christ, 
who doth enlighten you all, that through him you might 
believe. But not believing in, nor bringing your deeds to 
the light, which will make them manifest and reprove them, 
this is your condemnation, even the light. G. F." 

For Apprehending Quakers 

Besides this general warning, there coming to my hand 
a copy of a warrant issued from the Exeter sessions, in 
express terms, " for apprehending all Quakers," wherein 
truth and Friends were reproached and vilified, I was 
moved to write an answer thereunto, and send it abroad, 
for clearing truth and Friends from the slanders therein 
cast upon them, and to manifest the wickedness of that 
persecuting spirit from whence it proceeded ; which was 
after this manner : 

*' Whereas a warrant was granted last sessions, held at 
Exeter, on the eighteenth day of the fifth month, 1656, 
which warrant is * for apprehending and taking up all 
such as are Quakers, or call themselves Quakers, or go 
under the notion of Quakers; and is directed to the 
chief constables, to be sent by them to the petty con- 
stables, requiring them to set watches, able men with 
bills, to take up all such Quakers as aforesaid.' And 

o 






tlO QUAKERS NOT SEDITIOUS 1656 

whereas in your said warrant you speak of the Quakers 
spreading seditious books and papers ; I answer, They 
whom ye in scorn call Quakers have no seditious books 
or papers; but their books are against sedition, and 
seditious men, and seditious books, and seditious 
teachers, and seditious ways. Thus ye have numbered 
them, who are honest, godly, and holy men, that fear 
God, amongst beggars, rogues, and vagabonds; thus 
putting no difference between the precious and the vile. 
" You are not fit to judge, who have set up your bills, 
and armed your men, to stand up together in battle 
against innocent people, the lambs of Christ, who have 
not lifted up a hand against you. But if ye were sensible 
of the state of your own country, yoiu* cities, your towns, 
your villages, how the cry of them is like Gomorrah, and 
the ring like Sodom, and the sound like the old world, 
where all flesh had corrupted its way, which God over- 
threw with the flood; if you did consider this 'with 
yourselves, you would find something to turn the sword 
against, and not against the lambs of Christ ; you would 
not make a mock of the innocent, that stand a witness 
against all sin and unrighteousness in your towns and 
steeple-houses. . . . 

Fox's Defence of the Quakers 

" And whereas you speak of those whom you in 
scorn call Quakers, that they are a grief to those 
whom you call pious and religious people and their 
religion. To such as are in the religion that is 
vain, whose tongues are not bridled, I believe the 
Quakers are a grief; but they are not a grief to such as 
are in the pure religion, which keepeth unspotted from 
the world ; which sets not up bills nor watches to main- 
tain it by the world ; for they are not of the world who 



i6s6 THE TRUTH A GRIEF 2H 

are in the pure religion, which keeps them unspotted 
of the world; mark, the <pure religion, which keeps 
unspotted of the world.' But to such as are in the 
religion that is not pure, who have a form of godliness, 
and not the power — to such as you call pious, the truth 
itself was always a grief;, and so it is in this age. . . . 

" And whereas in your warrant we are represented as 
disaffected to government; I say the law, which is a 
terror to the evil-doer, we own the higher power to 
which the soul must be subject ; but we deny the evil- 
doer, the malicious man reigning, and the envious man 
seeking for his prey, whose envy is against the inno- 
cent ; who raiseth up the country against honest men, 
and so becomes a trouble to the country^ in raising them 
up to take the innocent ; but that we leave to the Lord 
to judge. Your fJEdse accusations of heresy and blas- 
phemy we deny. You should have laid them down in 
particulars, that people might have seen them, and not 
have slandered us behind our backs. The law saith 
the crime should be mentioned in the warrant. 

" Then for your saying * we deny the godly ministers to 
be a true ministry of Christ,' that is false ; for we say 
that the godly ministers are the ministers of Christ. But 
which of your ministers dare say that they are truly 
godly ? And your charging us with seducing many weak 
people is false also; we seduce none; but you that 
deny the light, which lighteth every man that cometh 
into the world, are seduced from the anointing which 
should teach you ; and if ye would be taught by it 
ye would not need that any man should teach 
you. But such as are taught by the anointing, 
which abideth in them, and deny man's teaching, 
these ye call seducers, quite contrary to John's doctrine, 
I John ii. You speak quite contrary to him; that 



'^"^ 



212 FOX'S WARNING TO OFFICIALS 1656 

which is truth, ye call seducing ; and that which he 
calls seducing, you call truth ; read the latter part of the 
chapter. Beware, I warn you all from the Lord God of 
glory, set not any bound against him ; stint him not ; 
limit not the Holy One of Israel ; for the Lord is rising 
in power and great glory, who will rule the nations with 
a rod of iron, which to him are but as the drop of a 
bucket. He that measures the waters in the hollow of his 
hand will dash the nations together as a potter's vessel. 

"Take Heed, ye Justices and Shet-iffs" 
" And know, you that are found in this his day blas- 
pheming his work that God hath brought forth, calling 
it blasphemy, fighting against it, setting up your carnal 
weapons, making your bonds strong ; God will break 
asunder that which your carnal policy hath invented, 
and which by your carnal weapons ye would uphdd ; 
and make you to know there is a God in heaven, who 
carries his lambs in his arms, which are come amongst 
wolves, and are ready to be torn in pieces in every 
place, yea, in your steeple-houses ; where people have 
appeared without reason and nitural affection. 

'* Therefore all ye petty constables, sheriffs, and justices 
take warning ; take heed what ye do against the lambs 
of Christ ; for Christ is come, and coming, who will give 
to every one of you a reward according to your works, 
you who have the letter which speaks of Christ ; but 
now ye are persecuting that which the Scripture speaks 
of; as your fruits make manifest. Therefore, every one, 
sheriffs, justices, constables, &c,, consider what ye do 
possess, and what a profession ye are now in, that all 
these carnal weapons are now set up against the inno- 
cent, yea, against the truth ; which shows that ye have 
not the spiritual weapons, and that ye want the counsel 



1656 RESULTS OF FOX'S LETTERS 213 

of Gamaliel, yea, ye want the counsel of such a man among 
you who said, * Let the apostles alone ; if it be of God, it 
will stand ; if it be not, it will come to nought.' G. F." 

Elizabeth Trelawny 

We continued in prison till the next assize ; before 
which time divers Friends, both men and women, were 
sent to prison that had been taken up by the watches. 
When the assize came on, several of these were called 
before the judge and indicted; and though the jailer 
brought them into court, yet they indicted them that 
they came in "by force of arms and in an hostile 
manner " ; and the judge fined them, because they would 
not put off their hats. But we were not called before 
the judges any more. 

Great work we had, and service for the Lord, both 
between the assizes and after, amongst professors and 
people of all sorts ; for many came to see us and to 
reason with us. Elizabeth Trelawny of Plymouth (who 
was the daughter of a baronet) being convinced (as was 
formerly mentioned), the priests and professors and some 
great persons of her kindred were exasperated, and wrote 
letters to her. She being a wise and tender woman, and 
fearing to give them any advantage, sent their letters to 
me j and I answered them, and returned them to her 
again for her to answer. Which she did : till growing 
in the power, and Spirit, and wisdom of God, she came 
herself to be able to answer the wisest priest and pro- 
fessor of them all ; and had a dominion over them in the 
truth, through the power of the Lord, by which she was 
kept faithful to her death. 

At the assize divers justices came to us and were 
pretty civil, and reasoned of the things of God soberly, 
expressing a pity towards us. Captain Fox, governor of 



: £l 



-V 



--^ 



814 A LIGHT CHAFFY MAN 1656 

» Pendennis Castle, came and looked me in the &ce, and 

said not a woid; but vent to his company, and told 
^ them " he never saw a simpler man in his life." I called 

r after him and saidi "Stay, we will see who is the simple 

K man." But he went his way; a light chafiy man. 

r Thomas Lower also came to visit us, and offered us 

' money, which we refused ; accepting his love neverthe- 

less. He asked us many questions concerning our 
' denying the Scriptures to be the word of God ; and 

concerning the sacraments and such like ; to all which 
* he received satis&ction. I spoke particularly to him, 

^ and he afterwards said " my words were as a flash of 

^ lightning, they ran so through him." He said " he never 

; met widi such men in his life ; for they knew the 

» thoughts of his heart, and were as wise as the master- 

builders of the assemblies, that fastened their words like 
riidls." He came to be convinced of the truth, and 
h remains a Friend to this day. When he came home to 

r his aunt Hambley's, where he then lived, and made 

t report to her concerning us, she, with her sister Grace 

' Billing, hearing the report of truth, came to visit us in 

i prison, and was convinced also. Great sufferings and 

spoiling of goods both he and his aunt have undergone 
for the truth's sake. 

Fox to His Preachers 
About this time I was moved to give forth the following 
exhortation to Friends in the ministry : 

" Fkiends, 

" In the power of life and wisdom, and dread ol the 

Lord God of life, and heaven, and earth, dwell ; that in 

the wisdom of God over all ye may be preserved, and be 

I a terror to all the adversaries of God, and a dread, 



BEST- 



1656 WHAT TO PREACH 215 

answering that of God in them all, spreading the truth, 
awakening the witness, confounding deceit, gathering out 
of transgression into the life, the covenant of light and 
peace with God. Let all nations hear the sound by 
word or writing. Spare no place, spare no tongue, nor 
pen ; but be obedient to the Lord God ; go through the 
work^ be valiant for the truth upon earth ; and tread and 
trample upon all that is contrary. Ye have the power, 
do not abuse, it; and strength and presence of the Lord, 
eye it, and the wisdom ; that with it you may all be 
ordered to the glory of the Lord God. Keep in the 
dominion ; keep in the power over all deceit ; tread over 
them in that which lets you see to the world's end, and 
the uttermost parts of the earth. . . . 

**Get out the Com** 

" Bring all into the worship of God. Plough up the 
fallow ground. Thrash and get out the corn ; that the 
seed, the wheat, may be gathered into the barn ; that to 
the beginning all people may come — to Christ, who was 
before the world was made. For the chafif is come upon 
the wheat by transgression ; he that treads it out is out 
of transgression and fathoms transgression ; puts a dif- 
ference between the precious and the vile ; and can pick 
out the wheat from the tares, and gather into the 
garner : so brings to the lively hope, the immortal soul 
into God, out of which it came. . . . This is the word 
of the Lord God to you all, and a charge to you all in 
the presence of the living God ; be patterns, be examples ^ 

in all your countries, places, islands, nations, wherever *^ 

you come; that your carriage and life may preach ^ 

among all sorts of people and to them : then you will '--i 

come to walk cheerfully over the world, answering that ^ ^ 

of God in every one ; whereby in them ye may be a 



o ■ 



Sl6 SERVE THE LIVING GOD 1656 

blessing, and make the witness of God in them to bless 
you : then to the Lord God you will be a sweet savour, 
and a blessing. 

" Spare no deceit. Lay the swOTd upon it ; go over 
it : keep yourselves clear of the blood of all men, either 
by woid or writing ; and keep yourselves dean, that 
you may stand in your throne, and every one have his 
lot, and stand in the lot in. the ^I^dent of Days. The 
blessing of the Lord be with^'you, &nd keep you over all 
the idolatrous worships and worshippers. Let them 
know the living God ; for teachings, churches, worships, 
set up by man's earthly understanding, knowledge, and 
will, must be thrown down by the power of the Lord 
God. . . , This is the word of the Lord God to you all. 
The call is now out of transgression j the Spirit bids, 
■ come.' The call is now from all false worships and 
gods, and from all inventions and dead works, to serve 
the living God. The call is to repentance, to amend- 
ment of life, whereby righteousness may be brought 
forth ; which shall go throughout the earth. Therefore 
ye that are chosen and faithful, who are with the Lamb, 
go through your work fiuthfully, and in the strength and 
power of the Lord : and be obedient to the power ; for 
that will save you out of the hands of unr^sonable men, 
and preserve you over the world to himself. Hereby 
you may live in the kingdom, that stands in power 
which hath no end ; where glory and life is. G. F." 

The Jailer's Punishment 
After the assizes the sheriif, with some soldiers, came 
to guard a woman to execution, that was sentenced to 
die ; and we had much discourse with them. One of 
them wickedly said that "Christ was as passionate a 
man as any that lived upon the earth ",; for which we 



WBB 



1656 THE JAILER'S TRAGEDY I 217 

rebuked him. Another time we asked the jailer what 
doings there were at the sessions ; and he said, " Small 
matters ; only about thirty for bastardy." We thought 
it very strange that they who professed themselves 
Christians should make small matters of such things. 
But this jailer was very bad himself; I often admonished 
him to sobriety; and he abused people that came to 
visit us. Edward Pyot had a cheese sent him from 
Bristol by his wife ; and the jailer took it from him, and 
carried it to the mayor, to search it for treasonable 
letters, as he said ; and though they found no treason 
in the cheese, they kept it from us. 

This jailer might have been rich if he had carried 
himself civilly : but he sought his own ruin ; which soon 
after came upon him ; for the next year he was turned 
out of his place, and for some wickedness cast into the 
jail himself ; and there begged of our Friends. And 
for some unruliness in his conduct he was, by the suc- 
ceeding jailer, put into Doomsdale, locked in irons, and 
beaten ; and bid to " remember how he had abused 
those good men whom he had wickedly, without any 
cause, cast into that nasty dungeon " ; and told " that 
now he deservedly should suffer for his wickedness ; and 
the same measure he had meted to others should be 
meted out to himself." He became very poor, and died 
in prison ; and his wife and family came to misery. 

Cfomwell and His Great Men 

While I was in prison in Launceston a Friend went to 
Oliver Cromwell and offered himself, body for body, to 
lie in Doomsdale in my stead, if he would take him 
and let me have liberty. Which thing so struck him 
that he said to his great men and council, " Which of 
you would do so much for me if I were in the same 



'■ v?^ 



«18 "OUR LIBERTy IS INFRINGED" 1656 

condition 7 " And though he did not accept of the 
Friend's offer, but said " he could not do it, for that it 
was contrary to law"; yet the truth thereby came 
m^htily over him. A good while after this he sent 
down Major-General Desborough, pretending to set us 
at liberty. When he came he offered us our liberty if 
we would say " we would go home, and preach no 
more " ; but we could not promise him. Then he urged 
that we should promise " to go home if the Lord per- 
mitted " ; whereupon Edward Pyot wrote him the 
following- letter : 

" To Major-General Desborough. 
" Friend, 

"Though much might be said as to the liberty oi 
Englishmen to travel in any part of the nation of 
England, it being as the Englishman's house by the law, 
and he to be protected in any part of it; and if he 
transgress the law the penalty upon the transgressor is 
to be inflicted. And as to liberty of conscience, which 
is a natural right and a fundajnental, the exercise of it 
by those who profess faith in God by Jesus Christ is to 
be protected ; as by the instrument of government 
appears, though they differ in doctrine, worship, and 
discipline ; provided the liberty extend not to Fopery, 
to prelacy, nor to licentiousness. Where these rights, 
which are the price of much blood and treasure in the 
late wars, are denied us, our liberty is infringed. 

" Yet in the power of God over all, by which all are to 
be ruled, are we, and in it dwell, and by it alone are 
guided to do the will of God ; whose will is free ; and 
we, in the freedom of his wilt, walk by the power, either 
as it commands or permits, without any condition or 
enforcement thereunto by men ; but as the power moves 



.• 



1656 JUSTICES AT BOWLS 219 

either by command or permission. And although we 
cannot covenant or condition to go forth of these parts, 
or to do this or that thing, if the Lord permit (for that 
were to do the will of man by God's permission), yet it 
is probable we may pass forth from these parts in the 
liberty of the will of God, as we may be severally moved, 
guided by the pure power, and not of necessity. 

" We, who were first committed, were passing home- 
wards when we were apprehended; and, as far as I 
know, we might pass, if the prison doors were com- 
manded to be opened, and we freed of our bonds. 
Should we stay if the Lord commands us to go ; or 
should we go if the Lord commands us to stay; or 
having no command to stay, but being permitted to pass 
from hence, the pure power moving thereto, and yet we 
stay; or go, when as before commanded to stay; we 
should then be wanderers indeed ; for such are wanderers 
who wander out from the will and power of God, abroad, 
at large, in their own wills and earthly minds. And so, 
in the fear of the Lord God, well weigh and consider, 
with the just weight and just balance, that justice thou 
Qiayest do to the just and innocent in prison. 

" Edward Pyot." 

Released from Gaol 

After this Major Desborough came to the Castle- 
Green and played at bowls with the justices and others. 
Several Friends were moved to go and admonish them 
not to spend their time so vainly ; desiring them to con- 
sider that, "though they professed themselves to be 
Christians, yet they gave themselves up to their pleasures, 
and kept the servants of God meanwhile in prison *' ; 
and telling them " the Lord would plead with them and 
visit them for such things." But notwithstanding what 






820 AGAINST VAIN PLEASURES 1656 

was written or said to him, he went away, and left us in 
prison. We understood afterwards that he left the 
business to Colonel Bennet, who had the command of 
the jail. For some time after Bennet would have set us 
at liberty, if we would have paid his jailer's fees. But 
we told him " we could give the jailer no fees, for we 
were innocent sufferers ; and bow could they expect fees 
of us who had suffered bo long wrongfully ? " After a 
while Colonel Bennet coming to town, sent for us to an 
inn, and insisted again upon fees, which we refused. 
At last the power of the Lord came so over him that he 
freely set us at liberty on the 13th day of the seventh 
month, 1656. We had been prisoners nine weeks at 
the first assize, called the Lent-assize, which was in the 
spring of the year. 

Observing, while I was a prisoner at Launceston, how 
much the people (especially they who are called tiie 
gentry) were addicted to pleasures and vain recreations, 
I was moved) before I left the place, to give forth 
several papers as a warning to them, and all that so mis- 
spend their time. 

Another paper, upon my taking notice of the bowlers 
that came to sport themselves in the Castle-Green, was 
as follows : — 

"The Tford of the Lord to all you vain and Idle- 
minded people, who are lovers of sports, pleasures, 
foolish exercises, and recreations, as you call them; 
consider of your ways, what it is you are doing. Was 
this the end of your creation ? Did God make all things 
for you, and you to serve your lusts and pleasures? 
Did not the Lord make all things for you, and you for 
himself, to fear and worship him in spirit and in truth, 
in righteousness and true holiness ? But where is your 



i6s6 AT LIBERTY AGAIN 221 

service of God, so long as your hearts run after lusts 
and pleasures ? Ye cannot serve God ' Jind the foolish 
pleasures of the world, as bowling, drinking, hunting, 
hawking, and the like : if these have your hearts, God 
will not have your lips : consider, for it is true. . . . 

" Given forth in Launceston Jail, 
" in Cornwall. 

*' To the Bowlers in the Green." 

**Thc Country Plain Before us*' 

Being released from our imprisonment we got horses 
and rode towards Humphrey Lower's and met him on 
the road. He told us ** he was much troubled in his 
mind concerning uS) and could not rest at home, but 
was going to Colonel Bennet to seek our liberty." When 
we told him " we were set at liberty, and were going to 
his house,*' he was exceedingly glad. To his house we 
went, and had a fine precious meeting ; many were con- 
vinced, and turned by the Spirit of the Lord to Christ's 
teaching. 

From his house we went to Loveday Hambley's, where 
we also had a fine large meeting. The Lord's power 
was over all; many were convinced there also, and 
turned to the Lord Jesus Christ, their teacher. 

Aft^r we had tarried there two or three days, we came 
to Thomas Mounce's, where we had a general meeting 
for the whole county ; which, being very large, was held 
in his orchard. Friends from Plymouth were there, 
and from many places. The Lord's power was over 
allj and a great convincement there was in many 
parts of the county. Their watches were down, and 
all was plain and open ; for the Lord had let me 
see, before I was set at liberty, that he would make all 
the country plain before us. Thomas and Ann Curtis, 



-^ i 



222 ABOUT JAMES NAYLOR 1656 

with an alderman of Reading, who was convinced, had 
come to Launceston to see us while I was a prisoner : 
and when Ann and the other man returned, Thomas 
Curtis stayed behind in Cornwall, and had good service 
for the Lord at that time. 

From Thomas Mounce's we passed to Launceston 
again, and visited that little remnant of Friends that had 
been raised up there while were in prison; and the 
Lord's plants grew finely, and were established on Christ, 
their rock and foundation. As we were going out of 
town again, the constable of Launceston came running 
to us with the cheese that had been taken from Edward 
Pyot ; which they had kept from us all this while, and 
were tormented with it. But now being set at liberty, 
we would not receive it. 

From Launceston we came to Okington [Oakhampton] 
and lodged at an inn which the mayor of the town kept. 
He had stopped and taken up several Friends, but was 
very dvil to us ; and was convinced in his judgment. 

James Naylor Opposes Fox 

From thence we came to Exeter, where many Friends 
were in prison; and amongst the rest James Naylor. 
For a little before we were set at liberty, James had run 
out into imaginations, and a company with him ; which 
raised up a great darkness in the nation. He came to 
Bristol, and made a disturbance there : and from thence 
he was coming to Launceston to see me; but was 
stopped by the way, and imprisoned at Exeter ; as were 
also several others; one of whom, an honest tender 
man, died in prison there, whose blood lieth on the 
heads of his persecutors. 

The night we came to Exeter I spoke with James 
Naylor ; for I saw he was out and wrong ; and so was 



1656 TEN THOUSAND IN THE ORCHARD 223 

his company. Next day, being First-day, we went to 
visit the prisoners, and had a meeting with them in the 
prison ; but James Naylor and some of them could not 
stay the meeting. There came a corporal of horse into 
the meeting, and was convinced and remained a very 
good Friend* The next day I spoke to James Naylor 
again ; and he slighted what I said, and was dark, and 
much out; yet he would have come and kissed me. 
But I said, '< since he had turned against the power of 
God, I could not receive his show of kindness " ; the 
Lord moved me to slight him, and to ** set the power of 
God over him." So after I had been warring with the 
world, there was now a wicked spirit risen up amongst 
Friends to war against. I admonished him and his 
company. When he was come to London, his resisting 
the power of God in me, and the truth that was declared 
to him by me, became one of his greatest burdens. But 
he came to see his out-going and to condemn it ; and 
after some time he returned to truth again ; as in the 
printed relation of his repentance, condemnation, and 
recovery, may be more fully seen. 

The Scene in the Orchard 

On First-day morning I went to the meeting in Broad- 
mead at Bristol, which was large and quiet. Notice 
was given of a meeting to be in the afternoon in the 
orchard. There was at Bristol a rude Baptist, named 
Paul Gwin, who had before made great disturbance in 
our meetings, being encouraged and set on by the mayor^ 
who, it was reported, would sometimes give him his 
dinner to encourage him. Such multitudes of rude 
people he gathered after him that it was thought there 
had been sometimes ten thousand people at our meeting 
in the orchard. As I was going into the orchard the 



2^4 "THE JANGLING BAPTIST" 1656 

people told me that Paul G win, the rude jangling Baptist, 
was going to the meeting. I bid them never heed, it 
was nothing to me who went to it. 

When I was come into the orchard I stood upon the 
stone that Friends used to stand on when they spoke ; 
and I was moved of the Lord to put off my hat and to 
stand a pretty while and let the people look at me ; for 
some thousands of people were there. While I thus 
stood silent this rude Baptist began to find fault with my 
hair ; but I said nothing to him. Then he ran on into 
words ; and at last, " Ye wise men of Bristol," said he, 
<< I strange at you, that you will stand here and hear a 
man speak and affirm that which he cannot make good." 

Then the Lord opened my mouth (for as yet I had 
not spoken a word), and I asked the people << Whether 
they ever heard me speak ; or ever saw me before ": and 
I bid them << take notice what kind of man this was 
amongst them that should so impudently say that I 
spoke and affirmed that which I could not make good ; 
and yet neither he nor they had ever heard me or seen 
me before. Therefore that was a lying, envious, malicious 
spirit that spoke in him ; and it was of the Devil and 
not of God." I charged him in the dread and power 01 
the Lord to be silent : and the mighty power of God 
came over him and all his company. 

Then a glorious, peaceable meeting we had, and the 
word of life was divided amongst them ; and they were 
turned from darkness to the light — to Jesus their 
Saviour. 

For many hours did I declare the word of life amongst 
them in the eternal power of God, that by him they 
might come up into the beginning and be reconciled to 
him. And having turned them to the Spirit of God in 
themselves, that would lead into all truth, I was moved 



,: 



i6s6 FOX MEETS CROMWELL 225 

to pray in the mighty power of God ; and the Lord's 
power came over all. When I had done this fellow 
began to babble again ; and John Audland was moved 
to bid him repent and fear God. So his own people 
and followers being ashamed of him he passed away, 
and never came again to disturb the meeting. The 
meeting broke up quietly, and the Lord's power and 
glory shone over all : a blessed day it was, and the Lord 
had the praise. After a while this Paul Gwin went 
beyond the seas ; many years after I met with him again 
at Barbadoes : of which in its place. 

Fox and Cfomwell in Hyde Park 

Leaving Kingston we rode to London. When we 
came near Hyde Park we saw a great concourse of 
people, and looking towards them espied the Protector 
coming in liis coach. Whereupon I rode to his coach- 
side; and some of his life-guards would have put me 
away, but he forbade them. So I rode by with him, 
" declaring what the Lord gave me to say of his con- 
dition, and of the sufferings of Friends in the nation ; 
showing him how contrary this persecution was to Christ 
and his apostles and to Christianity." When we arrived 
at James's Park-gate I left him; and at parting he 
desired me to come to his house. Next day one of his 
wife's maids, whose name was Mary Sanders, came to 
me at my lodging, and told me her master came to her 
and said he would tell her some good news. When 
she asked him what it was, he told her George Fox 
was come to town. She replied that was good news 
indeed (for she had received truth), but she said she 
could hardly believe him till he told her how I met 
him and rode from Hyde Park to James's Park with 
him. 



r 



2«6 FOX AND THE VICE-CHANCELLOR 1656 

After a little time Edward Pyot and I went to White- 
hall : and when we came before him. Dr. Owen, vice- 
chancellor of Oxford, was with him. We were moved 
" to speak to Oliver Cromwell concerning the sufferings 
of Friends, and laid them before him ; and directed him 
to the light of Christ, who enlighteneth every man that 
Cometh into the world." He said it was a natural light ; 
but we " showed him the contrary, and manifested that 
it was divine and. spiritual, proceeding from Christ, the 
spiritual and heavenly man; and that nhich was called 
the lift in Christ the Word was called the light in us." 
The power of the Lord God arose in me, and I was 
moved in it " to bid him lay down his crown at the feet 
of Jesus." Several times I spoke to him to the same 
effect. Now I was standing by the table, and he came 
and sat upon the table's side by me, and said he would 
be as high as I was ; and so continued speaking against 
the light of Christ Jesus ; and went away in a light 
manner. But the Lord's power came over him, so that 
when he came to his wife and other company, he said, 
" I never parted so from them before" ; for he was 
judged in himself. 

At Whitehall 
After he had left us, as we were going out, many 
great persons came about us ; and one of them began 
to speak against the light and against the truth ; and I 
was made to slight him for speaking so lightly of the 
things of God. Whereupon one of them told me he 
was the Major-General of Northamptonshire. " What !" 
said I, " our old persecutor, that has persecuted and 
sent so many of our friends to prison, and is a shame to 
Christianity and religion ! I am glad I have met with 
thee," said I. So I was moved to speak sharply to him 



i6s6 FOX AND THE SACRAMENT 227 

of his unchristian carriage, and he slunk away : for he 
had been a cruel persecutor in Northamptonshire. 

To Answer Objections 

Having travelled over most part of the nation, I re- 
turned to London again, having cleared myself of that 
which lay upon me from the Lord. For after I was 
released out of Launceston jail, I was moved of the 
Lord to travel over the nation, the truth being now 
spread, and finely planted in most places, that I might 
answer and remove out of the minds of people some 
objections, which the envious priests and professors had 
raised and spread abroad concerning us. For what 
Christ said of false prophets and antichrists coming in 
the last days, they applied to us ; and said. We were 
they. 

Quakers and the Sacrament 

" One great objection they had, * That the Quakers 
denied the sacrament (as they called it) of bread and 
wine, which,' they said, 'they were to take, and do 
in remembrance of Christ to the end of the world.' 
Much work we had with the priests and professors about 
this, and the several modes of receiving it in Christendom, 
so called ; for some take it kneeling, and some sitting ; 
but none of them all, that ever I could find, take it as 
the disciples took it. For they took it in a chamber 
after supper ; but these generally take it before dinner : 
and some say, after the priest hath blessed it, it is 
< Christ's body.' But as to the matter Christ said, * Do 
this in remembrance of me.' He did not tell them how 
often they should do it or how long ; neither did he 
enjoin them to do it always, as long as they lived, or 
that all believers in him should do it to the world's end. 



■^ 



SSB ST. PAUL AND THE SACRAMENT 1656 

" The apostle Paul, who was not converted till after 
Christ's death, tells the Corinthians that he had received 
of the Lord that which he delivered unto them concern- 
ing this matter : and he relates Christ's words concerning 
the cup thus : ' This do ye,' as oft as ye drink it, in 
' remembrance of me ' : and himself adds, ' For [as often 
as] ye eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show 
the Lord's death till he come,' So according to what 
the apostle here delivers, neither Christ nor he enjoined 
people to do this always ; but leave it to their hberty [as 
oft as ye drink it, &c.]. 

" Now the Jews used to take a cup, and to break bread, 
and divide it among them in their feasts ; as may be 
seen in the Jewish Antiquities : so that the breaking of 
bread, and drinking of wine, were Jewish rites, which 
were not to last always. They also baptized with water ; 
which made it not seem a Strange thing to them when 
John the Baptist came with his decreasing ministration 
of water-baptism. But as to the bread and wine, after 
the disciples had taken it, some of them questioned 
whether Jesus was the Christ ; for some of them said, 
after he was crucified, ■ We trusted that it had been he 
which should have redeemed Israel,' &c. And though 
the Corinthians had the bread and wine, and were bap- 
- tized in water, the apostle told them they were ' reprobates 
if Christ was not in them ' ; and bid them ' examine 
themselves.' And as the apostle said, ■ As oft as 
ye do eat this bread, and drink this cup, ye do show 
forth the Lord's death [till he come] ' : so Christ 
had said before, that he ' was the bread of life, which 
came down from heaven * ; and that ' he would 
come and dwell in them ' ; which the apostles did 
witness fulfilled ; and exhorted others to seek for 
that which comes down from above : but the outward 



1656 FELLOWSHIP WITH CHRIST 229 

bread and wine and water are not from above, but 
from below. 

More than a Symbol 

" Now ye that eat and drink this outward bread and 
wine in remembrance of Christ's death, and have your 
fellowships in that, will ye come no nearer to Christ's 
death than to take bread and wine in remembrance of 
it ? After ye have eaten in remembrance of his death, 
ye must come into his death, and €lie with him, as the 
apostles did, if ye will live with him. This is a nearer 
and further advanced state, to be with him in the fellow- 
ship of his death. You must have fellowship with Christ 
in his sufferings : if ye will reign with him, ye must 
suffer with him ; if ye will live with him, ye must die 
with him ; and if ye die with him, ye must be buried 
with him : and being buried with him in the true bap- 
tism, ye also rise with him. Then having suffered with 
him, died with him, and been buried with him, if ye are 
risen with Christ, * seek those things which are above, 
where Christ sitteth on the right hand of God.' Eat the 
bread which comes down from above, which is not out- 
ward bread; and drink the cup of salvation which he 
gives in his kingdom, which is not outward wine. And 
then there will not be a looking at the things that are 
seen (as outward bread and wine and water are) ; for, as 
says the apostle, * The things that are seen are temporal, 
but the things that are not seen are eternal.' 

" So here are many states and conditions to be gone 
through, before people come to see and partake of that 
which * Cometh down from above.' For first, there was 
a taking of the outward bread and wine in remembrance 
of Christ's death : this was temporary, and not of neces- 
sity, but at their liberty ; as oft as ye do it, &c. Secondly, 



r ■ 






1830 THE ETERNAL FELLOWSHIP 1656 

there musti be a coming into bis death, a sufTering with 
Christ; and this is of necessity to salvation, and not 
f temporary, but continual : there must be a dying daily, 

Thirdly, a being buried with Christ. Fourthly, a rising 
with Christ. Fifthly, after they are risen with Christ, 
then a seeking those things which are above ; a seeking 
the bread that comes down from heaven, a feeding on 
and having fellowship in that. 

" For outward bread, wine, and water are from below, 

I visible and temporal : but saith the aposde, ' We look 

* not at things that are seen ; for the things that are seen 

are temporal, but the things that are not seen are eternal.* 

So the fellowship that stands in the use of bread, wine, 

k water, circumcision, outward temple, and things seen 

will have an end : but the fellowship which stands in 

*" the gospel, the power of God, which was before the 

Devil was, and which brings life and immortality to 

^ light, by which people may see over the Devil, that has 

'1 darkened them; this fellowship is eternal, and will 

'1 stand." 

■ Thus were the objections which the priests and pro- 

I fessorshad raised against Friends answered and cleared ; 

'1 and the stumbling-blocks which they had laid in the way 

of the weak removed. And as things were thus opened, 

t people came to see over them and through them, and to 

f have their minds settled upon the Lord Jesus Christ, 

f their free teacher : which was the service for which I was 

J moved to travel over the nation after my imprisonment 

|V^ in Launceston jail. In this year the Lord's truth was 

J >^ finely planted over the nation, and many thousands were 

turned to the Lord ; insomuch that there were seldom 

fewer than one thousand in prison in this nation for 

truth's testimony ; some for tithes, some for going to the 

steeple-houses, some for contempts (as they called them), 



i657 RUDE PEOPLE AT FARNHAM 931 

some for not swearing, and others for not putting off 
their hats, &c. 

1657. — Having stayed some time in London, and 
visited the meetings of Friends in and about the city, 
and cleared myself of what services the Lord had at 
that time laid upon me there, I travelled into Kent, 
Sussex, and Surrey, visiting Friends, amongst whom I 
had great meetings ; and many times met with opposi- 
tion from Baptists and other jangling professors; but 
the Lord's power went over them. 

Foz and the Innkeepers 
We stayed one night at Farnham, where we had a little 
meeting, and the people were exceedingly rude ; but at 
last the Lord's power came over them. After it we went 
to our inn, and gave notice that any that feared God 
might come to us : and there came abundance of rude 
people, the magistrates of the town also, and some pro- 
fessors. I declared the truth unto them, and those of 
the people that behaved rudely the magistrates put out 
of the room. When they were gone, there came another 
rude company of professors, and some of the chief of 
the town. They called for faggots and drink, though 
we forbade them ; and were as rude a people as ever I 
met with. The Lord's power chained them, that they 
had not power to do us any mischief; but when they 
went away, they left all their faggots and _ beer which 
they had called for into the room, for us to pay 
for in the momii^. We showed the innkeeper what 
an unworthy thing it was, but he told us " we 
must pay it " ; and we did. Before we left the town, 
I wrote a paper to the magistrates and heads of 
the town, and to the priest, showing them and him 
how he had taught his people, and laying before them 



1 

I 
I 



2S2 THE DRUKKEN innkeeper 1657 

their rude and uncivil conduct to strangers that sought 
their good. 

Leaving that place we came to Basingstoke, a very 
rude town ; where they had formerly very much abused 
Friends. There I had a meeting in the evening, which 
was quiet, for the Lord's power chained the unruly. At 
the close of it I was moved to put off my hat, and pray 
to the Lord to open tlieir understandings ; upon which 
they raised a report that " I put off my hat to them, 
and bid them good night," which was never in my 
heart. After the meeting, when we came to our inn, I 
sent for the innkeeper (as I used to do), and he came 
into the room to us, and showed himself a very rude 
man. I admonished him to be sober and fear the Lord; 
but he called for faggots and a pint of wine, and drank 
it off himself; then called for another, and called up 
half a dozen men into our chamber. Thereupon I bid 
him go out of the chamber, and told him he should not 
drink there, for we sent for him up to speak to him con- - 
cerning his eternal good. He was exceedingly mad, 
rude, and drunk., When he continued his rudeness and 
would not be gone, I told him the chamber was mine 
for the time I lodged in it, and I called for the key. 
Then he went away in great rage. In the morning he 
would not be seen j but I told his wife of his unchristian 
and rude behaviour towards us. 

- A Snare Which Failed 
After this we came to Bridport, having meetings in the 
way. We went to an inn, and sent into the town for 
such as feared God ; and there came a shopkeeper, a 
professor, and put off his hat to us, and seeing we did 
not the same to him again, but said Thou and Thee to 
him, he told us " he was not of our religion " ; and after 



1^57 Pox IN Wales 233 

some discourse with him he went away. Then he went 
and stirred up the priest and magistrates against us, and 
after a while sent to the inn to desire us to come to his 
house, for there were some that would speak with us, he 
said. Thomas Curtis was with me, and he went to the 
man's house ; where, when he came, the man had laid a 
snare for him, for he had got the priest and magistrate 
thither, and they boasted much that they had caught 
George Fox, taking him for me. When they perceived 
their mistake, they were in great rage ; yet the Lord's 
power came over them, so that they let him go again. 
Meanwhile I had an opportunity of speaking to some 
sober people that came to the inn. When Thomas was 
come back, and we were passing out of the town, some 
of them came to us and said, << the officers were coming 
to fetch me " ; but the Lord's power came over them all, 
so that they had not power to touch me. There were 
some convinced in the town, who were turned to the 
Lord, and have stood faithful in their testimony to the 
truth ever since, and a fine meeting there is there. 

Uproar at Brecknock 

We still passed on through the countries, having 
meetings and gathering people, in the name of Christ, to 
him their heavenly teacher, till we came to Brecknock ; 
where we set up our horses at an inn. There went with 
me Thomas Holmes and John-ap-John, who was moved 
of the Lord to " speak in the streets." I walked out 
a little into the fields, and when I came in again the 
town was in an uproar. When I came into the chamber 
in the inn it was full of people, and they were speaking 
in Welsh ; I desired them to speak in English, which 
they did, and much discourse we had. After a while 
they went away; but towards night the magistrates 



■fc.'' 



J. J 

> ■' 



M 



I 



^ 



234 A SHAME TO CHRISTIANITY tfis? 

gathered together in the streets, with a multitude of 
people, and they bid them shout, and gathered up the 
town ; so that for about two hours tt^ether there was 
such a noise that the like we had not heard; and the 
magistrate's set them on to shout again when they had 
given over. We thought it looked like the uproar which 
we read was amongst Diana's craftsmen. This tumult 
continued till night; and if the Lord's power had not 
limited them, they seemed likely to have pulled down 
the houiic and us to pieces. 

At night the woman of the house would have had 
cs go to su[)per in another room, but we discerning her 
plot, refused. Then she would have had half a dozen 
men come into the room to us, under pretence of dis- 
coursing with us. We told her no persons should come 
into our room that night, neither would we go to them. 
Then she s^d we should sup in another room ; but we 
told her we would have no supper if not in our own 
room, At length, when she saw she could not get us 
out, she brought up our supper in a great rage. So she 
and they were crossed in their design, for they had an 
intent to do US mischief; but the Lord God prevented 
thera. Next morning I wrote a paper to the town con- 
cerning their unchristian conduct, showing the fruits of 
their priests and magistrates ; and as I passed out of the 
town I spoke to the people, and told them they were 
a shame to Christianity and rehgion. 

From this place we went to a great meeting in a 
steeple-house yard, where was a priest, and Walter 
]enkin, who had been a justice, and another justice. A 
blessed glorious meeting we had. There being many 
professors, I was moved of the Lord " to open the Scrip- 
tures to them, and to answer their objections (for I knew 
them very well) ; and to turn them to Christ, who had 



I 

r 
i 

i 



1657 CROMWELL AND THE RAIN 235 

enlightened them ; with which light they might see the 
sins and trespasses they had been dead in, and their 
Saviour, who came to redeem them out of them, who 
was to be their way to God, the truth and the life to 
them, and their priest made higher than the heavens, so 
that they might come to sit under his teaching." A 
peaceable meeting we had ; many were convinced and 
settled in th6 truth that day. After it I went with 
Walter Jenkin to the other justice's house ; and he said 
to me, " You have this day given great satisfaction to 
the people, and answered all the objections that were in 
their minds." For the people had the Scriptures, but 
were not turned to the Spirit, which should let them see 
that which gave them forth, the Spirit of God, which is 
the key to open them. 

Cromwell Proclaims a Fast 

At this time there was a great drought ; and after this 
general meeting was ended there fell so great a rain that 
Friends said they thought we could not travel, the 
waters would be so risen. But I believed the rain had 
not extended so far as they had come that day to the 
meeting. Next day in the afternoon, when we turned 
back into some parts of Wales again, the roads were 
dusty, and no rain had fallen there. 

When Oliver Cromwell sent forth a proclamation for 
a fast throughout the nation for rain, when there was 
a very great drought, it was observed that as far as truth 
had spread in the north there were pleasant showers 
and rain enough, when in the south, in many places, 
they were almost spoiled for want of rain. At that time 
I was moved to write an answer to the Protector's pro- 
clamation, wherein I told him, " if he had come to own 
God's truth he should have had rain ; and that drought 



236 FOX AND FASTS 1:657 

was a sign unto them of their barrenness and want of 
the water of life." About the same time was written 
the following paper, to distinguish between true and 
false &sts ; 

*' CoHcenting the true Fast and the false. 

" To all you that are keeping fasts, who ' smite with 
the fist of wickedness, and fast for strife and debate '; 
against you hath a voice cried aloud like a trumpet, that 
you may come to know the true fast which is accepted, 
and the fast which is in the strife and the debate, 
and smiting with the fists of wickedness; which 
fast is not required of the Lord. < Behold, in the 
day of your fast you find pleasure and exact all 
your labours. Behold (mark, take notice), ye fast 
for strife and debate, and to smite with the fist ot 
wickedness; ye shall not £ist, as ye do this day to 
make your voice heard on high. Is it such a fast 
that I have chosen, saith the Lord, a day for a man to 
afflict his soul? Is it to bow down his head like a 
bulrush, and to spread sackcloth and ashes under him P 
Wilt thou call this a fast and an acceptable day to the 
Lord?' 

" Consider all you that fast, see if it be not ' hanging 
down the head for a day, like the bulrush ' ; and lasting 
for ' strife and debate ' and to ' smite with the fists of 
wickedness, to make your voice be heard on high ? ' 
But this &st is not accepted of the Lord : but that which 
leads you from strife, from debate, from wickedness ; 
which is not to ' bow down the head, as a bulrush, for 
a day,' and yet Uve in exacting and pleasure; this is not 
accepted of the Lord : but that which separates from all 
these before-mentioned. . . ." 

We passed into Wales through Montgomeryshire, and 



i657 ON HORSEBACK TO HEAR 237 

so into Radnorshire, where there was a meeting like a 
leaguer for multitudes. I walked a little aside whilst 
the people were gathering ; and there came to me John- 
ap-John, a Welshman, whom I desired to go to the 
people ; and if he had anything upon him from the 
Lord to them, he might speak to them in Welsh, and 
thereby gather them more together. Then came 
Morgan Watkins to me, who was then become loving to 
Friends, and said " the people lie like a leaguer, and the 
gentry of the country are come in." I bid him go up 
also, and leave me, for I had a great travail upon me for 
the salvation of the people. 

Speaking for Three Houfs 

When they were well gathered, I went into the 
meeting, and stood upon a chair about three hours. 
I stood a while before I began to speak; after some 
time I felt the power of the Lord over the whole 
assembly; and his everlasting life and truth shone 
over all. The Scriptures were opened to them, and 
their objections answered. **They were directed to 
the light of Christ, the heavenly man; that by it 
they might all see their sins, and Christ Jesus to be 
their Saviour, their Redeemer, their Mediator, and 
come to feed on him, the bread of life from heaven." 
Many were turned to the Lord Jesus, and his free 
teaching that day ; and all were bowed down under the 
power of God; so that though the multitude was so 
great that many sat on horseback to hear, there was no 
opposition. A priest who sat with his wife on horse- 
back heard attentively, and made no objection. The 
people parted peaceably and quietly, with great satis- 
faction ; many of them saying they never heard such a 
sermon before or the Scriptures so opened. For " the 



838 A THREE HOURS' SERMON i6s7 

new covenant was opened, and the old, and the nature 
and terms of each; and the parables were explained. 
The state of the Church in the apostles' days was set 
forth, and the apostasy laid open ; and the free teaching 
of Christ and the apostles was set over the hireling 
teachers " ; and the Lord had the praise of all, for many 
were turned to him that day, 

I went back thence to Leominster, where was a 
great meeting in a field ; many hundreds of people 
being gathered together. There were about six con- 
gregational preachers and priests among them ; and 
Thomas Taylor, who had been a priest, but was now 
become a minister of Christ, was with me. I stood up, 
and declared about three hours ; and none of the priests 
were able to open their mouths in opposition; the 
Lord's power and truth so reached them and bound 
them down. At length one priest went off about a 
bow-shot from me, drew several of the people after him, 
and began to preach to them. So I kept our meeting, 
and he kept his. After a while Thomas Taylor was 
moved to go and speak to him ; and he gave over ; and 
he, and the people he had drawn off, came to us again ; 
and the Lord's power went over them all. 

"Where's Priest Tombs?" 
At last a Baptist that was convinced said, " Where's 
priest Tombs ? how chance he doth not come out ? " 
This Tombs was priest of Leominster. Hereupon some 
went and told the priest, who came with the bailiffs and 
other officers of the town. When he was come, they set 
him upon a stool over against me. Now I was speaking 
of the heavenly, divine l^ht of Christ, with which he 
" enlightens every one that cometh into the world, to 
give them the knowledge of the glory of God in the face 



"1 



i657 DISCUSSION ABOUT LIGHT 239 

of Christ Jesus their Saviour." When priest Tombs 
heard this he cried out, " That is a natural light and a 
made light.'* 

I Then I desired the people to take out their Bibles ; 

and I asked the priest whether he affirmed that that was 
a created, natural, made light which John, a man that 
was sent from God, did bear witness to, and spoke of, 
when he said, " in Him (to wit, in the Word) was life, 
and that life was the light of men," John i. 4. " Dost 
thou affirm and mean," said I, "that this light here 
spoken of was a created, natural, made light ? " And 
he said, " Yes." Then I showed by the Scriptures that 
the natural, created, made light is the outward light in 
the outward firmament, proceeding from the sun, moon, 
and stars. " And dost thou affirm," said I, " that God 
sent John to bear witness lo the light of the ^un, moon, 
and stars?" Then said he, "Did I say so?" I 
replied, " Didst . thou not say it was a natural, created, 
made light that John bore witness unto ? If thou dost 
not like thy words, take them again and mend them." 

**A Natural, Created Light** 

Then he said, " That light which I spoke of was a 
natural, created light." I told him, " he had not at all 
mended his cause ; for that light which I spoke of was 
the very same that John was sent of God to bear witness 
to, which was the life in the Word, by which all the 
natural lights, as sun^ moon, and stars, were made. < In 
him (to wit, the Word) was life, and that life was the 
light of men.' " So " I directed the people to turn to 
the place in their Bibles, and recited to them the words 
of John, how that * In the beginning was the Word, and 
the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The 
same was in the beginning with God ; all things were 



't 



240 "WE ARE IN THE FIELDS" ^657 

made by bim, and without him was not anything niade 
that was made. (So all natural, created lights were made 
by Christ the Word.) In him was life, and the life was 
the light of men ; and that was the true light, which 
lighteth every man that cometh into the world.' " 

When I had thus opened the matter to the people, 
the priest cried to the magistrates, "Take this man away, 
or else I shall not speak any more." " But," said I, 
" Priest Tombs, deceive not thyself, thou art not in thy 
pulpit now, nor in thy old mass-house; but we are in 
the fields." So he was shuffling to be gone; and 
Thomas Taylor stood up, and undertook to make out 
our principle by Christ's parable concerning the sower. 
Matt. xiiL Then said the priest, '■ Let that man speak, 
and not the other." So he got into a little jangling for a 
while; till the Lord's power stopped and confounded 
him. Afterwards a Friend stood up and told him how 
he had sued him for tithe eggs, and other Friends for 
other tithes ; for he was an Anabaptist preacher, and 
yet had a parson^e at Leominster, and had several 
journeymen under him. He said " he had a wife, and 
he had a concubine ; and his wife was the baptized 
people, and his conculnne was the world." But the 
Lord's power came over him and them all, and the ever- 
lasting truth was declared that day; and many were 
turned by it to the Lord Jesus Christ their teacher and 
way to God. Of great service that meeting was in those 
parts. Next day Thomas Taylor went to this priest and 
reasoned with him, and overcame him by the power of 
the Word. 

From this place I travelled on in Wales, having several 
meetings, till I came to Tenby ; where, as I rode up the 
street, a justice of peace came out of his house, desired 
me to alight, and stay at his house ; and I did so. On 



^ 



i6s7 A WRATHFUL GOVERNOR 241 

First-day the mayor and his wife and several of the chief 
of the town came in about ten, and stayed all the time 
of the meeting. A glorious one it was. John-ap-John 
being then with me, left it, and went to the steeple- 
house ; and the governor cast him into prison. On the 
Second-day morning the governor sent one of his officers 
to the justice's house to fetch me ; which grieved the 
mayor and the justice'; for they were both with me in the 
justice's house when the officer came. So the mayor and 
the justice went up to the governor before me ; and a 
while after I went up with the officer. When I came in 
I said, " Peace be unto this house." And before the 
governor could examine me, I asked him why he cast 
my friend into prison. 

Fox and Hat Brims 

He said, "For standing with his hat on in the 
church." I said, " Had not the priest two caps on his 
head, a black one and a white one ? Cut off the brims 
of the hat, and then my friend would have but one, and 
the brims of the hat were but to defend him from 
weather." "These are frivolous things," said the 
governor. " Why then,'' said I, " dost thou cast my 
friend into prison for such frivolous things ? " Then he 
asked me whether I owned election and reprobation ; 
i " Yes," said I, " and thou art in the reprobation." At 
that he was in a rage, and said he would send me to 
prison till I proved it ; but I told him I would prove 
that quickly if he would confess truth. Then I asked 
him whether wrath, fury, rage, and persecution were not 
marks of reprobation ; for he that was born of the flesh 
persecuted him that was born of the Spirit ; but Christ 
and his disciples never persecuted nor imprisoned any. 
Then he fairly confessed that he had too much wrath, 

Q 



--^ 



242 A SLEEPY TOWN 1657 

haste, and passion in him. I told him Esau was up in 
him, the first birth, not Jacob, the second birth. The 
Lord's power so reached and came over him that he 
confessed to truth; and the other justice: came and shook 
me kindly by the hand. 

As I was passing away I was moved to speak to the 
governor again, and he invited me to dine with him, and 
set my friend at liberty. I went back to the other 
justice's house ; and after some time the mayor and his 
wife, and the justice and his wife, and divers other 
Friends of the town, went about half a mile out of town 
with us to the water-side when we went away; and 
there, when we parted from them, I was moved of the 
Lord to kneel down with them and pray to the Lord to 
preserve them. So after I had recommended them to 
the Lord Jesus Christ, their Saviour and free teacher, we 
passed away in the Lord's power, and the Lord had 
thQ glory. A meeting continues in that town to this 
day. 

We travelled to Pembrokeshire, and in Pembroke 
had some service for the Lord. Thence we passed to 
Haverfordwest, where we had a great meeting, and all 
was quiet. 

After this we came into another county, and at noon 
came into a great market-town, and went into several 
inns before we could get any meat for our horses. At 
last we came to one where we got some. Then John-ap- 
John being with me, went and spoke through the town, 
declaring the truth to the people ; and when he came to 
me again, he said he thought all the town were as people 
asleep. After a while he was moved to go and declare 
truth in the streets again ; then the town was all in an 
uproar, and cast him into prison. Presently after, several 
of the chief of the town came, with others, to the inn 



A 



1657 "A KIND OF INDEPENDENTS'' 243 

where I was, and said, " They have cast your man into 
prison." " For what ? " said I. " He preached in our 
streets," said they. Then I asked them, " What did 
he say? had he reproved some of the drunkards and 
swearers, and warned them to repent and leave off their 
evil doings, and turn to the Lord ? " I asked them who 
cast him into prison ? They said the high-sheriff and 
justices and the mayor. I asked their names, and 
whether they understood themselves ? and whether that 
was their conduct to travellers that passed through their 
town, and strangers that admonished and exhorted them 
to fear the Lord, and reproved sins in their gates ? 

Upbraiding the Justices 

These went back, and told the officers what I said ; 
and after a while they brought down John-ap-John, 
guarded with halberts, in order to put him out of the 
town. Being at the inn door, I bid the officers take 
their hands off him. They said the mayor and justices 
had commanded them to put him out of town. I 
told them I would talk with their mayor and justices 
concerning their uncivil and unchristian carriage 
towards him. So I spoke to John to go look after 
the horses, and get them ready, and charged the officers 
not to touch him. And after I had declared the truth 
to them, and showed them the fruits of their priests, 
and their incivility and unchristian-like carriage, they 
left us. They were a kind of Independents; a very 
wicked town and false. We bid the innkeeper give our 
horses a peck of oats ; and no sooner had we turned 
our backs than the oats were stolen from our horses. 
After we had refreshed ourselves a little, and were ready, 
we took horse, and rode up to the inn where the mayor, 
sheriff, and justices were. 



^v-J 



244 JUSTICES ASttAMfeD 1657 

I called to speak with them, and asked them why 
they had imprisoned John-ap-John, and kept him in 
prison two or three hours ? But they would not answer 
me a word ; they only looked out at the windows upon 
me. So I showed them how unchristian their carriage 
was to strangers and travellers, and manifested the 
fruits of their teachers ; and I declared the truth unto 
them, and warned them of the day of the Lord that 
was coming upon all evil-doers ; and the Lord's power 
came over them, that they looked ashamed ; but not a 
word could I get from them in answer. So when I had 
warned them to repent and turn to the Lord, we 
passed away; and at night came to a little inn, very 
poor, but very cheap; for our own provision and 
our two horses cost but eightpence ; but the horses 
would not eat their oats. We declared the truth to the 
people of the place, and sounded the day of the Lord 
through the countries. 

Robbing a Horse 

Thence we came to a great town, and went to 
an inn. Edward Edwards went into the market, and 
declared the truth amongst the people; and they followed 
him to the inn, and filled the yard, and were exceedingly 
rude ; yet good service we had for the Lord amongst 
them ; for the life of Christianity and the power of 
it tormented their chaffy spirits, and came over them, so 
that some were reached and convinced; and the 
Lord's power came over all. The magistrates were 
bound ; they had no power to meddle with us. 

After this we came to another great town on a 
market day ; and John-ap-John declared the everlasting 
truth through the streets, and proclaimed the day of 
the Lord amongst them. In the evening many people 



i6s7 FOX AND HIS HORSE 245 

gathered' about the inn; and some ot them, being 
drunk, would fain have had us into the street a'gain ; but 
seeing their design, I told them if there were any that 
feared God, and desired to hear the truth, they might 
come into our inn ; or else we might have a meeting 
with them next morning. Some service for the Lord we 
had amongst them, both over night and in the morning ; 
and though the people were hard to receive the truth, 
yet the seed was sown ; and thereabouts the Lord hath 
a people gathered to himself. In that inn also I turned 
but my back to the man that was giving oats to my 
horse; and looking round again, I observed he was 
filling his pockets with the provender. A wicked, 
thievish people, to rob the poor dumb creature of 
his food. I would rather they had robbed me. 

A Memorable Hill Top 

Leaving this town and travelling on, a great man 
overtook us on the way, and he purposed (as he told us 
afterwards) to take us at the next town for highwaymen. 
But before we came to the town, I was moved of the 
Lord to speak to him. What I spoke reached to the 
witness of God in the man, who was so affected there- 
with that he had us to his house, and entertained 
us very civilly. He and his wife desired us to give them 
: some Scriptures, both for proof of our principles and 

against the priests. We were glad of the service, and 
furnished them with Scriptures enough ; and he wrote 
them down, and was convinced of the truth, both by the 
Spirit of God in his own heart, and by the Scriptures, 
which were a confirmation to him. Afterwards he set 
us on our journey, and as we travelled we came to 
a hill, which the people of the country say is two 
or three miles high; from the side of this hill I could see 



I 



% 



246 FOX PROPHESIES 1657 

a great way. And I was moved to set my £ace several 
ways, and to sound the day of the Lord there ; and 
I told John-ap-John (a faithful Welsh mmister) in what 
places God would raise up a people to himself, to 
sit under his own teaching. Those places he took note 
of, and a great people have since been raised up there. 
The like I have been moved to do in many other rude 
places ; and yet I have been moved to declare the Lord 
had a seed in those parts, and afterwards there have 
been a brave people raised up in the covenant of God, 
and gathered in the name of Jesus ; where they have 
salvation and free teaching. 

An Arrest at Beaunoaris 

We went to Beaumaris, a town wherein John-ap-John 
had formerly been preacher. After we had put up our 
horses at an inn, John went forth and spoke through the 
street ; and there being a garrison in the town, they took 
him and put him into prison. The innkeeper's wife 
came and told me that the governor and magistrates 
were sending for me to commit me to prison also. I 
told her they had done more than they could answer 
already; and had acted contrary to Christianity in 
imprisoning him for reproving sin in their streets and 
for declaring the truth. Soon after came other friendly 
people, and told me if I went out into the street they 
would imprison me also, and therefore they desired me 
to keep at the inn. Upon this I was moved to go and 
walk up and down the streets, and told the people " what 
an uncivil and* unchristian thing they had done, in 
casting my friend into prison." And, they being high 
professors, I asked them " if this was the entertainment 
they had for strangers ; if they would willingly be so served 
themselves; and whether they, who looked upon the 



i6s7 FOX AND THE FERRY-BOAT 247 

Scriptures to be their rule, had any example therein 
from Christ or his apostles for what they had done?" 
So after a while they set John-ap-John at liberty. 

A Scene at the Ferry 

Next day, being market-day, we were to cross a great 
water : and not far from the place where we were to take 
boat, many of the market-people drew to us; amongst 
whom we had good service for the Lord, " declaring the 
word of life and everlasting truth unto them, and pro- 
claiming the day of the Lord amongst them, which was 
coming upon all wickedness; and directing them to the 
light of Christ which he had enlightened them with ; by 
which they m^ht see all their sins and false ways, 
religions, worships, and teachers ; and by the same light 
might seeChrist Jesus, whojwas come to save them and lead 
them to God. After the Lord's truth bad been declared 
to them in the power of God, and Christ the A:ee teacher 
set over all the hireling teachers, I bid John-ap-John get 
his horse into the boat, which was then ready. But 
there b^ng a company of wild gentlemen, as they called 
them, got into it, whom we found very rude and &r 
from gentleness, they, with others, kept his horse out of 
the boat. 

I rode to the boat's side and spoke to them, showing 
them " what unmanly and unchristian conduct it was ; 
and told them they showed an unworthy spirit, bdow 
Christianity or humanity." As I spoke, I leaped my 
horse into the boat amongst them, thinking John's horse 
would have followed when he had seen mine go in before 
him ; but the water beii^ deep John could not get his 
horse into the boat. Wherefore I leaped out again on 
horseback into the water and stayed with John on thai 
side till the boat returped, There we tarried from 



i 



248 A LADY'S QUESTION 1657 

elereD in the foreooon to two in the afternoon before 
the boat came to fetch us ; and then we had forty-two 
miles to ride that evening, and when we had paid for our 
passage we had but one groat left between us in money. 
We rode about sixteen miles and then got a little hay 
for our horses. Setting forward again, we came in the 
night to a little ale-house, where we intended to stay 
and bait; but finding we could have neither oats nor 
hay there we travelled on all night, and about five in 
the morning got to a place within sue miles of 
Wrexham, where that day we met with many Friaids 
and had a glorious meeting ; and the Lord's everlasting 
power and truth was over all, and a meeting is continued 
there to this day. Very weary we were with travelling 
so hard up and down in Wales, and in many places we 
found it difficult to get meat either for our horses or 
ourselves. 

An Impudent Lady 
Next day we passed thence into Flintshire, sounding 
the day of the Lord through the towns, and came into 
Wrexham at night. Here many of Floyd's people came 
to us, but very rude, wild, and airy they were and little 
sense of truth they had, yet some were convinced in 
that town. Next morning, one called a lady sent for 
me,, who kept a preacher in her house. I went, but 
found both her and her preacher very light and airy, too 
light to receive the weighty things of God. In her 
lightness she came and asked me if she should cut my 
hair ; but I was moved to reprove her, and bid her cut 
down the corruptions in herself with the sword of the 
Spirit of God, So after I had admonished her to be 
more grave and sober, we passed away, and afterwards 
in her frothy mind she made her boast ttiat "she came 



i6S7 "COALS, CLODS, STONES AND WATER" 249 

behind me and cut off the curl of my hair " ; but she 

spoke falsely. 

From Wrexham we came to Chester; and being the 
fair time, we stayed a while, and visited Friends. For I 
had travelled through every county in Wales, preaching 
the everlasting gospel of Christ; and a brave people 
there is now, who have received it, and sit under Christ's 
teaching,'' But before I left Wales I wrote to the 
magistrates of Beaumaris concerning the imprisoning of 
John-ap-John ; letting them see their conditions, and the 
fruits of their Christianity, and of their teachers. After- 
wards I met with some of them near London ; but oh 
how ashamed they were of their action ! 

Abused at Manchester 

We came to Manchester ; and the sessions being there 
that day, many rude people were come out of the 
country. In the meeting they threw at me coals, clods, 
stones, and water ; yet the Lord's power bore me up 
over them, that they could not strike me down. At 
last, when they saw they could not prevail by throwing 
water, stones, and dirt at me, they went and informed 
the justices in the sessions ; who thereupon sent officers 
to fetch me before them. The officers came in while I 
was declaring the word of life to the people, plucked mc; 
down and haled me up into their court. 

When 1 came there, all the court was in disorder and 
noise. Wherefore I asked, where were the magistrates 
that they did not keep the people civil ? Some of the 
justices said they were magistrates. I asked them, why 
then they did not appease the people, and keep them 
sober ? for one cried " I'll swear," and another cried 
" 111 swear." I declared to the justices how we were 
abused in our meeting by the rude people, who threw 



250 AT MANCHESTER 1657 

stones and clods, dirt, and water ; and how I was haled 
out of the meeting, and brought thither, contrary to the 
instrument of government, which said, " none should be 
molested in their meetings that professed God and 
owned the Lord Jesus Christ " ; which I did. So the 
truth came over them, that when one of the rude fellows 
cried " he would swear," one of the justices checked 
him, saying, "What will you swear ? hold your tongue." 
At last they bid the constable take me to my lodging ; 
and there be secured till morning, till they sent for me 
again. 

So the constable had me to my lodging ; and as we 
went the people were exceedingly rude ; but I let them 
see " the fruits of their teachers, and how they shamed 
Christianity , and dishonoured the name of Jesus, which 
they professed." At night we went to a justice's house 
in the town, who was pretty moderate ; and I had much 
discourse with him. Next morning we sent to the 
constable to know if he had anything more to say to us. 
And he sent us word " he had nothing to say to us but 
that we might go whither we would." The Lord hath 
since raised up a people to stand for his name and 
truth in that town over those chaffy professors. 

We passed from Manchester, having many precious 
meetings in several places, till we came to Preston; 
between which and Lancaster I had a general meeting ; 
from which I went to Lancaster. There at our inn I 
met with Colonel West, who was very glad to see me ; 
who meeting with Judge Fell, told him I was mightily 
grown in the truth ; when indeed he was come nearer 
to the truth, and could better discern it. 
- Next day I came over the Sands to Swarthmore, 
where Friends were glad to see me. I stayed there two 
First-days, visiting Friends in their meetings thereaways- 



.&£ 



i6s7 FOX GOES TO SCOTLAND 251 

They rejoiced with me in the goodness of the Lord who 
by hi^ eternal power had carried me through and over 
many difficulties and dangers in his service ; to him be 
the praise for ever. 

I had for some time felt drawings on my spirit to go 
into Scotland j and had sent to Colonel William Osburn 
of Scotland^ desiring him to come and meet me ; and he, 
with some others, came. I passed with him and his 
company into Scotland; having Robert Widders with 
me, a thundering man against hypocrisy, deceit, and the 
rottenness of the priests. 

In Scotland 

The first night we came into Scotland we lodged at 
an inn. The inkeeper told us an Earl lived about a 
quarter of a mile off, who had a desire to see me ; and 
had left word at- his house that if ever I came into 
Scotland he should send him word. He told us there 
were three draw-bridges to his house, and that it would 
be nine o'clock before the third bridge was drawn. 
Finding we had time in the evening, we walked to his 
house. He received us very lovingly; and said he 
would have gone with us on our journey, but he was 
previously engaged to go to a funeral. After we had 
spent some time with him, we parted very friendly, and 
returned to our inn. Next morning , we travelled on, 
and passing through Dumfries, came to Douglas, ^where 
we met with some Friends ; and thence passed to the 
Heads, where we had a blessed meeting in the name of 
Jesus, and felt him in the midst. 

Leaving Heads, we went to Badcow, and had a meet- 
ing there; to which abundance of people came, and 
many were convinced ; amongst whom was one called a 
lady. From thence we passed towards the Highlands to 



858 FOX AND SCOTCH PRIESTS 1657 

William Osburn's house, where we gathered up the 
sufferings of Friends, and the principles of the Scotch 
priests, which roay be seen in a book called " The Scotch 
Priests' Principles." 

Afterwards we returned to Heads, Badcow, and Gar- 
shore, where the said Lady Margaret Hambleton was 
convinced; who afterwards went to warn Oliver 
Cromwell and Charles Fleetwood of the day of the 
Lord that was coming upon them. 

Foz At^ues Against Election 
On First-day we had a great meeting, and several pro- 
fessors came to it. Now, the priests had frightened the 
people with the doctrine of election and reprobation, 
telling them " that God had ordained the greatest part 
of men and women for hell ; and that, let them pray, or 
preach, or sing, or do what they could, it was all to no 
purpose if they were ordained for hell ; that God had 
a certain number elected for heaven, let them do what 
they would, as David an adulterer, and Paul a perse- 
cutor, yet elected vessels for heaven. So the (ault was 
not at all in the creature, less or more, but God had 
ordtuned it so." I was led to open to the people the 
falseness and folly of their priests' doctrines, and showed 
how they had abused those Scriptures they brought and 
quoted to them, as in Jude and other places. . . . 

These things soon came to the priests' ears ; for the- 
people that sat under their dark teachings began to see 
light, and to come into the covenant of light. The 
noise was spread over Scotland, amongst the priests, 
that I was come thither; and a great cry was among 
them that all would be spoiled ; for they said I had 
spoiled all the honest men and women in England 
already, so according to their own account, the worst 



\ 



\ 



ssassSE^r 



1657 EXTRAORDINARY CURSES 253 

were left to them. Upon this they gathered great 
assemblies of priests together, and drew up a number of 
curses to be read in their several steeple-houses, that all 
the people might say « Amen " to thi?«»- «K«*rc ^ew of 
these I will be r g - aet ^ttown, the rest may be read in the 
book before mentioned, of " The Scotch Priests' 
Principles." 

Priests* Curses 

The first was, " Cursed is he that saith every man 
hath a light within him sufficient to lead him to salva- 
tion ; and let all the people say Amen." 

The second, " Cursed is he that saith, faith is without 
sin ; ahd let all the people say Amen." 

The third, " Cursed is he that denieth the Sabbath- 
day ; and let all the people say Amen." 

In this last they make the people curse themselves ; 
for on the Sabbath-day (which is the seventh-day of the 
week, which the Jews kept by the command of God to 
them) they kept markets and fairs, and so brought the 
curse upon their own heads. 

There were two Independent churches in Scotland, in 
one of which many were convinced ; but the pastor of 
the other was in a great rage against truth and Friends. 
They had their elders, who sometimes would exercise 
their gifts amongst the church-members, and were some- 
times pretty tender ; but their pastor speaking so much 
against the light and us, the friends of Christ, he 
darkened his hearers, so that they grew blind, and dry, 
and lost their tenderness. He continued preaching 
against Friends, and against the light of Christ Jesus, 
calling it natural ; at last one day in his preaching he 
cursed the light, and fell down, as if dead, in his pulpit. 
The people carried him out, and laid him upon a grave- 



^ 



( 



254 A PASTOR'S ENTERTAINMENT 1657 
stone, and poured strong waters into him, which brought 
him to life again ; and they carried him home, but he 
was mopish. 

A Ciufser (^ tbe ' Li^ ' ' 
After a while he stripped oif his clothes, put on a 
Scotch plaid, and went into the country amongst the 
dairy-women. When he had stayed there about two 
weeks, he came home, and went into the pulpit again. 
Whereupon the people expected some great manifesta- 
tion or revelation from him ; but, instead thereof, he 
began to tell them what entertainment he had met 
with; how one woman gave him skimmed-milk, another 
gave him butter-milk, and another gave him' good 
milk; so the people were fain to take hira out of 
the pulpit again and carry him home. He that gave 
me this account was Andrew Robinson, one of his chief 
hearers, who came afterwards to be convinced, and 
received the truth. He said he never heard that he 
recovered his senses a^n. By this people may see 
what came upon him that cursed the light ; which Light 
is the Life in Christ, the Word ; and it may be a warning 
to all Others that speak evil against the Light of Christ. 

In Edinbui^h and Leitb 
Now were the priests in such a rage that they posted 
to Edinburgh, to Oliver Cromwell's council there, with 
petitions against me. The noise was "that all was 
gone " ; for several Friends were come out of England 
and spread over Scotland, sounding the day of the 
Lord, preaching the everlasting gospel of salvation, and 
turning people to Christ Jesus, who died for them, that 
they might receive his free teaching. After I bad 
gathered the principles of the Scotch priests, and the 



M 
i 

t 
i 



1657 FOX AND THE COUNCIL 255 

sufferings of Friends, and had seen the Friends in that 
part of Scotland settled, by the Lord's power, upon 
Christ their foundation, I went to Edinburgh, and in the 
way came to Linlithgow ; wher*». ln/^o--o — •«* "i^i ^n^ 
innkeeper's wife, who was blind, received the word of 
life and came under the teaching of Christ Jesus, her 
Saviour. At night there came in abundance of soldiers 
and some officers, with whom we had much discourse ; 
some were rude. One of the officers said " he would 
obey the Turk's or Pilate's command if they should 
command him to guard Christ to crucify him." So far 
was he from all tenderness or sense of the Spirit of 
Christ, that he would rather crucify the just than suffer 
for or with the just ; whereas many officers and magis- 
trates have lost their places before they would turn 
against the Lord and his Just One. 

Fox before the Scottish Council 

I mentioned before that many of the Scotch priests, 
being greatly disturbed at the spreading of truth ^nd the 
loss of their hearers thereby, were gone to Edinburgh, to 
petition the council against me. Now when I came 
from the meeting to the inn where I lodged, an officer 
belonging to the council brought me the following 
order : 

" Thursday^ the Sth of October^ 1657, at his Highnesses 

Council in Scotland. 

" Ordered, 
" That George Fox do appear before the Council on 
Tuesday, the 13th of October next, in the forenoon. 

" E. Downing, Clerk of the Council." 

When he had delivered me the order he asked me 



fm 



256 FOX BEFORE THE COUNCIL 1657 

'* whether I would appear or not ? '' I did not tell him 

whether I would or not ; but asked him " if he had not 

^^ ord er"; he said, "No, it was a real order 

( Il7r^mm"'f!'"ll'lii'lwif''i ' ^-^li!!* ^^^^^ messenger, 

with it." When the time came I appeared7and was 
conducted into a large room, where many great persons 
came and looked at me. After a while the door-keeper 
had me into the council-chamber ; and as I was going 
in, he took off my hat. I asked him " why he did so, 
and who was there, that I might not go in with my hat 
on ? " for I told him " I had been before the Protector 
with it on." But he hung it up, and had me in before 
them. When I had stood a while and they said nothing 
to me, I was moved of the Lord to say, " Peace be 
amongst you ; wait in the fear of God, that ye may re- 
ceive his wisdom from above, by which all things were 
made and created ; that by it ye may all be ordered, 
and may order all things under you hands to God's 
glory." 

They asked me, " what was the occasion of my coming 
into that nation ? " I told them, " I came to visit the 
seed of God, which had long lain in bondage under 
corruption; and the intent of my coming was that all 
in the nation that professed the Scriptures, the words of 
Christ, and of the prophets and apostles, might come 
to the light, Spirit, and power which they were in who 
gave them forth ; that so in and by the Spirit they might 
understand the Scriptures, know Christ and God aright, 
and have fellowship with them, and one with another. 
They asked me "whether I had any outward busi- 
ness there?" I said "nay." Then they asked me 
how long I intended to stay in the country ? I told 
them " I should say little to that ; my time was not to 
be long ; yet in my freedom in the Lord I stood in the 



1657 "t5Re£REDjrO O^lX-St'^rLAND 2.-M 

will of him that sent me," Then they bid me with- 
draw, and the door-keeper took me by the hand, and 
led me forth. In a little time they sent for me again, 
and told me, " I must depart the nation of Scotland by 
that day seventh night," 

I asked them, " why, what had I done ? What was 
my transgression, that they passed such a sentence upon 
me to depart out of the nation ? " They told me, " they 
would not dispute with me." Then I desired them "to hear 
what I had to say to them " ; but they said, " they would 
not hear me." I told them, Pharaoh heard Mosm and 
Aaron, and yet he was a heathen and no Christian, and 
Herod heard John the Baptist ; and they should not be 
worse than these. But they cried, " withdraw, with- 
draw." Whereupon the door-keeper took me again by 
the hand, and led me out. Then I returned to my inn, 
and continued still in Edinburgh, visiting Friends there 
and thereabouts, and strengthening them in the Lord. 

A Letter to the Council 

After a little time, I wrote a letter to the council, to 
lay before them their unchristian dealing in banishinf^ 
me, an innocent man, that sought their salvation and 
eternal good ; a copy of which letter here follows : — 

" To the Council of Edinburgh, 
" Ye that sit in council, and bring before your 
judgment-seat the innocent, the just, without showing 
the least cause what evil I have done, or convicting me 
of any breach of law ; and afterward banish me out of 
your nation and country, without telling me why, or 
what evil I had done ; though I told you, when ye asked 
me how long I would stay in the nation, that ray time 
was not long (I spoke it innocently), and yet ye banish 



i 



I 

L 



258 FOX QdO-'FES-f4lECEBERl^"' 1657 

me. Will not all, think ye, that fear God, judge this to 
be wickedness ? Consider, did not they sit in council 
about Stephen, when they Stoned him to death ? Did 
not they sit in council about Peter and John, when they 
haled them out of the temple, and put them out of their 
council for a little season, and took council together, and 
then brought them in again and threatened them, and 
charged them to speak no more in that name ? Was 
not this to stop the truth from spreading in that time ? 
And had not the priests a hand in these things with the 
magistrates ? and in examining Stephen, when he was 
stoned to death ? 

" Was not the council gathered together against Jesus 
Christ to put him to death ? and had not the chief priests 
a hand in it ? When they go to persecute the just, and 
crucify the just, do they not then nt^lect judgment, and 
mercy, and justice, and the weighty matters of the law, 
which is just ? Was not the apostle Paul tossed up and 
down by the priests and the rulers ? Was not John the 
Baptist cast into prison ? Are not ye doing the same 
work, showing what spirit ye are of? Now do not ye 
show the end of your profession, the end of your 
prayers, the end of your religion, and the end of your 
teaching, who ate now come to banish the truth, and 
him that is come to declare it unto you? Doth not 
this show that ye are but in the words, out of the life, ot 
the prophets, Christ, and His apostles? for they did 
not use such practice as to banish any, 

" How do ye receive strangers, which is a command 
of God among the prophets, Christ, and the apostles P 
Some by that means have entertained angels at unawares ; 
but ye banish one that comes to visit the Seed of God, 
and is not chargeable to any of you. Will not all that 
fear God, look upon this to be spite and wickedness 



i6s7 JEREMIAH IN THE STOCKS 259 

against the truth ? How are ye like to love enemies, 
that banish your friend ? How are ye like to do good 
to them that hate you, when ye do evil to them that 
love you? How are ye like to heap coals of fire on 
their heads that hate you, and to overcome evil with 
good, when ye banish thus? Do ye not manifest to all 
that are in the truth, that ye have not the Christian 
spirit? How did ye do justice to me, when ye could 
not convict me of any evil, yet banish me ? This shows 
that truth is banished out of your hearts, and ye have 
taken part against the truth with evil-doers ; with the 
wicked, envious priests, and stoners, strikers, B.nd 
mockers in the streets ; with these, ye that banish, have 
taken part. Whereas ye should have been a terror to 
these, and a praise to them that do well, and succourers 
of them that are in the truth ; then might ye have been 
a blessing to the nation, ye would not have banished 
him that was moved of the Lord to visit the Seed of 
God, and thereby have brought your name upon record, 
and made them to stiok in ^es to come, among them 
that fear God. 

" Were not the magistrates stirred up in former ages 
to persecute or banish, by the corrupt priests ? and did 
not the corrupt priests stir up the rude multitude against 
the just in other ages ? Therefore are your streets like 
Sodom and Gomorrah. Did not the Jews and the 
priests make the Gentiles' minds envious against the 
apostles ? Who were they that would not have the 
prophet Amos to prophesy at the king's chapel; hut 
Wd him fly his way ? And when Jeremiah was put in 
the prison, in the dungeon, and in the stocks, had not 
the priests a hand with the princes in doing it ? Now 
see all that were in tiiis work of banishing, prisoning, 
persecuting, whether they were not all out of the life of 



260 EFFECT OF FOX'S LETTER 1657 

Christ, the prophets, and apostles ? To the witness of 
God in you all I speak. Consider whether they were 
not always the blind magistrates, who turned their sword 
backward, that knew not their friends from their foes, 
and so hit their friends. Such magistrates were deceived 
by flattery. G. F." 

When this was delivered, and read amongst them, 
some of themy I heard, were troubled at what they had 
done, being made sensible that they would not be so 
served themselves. But it was not long before they that 
banished me, were banished themselves, or glad to get 
away; who would not do good in the day when they 
had power, nor suffer others that would. 

Fez and the Thieves 

After I had visited Friends at Heads and thereaways, 
and had encouraged them in the Lord, I went to Glasgow, 
where a meeting was appointed; but not one of the 
town came to it. As I went into the city the guard at 
the gates took me before the governor, who was a 
moderate man. Much discourse I had with him ; but 
he was too light to receive the truth, yet he set me at 
liberty ; so I passed to the meeting. But seeing none 
of the town's-people came, we declared truth through the 
town, and so passed away ; and having visited Friends 
in their meetings thereabouts, returned towards Badcow. 
Several Friends declared truth in their steeple-houses, 
and the Lord's power was with them. Once as I was 
going with William Osburn to his house, there lay a 
company of rude fellows by the wayside, hid under the 
hedges and in bushes. Seeing them, I asked him ** what 
they were?" <*0," said he, "they are thieves." 
Robert Widders, being moved to go and speak to a 



i 

ff; 



t6s7 THE DEVILISH HIGHLANDERS 26l 

priest, was left behind, intending to come after. So I 
said to William Osburn, ** I will stay heife in this valley, 
and do thou go look after Robert Widders " ; but he was 
unwilling to go, being afraid to leave me there alone, 
because of those fellows, till I told him, "I feared 
them not." 

Then I called to them, asking them, " what they lay 
lurking there for/' and 1 bid them come to me; but 
they were loath to come. I charged them to come up 
to me, or else it might be worse with them ; then they 
came trembling, for the dread of the Lord had struck 
them. I admonished them to be honest, and directed 
them to the light of Christ in their hearts, that by it they 
might see what an evil it was to follow after theft and 
robbery ; and the power of the Lord came over them. 
I stayed there till William Osburn and Robert Widders 
came up, and then we passed on together. But it is 
likely that, if we two had gone away before, they would 
have robbed Robert Widders when he had come after 
alone, there being three or four of them. 

We went to William Osburn's house, where we had a 
good opportunity to declare the truth to several people 
that came in. Then we went among the Highlanders, 
who were so devilish, they had liked to have spoiled us 
and our horses ; for they ran at us with pitch-forks ; but 
through the Lord's goodness we escaped them, being 
preserved by his power. 

We passed through several other places, till we came 
to Johnstons, where were several Baptists that were very 
bitter, and came in a rage to dispute with us: vain 
janglers and disputers indeed they were. When they 
could not prevail by disputing they went and informed 
the governor against us; and next morning raised a 
whole company of foot, and banished me, and Alexander 



^6^ SPITEFUL MAGISTRATES 1657 

Parker, also James Lancaster, and Robert Widders out 
of the town. As they guarded us through the town, 
James Lancaster was moved to sing with a melodious 
sound in the power of God ; and I was moved to pro- 
claim the day of the Lord, and preach the everlasting 
gospel to the people. For they generally came forth, 
so that the streets were filled with them : and the soldiers 
were so ashamed that they said, " they would rather have 
gone to Jamaica than have guarded us so." But we 
were put into a boat with our horses, carried over the 
water, and there left. The Baptists, who were the cause 
of our being thus put out of this town, were themselves, 
not long after, turned out of the army ; and he that was 
then governor was discarded also when the king 
came in. 

A Sermon in the Market-place 

Being thus thrust out of Johnstons, we went to 
another market-town, where Edward Billing and many 
soldiers quartered. We went to an inn, and desired to 
have a meeting in the town, that we might preach the 
everlasting gospel amongst them. The officers and 
soldiers said, we should have it in the town-hall ; but 
the Scotch magistrates in spite appointed a meeting 
there that day for the business of the town. When the 
officers of the soldiery understood this, and perceived 
that it was done in malice, they would have had us to 
go into the town-hall nevertheless. But we told them, 
« by no means, for then the magistrates might inform 
the governor against them, and say, they took the town- 
hall from them by force, when they were to do their 
town business therein." We told them, " we would go 
to the market-place ; " they said, " it was market-day " ; 
we replied, " it was so much the better ; for we would 



1^57 A DARK CARNAL PEOPLE 263 

have all people to hear truth, and know our prin- 
ciples.'* 

Alexander Parker went and stood upon the market- 
cross, with a Bible in his hand, and declared the truth 
amongst the soldiers and market-people ; but the Scots, 
being a dark, carnal people, gave little heed, and hardly 
took notice of what was said. After a while I was moved 
of the Lord to stand up at the cross, and declare with a 
loud voice the everlasting truth, and the day of the Lord 
that was coming upon all sin and wickedness. Where- 
upon the people came running out of the town-hall, and 
they gathered so together that at last we had a large 
meeting ; for they sat in the court only for a pretence,, 
to hinder us from having the hall to meet in. When 
the people were come away, the magistrates followed 
them. Some walked by, but some stayed and heard ; 
and the Lord's power came over all, and kept all quiet. 
"The people were turned to the Lord Jesus Christ, who 
died for them, and had enlightened them, that with his 
light they might see their evil deeds, be saved from their 
sins by him, and come to know him to be their teacher. 
But if they would not receive Christ and own him, it 
was told them, that this light, which came from him, 
would be their condemnation.*' 

Several of them were made loving to us, especially 
the English people, and some came afterwards to be con- 
vinced. But there was a soldier that was very envious 
against us ; he hated both us and the truth, spoke evil 
of it, and very despitefuUy against the light of Christ 
Jesus, to which we bore testimony. Mighty zealous he 
was for the priests and their hearers. As this man was 
hearing the priest, holding his hat before his face, while 
the priest prayed, one of the priest's hearers stabbed him 
to death ; so he who had rejected, the teachings of the 



864 FOX'S BRAVERY 1657 

Lord Jesus Christ, and cried down the servants of the 
Lord, was murdered amongst them whom he had so cried 
up, and by one of them. 

Return to Edinbui^h 

We travelled from this town to Leith, warning and 
exhorting people, as we went, to turn to the Lord. At 
Leith the innkeeper told me that the council had granted 
warrants to apprehend me, " because I was not gone out 
of the nation, after the seven days were expired, that 
they had ordered me to depart in." Several friendly 
people also came and told me the same, to whom I said, 
"What do ye tell me of their warrants against me? if 
there were a cart-load of them I do not heed them, for 
the Lord's power is over them all." 

I went from Leith to Edinburgh again, where they 
said the warrants from the council were out against me. 
I went to the inn where I had lodged before, and no man 
offered to meddle with me. After I had visited Friends 
in the city, I desired those that travelled with me, to get 
ready their horses in the morning, and we rode out of 
town t(^ether; there were with me at that time Thomas 
Rawlinson, Alexander Parker, and Robert Widders. 
When we were out of town they asked me, " whither I 
would go ? " I told them it was upon me from the Lord 
to go back again to Johnstons (the town out of which 
we had been lately thrust), to set the power of God and 
his truth over them also. Alexander Parker said, " he 
would go along with me "; and I wished the other two 
to stay at a town, about three miles from Edinburgh, till 
we returned. 

Then Alexander and I got over the water, about three 
miles across, and rode through the country; but in the 
afternoon, his horse being weak and not able to hold 



1657 WAITING FOR THE BAPTISTS t65 

up with mine, I put on and got into Johnstons just as 

they were drawing up the bridges; the officers and 

soldiers never questioning me. I rode up the street to 

Captain Davenport's house, from which we had been 

banished. There were many officers with him; and 

when I came amongst them, they lifted up their hands, 

wondering that I should come again ; but I told them, 

" the Lord God had sent me amongst them again " ; so 

they went their way. The Baptists sent me a letter, by 

way of challenge, " to discourse with me next day." I 

sent them word, " I would meet them at such a house, 

about half a mile out of the town, at such an hour." 

For I considered, if I should stay in town to discourse 

with them, they might, under pretence of discoursing 

with me, have raised men to put me out of the town 

again, as they had done before. At the time appointed 

I went to the place. Captain Davenport and his son 

accompanying me, where I stayed some hours, but not 

one of them came. While I stayed there waiting for 

them, I saw Alexander Parker coming ; who, not being 

able to reach the town, had lain out the night before ; 

and I was exceedingly glad that we were met again. 

This Captain Davenport was then loving to Friends ; 
but afterwards coming more into obedience to truth, he 
was turned out of his place for not putting off his hat, 
and for saying Thou and Thee to them. 

^^ Against the Cannon^s Mouth ^ 

When we had waited beyond reasonable ground to 
expect any of them coming, we departed ; and Alexander 
Parker being moved to go again in the town, where we 
had the meeting at the market-cross, I passed alone to 
Lieutenant Foster's quarters, where I found several 
officers that were convinced. From thence I went up 



266 DUNBAR STEEPLE-HOUSE 1657 

to the town, where I had left the other two Friends, and 
we went back to Edinburgh together. 

When we were come to the city, I bid Robert Widders 
follow me ; and in the dread and power of the Lord we 
came up to the first two sentries ; and .he Lord's power 
came so over them, that we passed by them without any 
examination. Then we rode up the street to the market- 
place, by the main-guard out at the gate by the third 
sentry, and so clear out at the suburbs, and there came 
to an inn and set up our horses, it being the seventh day 
of the week. Now I saw and felt that we had rode, as 
it were, against the cannon's mouth, or the sword's point ; 
but the Lord's power and immediate hand carried us 
over the heads of them all. Next day I went to the 
meeting in the city. Friends having notice that I would 
attend it. There came many officers and soldiers to it, 
and a glorious meeting it was ; the everlasting power of 
God was set over the nation, and his Son reigned in his 
glorious power. All was quiet, and no man offered to 
meddle with me. When the meeting was ended, and I 
had visited Friends, I came out of the city to my inn 
again ; and next day, being the second day of the week 
we set forward towards the borders of England. 

At Dunbar 

As we travelled along the country I spied a steeple- 
house, and it struck at my life. I asked ** what steeple- 
house it was," and was answered, that it was Dunbar. 
When I came" thither, and had put up at an inn, I walked 
to the steeple-house, having a friend or two with me. 
When we came into the yard, one of the chief men of 
the town was walking there. I spoke to one of the 
friends that were with me, to go to him and tell him, 
" that about nine next morning there would be a meet*- 



i6ii DEBATE WITH A JESUIT 267 

ing there of the people of God called Quakers ; of which 
we desired he would give notice to the people of the 
town.*' He sent me word, " that they were to have a 
lecture there at nine ; but that we might have our meet- 
ing there at eight, if he would." We concluded so, and 
desired him to give notice of it. 

Accordingly in the morning both poor and rich came ; 
and there being a captain of horse quartered in the town, 
he and his troopers came also, so that we had a large 
meeting ; and a glorious one it was, the Lord's power 
being over all. After some time the priest came, and 
went into the steeple-house ; but we being in the yard, 
most of the people stayed with us. Friends were so full, 
and their voices so high in the power of God, that the 
priest could do little in the steeple-house, but came 
quickly out again, stood a while, and then went his way. 

Fox Debates witli a Jesuit 

1658. — I had not been long in London before I heard 
that a Jesuit, who came over with an ambassador from 
Spain, had challenged all the Quakers to dispute with 
them at the Earl of Newport's house : whereupon 
Friends let him know that some would meet him. Then 
he sent us word ** he would meet with twelve of the 
wisest and most learned men we had " : a while after he 
sent us word " he would meet with but six " ; and after 
that, he sent us word again, " he would have but three 
to come." We hastened what we could, lest, after all 
his great boast, he should put it quite off at the last. 

When we were come to the house, I bid Nicholas 
Bond and Edward Burrough go up and enter into dis. 
course with him ; and I would walk a while in the yard, 
and then come up after them. I advised them to state 
this question to him, Whether or not the church of 



hUtMt 



268 QUESTIONS FOR THE JESUIT 1658 

Rome, as it now stood, was not degenerated from the 
true church, which was in the primitive times, from the 
life and doctrine, and from the power and Spirit that they 
were in ? They stated the question accordingly ; and 
the Jesuit affirmed, " that the church of Rome was now 
in the virginity and purity of the primitive church." By 
this time I was come to them. Then we asked him, 
" whether they had had the Holy Ghost poured out upon 
them, as the apostles had ? " He said, " No." " Then," 
said I, " if ye have not the same Holy Ghost poured 
forth upon you, and the same power and Spirit that the 
apostles had, then ye are degenerated from the power 
and Spirit which the primitive church was in." There 
needed little more to be said to that. 

Then I asked him, **What Scripture they had for 
setting up cloisters for nuns, abbeys and monasteries for 
men, for all their several orders ; and for their praying 
by beads, and to images; for making crosses, for for- 
bidding meats and marriages, and for putting people to 
death for religion ? If," said I, " ye are in the practice 
of the primitive church, in its purity and virginity, then 
let us see by Scriptures, wherever they practised any 
such things." (For it was agreed on both hands that 
we should make good by Scriptures what we said.) 

''The Unwritten Woi»d'* 

Then he told us of a written word, and an unwritten 
word. I asked him "what he called his unwritten 
word " : he said, " The written word is the Scriptures, 
and the unwritten word is that which the apostles spoke 
by word of mouth ; which," said he, " are all those tra- 
ditions that we practise." I bid him prove that by 
Scripture. Then he brought the Scripture, where the 
apostle says (Thess. ii. 5), " When I was with you, I 



1658 A PERVERTED SCRIPTURE 269 

told you these things." " That is," said he, " I told you 
of nunneries, and monasteries, and of putting to death 
for religion, and of praying by beads, and to images, and 
all the rest of the practices of the church of Rome, 
which," he said, "was the unwritten word of the 
apostles, which they told then, and have since been con- 
tinued down by tradition unto these times." 

Then " I desired him to read that Scripture again, 
that he might see how he had perverted the apostle's 
words ; for that which he there tells the Thessalonians 
* he had told them before,' is not an unwritten word, but 
is there written down, namely, that the man of sin, the 
son of perdition, shall be revealed, before that great and 
terrible day of Christ, which he was writing of, should 
come ; so this was not telling them any of those things 
that the church of Rome practises. In like manner the 
apostle, in the third chapter of that epistle, tells the 
church of some disorderly persons, he heard were 
amongst them, busy-bodies, who did not work at all : 
concerning whom he had commanded them by his un- 
written word, when he was among them, that if any 
would not work, neither should he eat ; which now he 
commands them again in his written word in this epistle, 
2 Thess. iii. So this Scripture afforded no proof for 
their invented traditions ; and he had no other Scripture- 
proof to offer." Therefore I told him, <* this was another 
degeneration of their church into such inventions and 
traditions as the apostles and primitive saints never 
practised." 

The Sacrament 

After this he came to his sacrament of the altar, be- 
ginning at the paschal-lamb, and the show-bread ; and 
so came to the words of Christ, " This is my body," and 



I 



270 THE SACRAMENT 1658 

to what the apostle wrote of it to the Corinthians ; con- 
cluding, " that after the priest had consecrated the bread 
and wine, it was immortal and divine, and he that 
received it, received the whole Christ." I followed him 
through the Scriptures he brought, till I came to Christ's 
words and the apostle's ; and I showed him << that the 
same apostle told the Corinthians, after they had taken 
bread and wine in remembrance of Christ's death, that 
they were reprobates, if Christ was not in them : but if 
the bread they ate was Christ, he must of necessity be 
in them, after they had eaten it. Besides, if this bread 
and this wine, which the Corinthians ate and drank, was 
Christ's body, then how hath Christ a body in heaven ? " 

Fez Proposes a Test 

I observed to him also, << that both the disciples at 
the supper, and the Corinthians afterwards, were to eat 
the bread and drink the wine in * remembrance of Christ,' 
and to show forth his death, till he come ; which plainly 
proves the bread and wine which they took was not his 
body. For if it had been his real body that they ate, 
then he had been come, and was then there present ; 
and it had been improper to have done such a thing in 
remembrance of him if he had been then present with 
them ; as he must have been, if that bread and wine, 
which they ate and drank, had been his real body." 
Then as to those words of Christ, " This is my body," 
I told him Christ calls himself a vine, and a door, and 
is called in Scripture a rock ; " Is Christ therefore an 
outward rock, door or vine ? " " O," said the Jesuit, 
" those words are to be interpreted " : " So," said I, 
« are those words of Christ, * this is my body.' " 

Now having stopped his mouth as to argument, I 
made the Jesuit a proposal thus : " That seeing," he 



'•^, 



1658 FOX'S LITERAL TEST 271 

said, " the bread and wine was immortal and divine, and 
the very Christ, and that whosoever received it, received 
the whole Christ; let a meeting be appointed between 
some of them (whom the Pope and his cardinals should 
appoint) and some of us ; and let a bottle of wine and 
a loaf of bread be brought, and divided each into two 
parts, and let them consecrate which of those parts they 
would. And then set the consecrated and the uncon- 
secrated bread and wine in a safe place, with a sure 
watch upon it, and let trial thus be made, Whether the 
consecrated bread and wine would not lose its goodness 
and the bread grow dry and mouldy, and the wine turn 
dead and sour, as well and as soon as that which was un- 
consecrated. By this means, said I, the truth of this 
matter may be made manifest. And if the consecrated 
bread and wine change not, but retain their savour and 
goodness, this may be a means to draw many to your 
church ; if they change, decay, and lose their goodness, 
then ought you to confess, and forsake your error, and 
shed no more blood about it; for much blood hath 
been shed about these things, as in Queen Mary's 
days." 

To this the Jesuit made this reply : ** Take," said he, 
" a piece of new cloth, and cut it into two pieces, and 
make two garments of it ; and put one of them upon 
King David's back, and the other upon a beggar's, and the 
one garment shall wear away as well as the other." «* Is 
this thy answer ? " said I ; « Yes," said he. ^* Then," 
said I, "by this the company naay all be satisfied that 
your consecrated bread and wine is not Christ. Have 
ye told people so long that the consecrated bread and 
wine was immortal and divine, and that it was the very 
and real body and blood of Christ, and dost thou now 
say it will wear away or decay as well as the other ? I 



27« FOX WARNS CROMWELL 1658 

must tell thee, Christ remains the same to*day as 
yesterday, and never decays; but is the saints' 
heavenly food in all generations, through which they 
have life." 

He replied no more to this, being willing to let it fall ; 
for the people that were present saw his error, and that 
he could not defend it. Then I asked him " why their 
church persecuted and put people to death for religion." 
He replied, " it was not the Church that did it, but the 
magistrates." I asked him ** whether those magistrates 
were not counted and called believers and Christians." 
He said, « Yes "; ** Why then," said I, "are they not 
members of your church ? " " Yes," said he. Then I 
left it to the people to judge from his own concessions, 
whether the church of Rome doth not persecute, and 
put people to death for religion. Thus we parted ; and 
his subtilty was comprehended by simplicity. 

A Letter to Cromweirs Daughter 

During the time I was at London, many services lay 
upon me ; for it was a time of much suffering. I was 
moved to write to Oliver Cromwell, and lay before him 
the sufferings of Friends, both in this nation and in 
Ireland. There was also a rumour about this time of 
making Cromwell king : whereupon I was moved to go 
to him, and warned him against it, and of divers dangers; 
which, if he did not avoid, " he would bring a shame 
and ruin upon himself and his posterity." He seemed 
to take well what I said to him, and thanked me : yet 
afterwards I was moved to write to him more fully con- 
cerning that matter. 

About this time the Lady Claypole [so called], the 
favourite daughter of Oliver Cromwell, was sick and 
much troubled in mind, and could receive no comfort 



1658 CROMWELL'S DAUGHTER 273 

from any that came to her ; which when I heard of, I 
was moved to write to her the following letter : — 

" Friend, 

" Be still and cool in thy own mind and spirit from thy 
own thoughts, and then thou wilt feel the principle of 
God to turn thy mind to the Lord, from whom cometh 
life ; whereby thou mayest receive the strength and 
power to allay all storms and tempests. That is it which 
works up into patience, innocency, soberness, into still- 
ness, staidness, quietness up to God, with his power* 
Therefore mind ; that is the word of the Lord God unto 
thee, that thou mayest feel the authority of God, and thy 
faith in that, to work down that which troubles thee ; for 
that is it which keeps peace, and brings up the witness in 
thee, which hath been transgressed, to feel after God with 
his power and life, who is a God of order and peace. 

" When thou art in the transgression of the life of 
God in thy own particular, the mind flies up in the 
air, the creature is led into the night, nature goes out 
of its course, an old garment goes on, and an upper- 
most clothing ; and thy nature being led out of its 
course, it comes to be all on fire, in the transgression ; 
and that defaceth the glory of the first body. There- 
fore be still a while from thy own thoughts, searching, 
seeking, desires, and imaginations, and be staid in the 
principle of God in thee, that it may raise thy mind 
up to God, and stay it upon God, and thou wilt find 
strength from him, and find him to be a God at hand, 
a present help in the time of trouble and of need. 
And thou being come to the principle of God, which 
hath been transgressed, it will keep thee humble ; and 
the humble God will teach his way, which is peace, and 
such he doth exalt. 

s 



274 "THE PRINCIPLE OF GOD" 1658 

" Now as the principle of God in thee hath been 
transgressed, come to it, that it may keep thy mind 
down low to the Lord God; and deny thyself; for from 
thy own will, that is, the earthly, thou must be kept. 
Then thou wilt feel the power of God, which will bring 
nature into its course, and give thee to see the glory of 
the first body. There the wisdom of God will be 
received, which is Christ, by which all things were made 
and created, and thou wilt thereby be preserved and 
ordered to God's glory. There thou wilt come to receive 
and feel the physician of value, who clothes people in 
their right mind, whereby they may serve God, and do 
his will. For all distractions, unruliness, and confusion 
are in the transgression ; which transgression must be 
brought down, before the principle of God which hath 
been transgressed against, be lifted up : whereby the mind 
may be seasoned, and stilled, and a right understanding 
of the Lord may be received; whereby his blessings enter, 
and are felt, over all that is contrary, in the power of the 
Lord God, which raises up the principle of God within, 
gives a feeling after God, and in time gives dominion. 

'*The Word of the Lord unto Thee*' 

" Therefore keep in the fear of the Lord God ; that 
is the word of the Lord unto thee. For all these 
things happen to thee for thy good, and for the 
good of those concerned for thee, to make you know 
yourselves, and your own weakness, and that ye may 
know the Lord's strength and power, and may trust 
in him. Let the time that is past be sufficient to 
every one, who in anything have been lifted up in trans- 
gression out of the power of the Lord ; for he can bring 
down and abase the mighty, and lay them in the dust 
of the earth. Therefore, all keep low in his fear, that 






1658 "IT STAID HER MIND" 275 

thereby ye may receive the secrets of God and his 
wisdom, may know the shadow of the Almighty, and sit 
under it, in all tempests, and storms, and heats. 

" For God is at hand, and the Most High rules in the 
children of men. This, then, is the word of the Lord 
God unto you all; whatever temptations, distractions, 
confusions, the light doth make manifest and discovert 
do not look at these temptations, confusions, corruptions ; 
but look at the light, which discovers them, and makes 
them manifest ; and with the same light you may feel 
over them, to receive power to stand against them. The 
same light which lets you see sin and transgression, will 
let you see the covenant of God, which blots out your 
sin and transgression, which gives victory and dominion 
over it, and brings into covenant with God. For look- 
ing down at sin, and corruption, and distraction, ye are 
swallowed up in it : but looking at the light, which dis- 
covers them, ye will see over them. That will give 
victory ; and ye will find grace and strength : there is 
the first step to peace. That will bring salvation ; by it 
ye may see to the beginning, and the 'glory that was 
with the Father before the world began ' ; and so come 
to know the Seed of God, which is the heir of the 
promise of God, and of the world which hath no end ; 
which bruises the head of the serpent, who stops people 
froni coming to God. That ye may feel the power of an 
endless life, the power of God, which is immortal ; 
which brings the immortal soul up to the immortal God, 
in whom it doth rejoice. So in the name and power 
of the Lord Jesus Christ; God Almighty strengthen 
thee. G. F." 

When the foregoing paper was read to Lady Claypole, 
she said, it staid her mind for the present. Afterwards 



276 FOX INSTRUCTS CROMWELL i6§85 

many Friends got copies of it, both in England and 
Ireland, and read it to people that were troubled in 
mind ; and it was made useful for the settling of the 
minds of several. 

A Hint to Cromwell 

About this time came forth a declaration from Oliver 
Cromwell, the Protector, for a collection towards the 
relief of divers Protestant Churches, driven out of 
Poland ; and of twenty Protestant families, driven out of 
the confines of Bohemia. And there having been a like 
declaration published some time before, to invite the 
nation to a day of solemn fasting and humiliation, in 
order to a contribution being made for the suffering 
Protestants of the valleys of Lucerne, Angrona, &c. who 
were persecuted by the Duke of Savoy, I was moved to 
write to the Protector and chief magistrates on this 
occasion, both to show them the nature of a true fast 
(such as God requires and accepts), and to make them 
sensible of their injustice and self-condemnation, in 
blaming the Papists for persecuting the Protestants 
abroad, while they themselves, calling themselves Protes- 
tants, were at the same time persecuting their Protestant 
neighbours and friends at home. 

Divers times, both in the time of the Long Parliament, 
and of the Protector (so called) and of the Committee of 
Safety, when they proclaimed fasts, I was moved to 
write to them, and tell them, their fasts were like unto 
Jezebel's ; for commonly, when they proclaimed fasts, 
thej-e was some mischief contrived against us. I knew 
their fasts were for strife and debate, to smite with the 
fist of wickedness ; as the New England professors soon 
after did, who, before they put our Friends to death, 
proclaimed a fast also. 



1658 « PROFESSING PARLIAMENTS " 277 

Now it was a time of great sufferings; and many 
Friends being in prisons, many other Friends were 
moved to go to the parliament, to offer up themselves 
to lie in the same dungeon, where their friends lay, that 
they that were in prison might go out, and not perish in 
the stinking jails. This we did in love to God and our 
brethren, that they might not die in prison ; and in love 
to those that cast them in, that they might not bring 
innocent blood upon their own heads ; which we knew 
would cry to the Lord, and bring his wrath, vengeance, 
and plagues upon them. 

Vain Appeals to Parliament 

But little favour could we find from those professing 
parliaments; instead thereof they would rage, and 
sometimes threaten those Friends that thus attended 
them, that they would whip them, and send them home. 
Then commonly soon after the Lord would turn them 
out, and send them home; who had not a heart to 
do good in the day of their power. But they went 
not off without being forewarned, for I was moved 
to write to them, in their several turns, as I did to 
the Long Parliament, unto whom I declared, before 
they were broken up, that " thick darkness was coming 
over them all, even a day of darkness that should be 
left." 

And because the parliament that now sat was made 
up mostly of high professors, who, pretending to be 
more religious than others, were indeed greater pro- 
secutors of them that were truly religious, I was moved 
to send them the following lines, as a reproof of their 
hypocrisy : — 

" O Friends, do not cloak and cover yourselves ; 
there is ^ God that knoweth your hearts, and that will 




278 A LETTER TO PARLIAMENT 1658 

uncover you. He seeth your way. * Woe be to bim tbat 
covereth, but not with my Spirit, saith the Lord.' Do 
ye act contrary to the law, and then put it from 
you? Mercy and true judgment ye neglect. Look, 
what was spoken against such: my Saviour spoke 
against such : * I was sick, and ye visited me not ; 
I was hungry, and ye fed me not ; I was a stranger, and 
ye took me not in ; I was in prison, and ye visited me 
not.' But they said, * When saw we thee in prison, and 
did not come to thee ? ' * Inasmuch as ye did it not 
unto one of these little ones, ye did it not unto me.' 
^Friends, ye imprison them that are in the life and 
power of truth, and yet profess to be the ministers of 
Christ. But if Christ had sent you, ye would bring 
out of prison, and bondage, and receive strangers. Ye 
have lived in pleasure on the earth, and been wanton ; 
ye have nourished your hearts, as in a day of slaughter ; 
ye have condemned, and killed the just, and he doth 
not resist you. G. F." 

A Last Glimpse of Oomwell 

After this, as I was going out of town, having two 
Friends with me, when we were little more than a mile 
out of the city, there met us two troopers belonging 
to Colonel Hacker's regiment, who took me, and the 
Friends that were with me, and brought us back to the 
Mews, and there kept us prisoners. But the Lord's 
power was so over them, that they did not take us 
before any officer ; but shortly after set us at liberty 
again. 

The same day, taking boat, I went to Kingston, 
and thence to Hampton Court, to speak with the 
Protector about the sufferings of Friends. I met him 
riding into Hampton Court Park, and before I came to 



r 



1658 FAREWELL TO CROMWELL 279 

him, as he rode at the head of his life-guard, I saw and 
felt a waft (or apparition) of death go forth against him ; 
and when I came to him, he looked like a dead man. 
After I had laid the sufferings of Friends before him, 
and had warned him, according as I was moved to 
speak to him, he bid me come to his house. So I 
returned to Kingston, and next day went to Hampton 
Court, to speak further with him. But when I came, he 
was sick, and — Harvey, who was one that waited 
on him, told me the doctors were not willing I should 
speak with him. So I passed away, and never saw him 
more. 

From Kingston I went to Isaac Pennington's in 
Buckinghamshire, where I had appointed a meeting, and 
the Lord's truth and power were preciously manifested 
amongst us. After I had visited Friends in those 
parts, I returned to London, and soon after went into 
Essex, where I had not been long before I heard 
that the Protector was dead, and his son Richard made 
Protector in his room. Whereupon I came up to 
London again. 

'*To Smithficld** 

Before this time the church-faith (so called) was 
given forth, which was said to have been made at 
the Savoy in eleven days' time. I got a copy before 
it was published, and wrote an answer to it; and when their 
book of church-faith was sold in the streets, my answer 
to it was sold also. This angered some of the parliament 
men, so that one of them told me, " they must have me 
to Smithfield." I told him, "I was above their fires and 
feared them not." And reasoning with him, I wished 
him to consider, " Had all people been without a 
faith these sixteen hundred years, that now the priests 



^'SO REPROVING THE MAJOR 1658 

must make them one? Did not the apostle say, 
that Jesus was the author and finisher of their faith ? 
And since Christ Jesus was the author of the apostles' 
faith, of the church's faith in primitive times, and of the 
martyrs' faith, should not all people look unto him 
to be the author and finisher of their faith, and not to 
the priests ? " 

Major Wiggan, a very envious man, was present, 
yet he bridled himself before the parliament-men, and 
some others that were there in company. He took 
upon him to make a speech, and said, "Christ had 
taken away the guilt of sin, but had left the power 
of sin remaining in us." I told him, that was strange 
doctrine, for Christ came to destroy the devil and his 
works, and the power of sin, and so to cleanse men from 
sin« 

How Friends Suffered 

So Major Wiggan's mouth was stopped at that time. 
But next day, desiring to speak with me again, I took 
a friend or two with me, and went to him. Then 
he vented much passion and rage, beyond the bounds 
of a Christian or moral man; whereupon I reproved 
him ; and having brought the Lord's power over him, 
and let him see what condition he was in, I left him. 

After some time I passed out of LonHonT'aRAjiad 
a meeting at Serjeant Birkhead's at Twickenham, 
which many people came, and some of considerable 
quality in the world. A glorious meeting it was, where- 
in the Scriptures were largely and clearly opened, and 
Christ exalted above all, to the great satisfaction of the 
hearers. 

But there was great persecution in many places, both 
by imprisoning and breaking up of meetings. At a, 




1658 THE FIGHTING PRIESTS 281 

meeting about seven miles from London, the rude 
people usually came out of several parishes round 
about, to abuse Friends, and often beat and bruised 
them exceedingly. One day they abused about eighty 
Friends, who went to that meeting out of London, 
tearing their coats and cloaks off their backs, and 
throwing them into ditches and ponds ; and when they 
had besmeared them with dirt, they said they looked 
like witches. 

The next First day I was moved of the Lord to go to 
that meeting, though I was then very weak. When 
I came there, I bid Friends bring a table, and set in the 
field, where they used to meet, to stand upon. Accord- 
ing to their wonted course, the rude people came. 
Having a Bible in my hand, I showed them their and 
their priests* and their teachers' fruits ; and the people 
became ashamed, and were quiet. I opened the 
Scriptures to them, and our principles agreeing there- 
with j I turned the people from darkness to the light of 
Christ and his Spirit, by which they might understand 
the Scriptures, see themselves and their sins, and know 
Christ Jesus to be their Saviour. So the meeting 
ended quietly, and the Lord's power came over all to his 
glory. 

But it was a time of great sufferings ; for besides the 
imprisonments (through which many died) our meetings 
were greatly disturbed. They have thrown rotten eggs 
and wild-fire into our meetings, and have brought in 
drums beating, and kettles, to make noises with, that 
the truth might not be heard; and among these, 
the priests were as rude as any : as may be seen in the 
book of the fighting priests, wherein a list is given 
of some of them that had actually beaten and abuse4 
Friends, 



1 



282 TEN TROUBLED WEEKS 1658 

Many also of our Friends were brought up to London 
prisoners, to be tried before the committee: when 
Henry Vane, being chairman, would not suffer Friends 
to come in, except they would pull off their hats : but at 
last the Lord's power came over him, so that, through 
the mediation of others, they were admitted. Many of 
us having been imprisoned upon contempts (as they 
called them) for not putting off our hats, it was not a 
likely thmg that Friends, who had suffered so long for 
it from others, should put off their hats to him. But 
the Lord's power came over them all, and wrought so, 
that several Friends were set at liberty by them. 

The King's Return 

After a while I went to Reading, where I was under 
great sufferings and exercises, and in great travail of 
spirit for about ten weeks. For I saw there was great 
confusion and distraction amongst the people, and that 
the powers were plucking each other to pieces. And I 
saw how many were destroying the simplicity and betray- 
ing the truth. Much hypocrisy, deceit, and strife was 
got uppermost in the people, so that they were ready to 
sheath their swords in one another's bowels. There 
had been tenderness in many of them formerly, when 
they were low ; but when they were got up, had killed, 
and taken possession, they came to be as bad as others ; 
so that we had much to do with them about our hats, 
and saying Thou and Thee to them. 

They turned their profession of patience and modera- 
tion into rage and madness ; and many of them were 
like distracted men for this hat-honour. For they had 
hardened themselves by persecuting the innocent, and 
were at this time crucifying the Seed, Christ, both in 
themselves and others; till at last they fell to biting 



y 



/ 



1658 KING CHARLES RETURNS 28S 

and devouring one another, until they were consumed 
one of another; who had turned against, and judged, 
that which God had wrought in them, and showed unto 
them. So shortly after God overthrew them, turned 
them upside down, and brought the king over them, who 
were often surmising that the Quakers met together to 
bring in King Charles, whereas Friends did not concern 
themselves with the outward powers, or government. But 
at last the Lord brought him in, and many of them, when 
they saw he would be brought in, voted for bringing him in. 
I had a sight and sense of the king's return a good 
while before, and so had some others. I wrote to Oliver 
several times, and let him know that while he was per- 
secuting God's people, they whom he accounted his 
enemies were preparing to come upon him. When 
some forward spirits that came amongst us would have 
bought Somerset House, that we might have meetings 
in it, I forbade them to do so : for I then foresaw the 
king's coming in again. 

A Curious Prophecy 

Besides, there came a woman to me in the Strand, 
who had a prophecy concerning King Charles's coming 
in, three years before he came : and she told me, she 
must go to him to declare it, I advised her to wait 
upon the Lord, and keep it to herself; for if it should 
be known that she went on such a message, they would 
look upon it to be treason : but she said, she must go, 
and tell him, that he should be brought into England 
again. I saw her prophecy was true, and that a great 
stroke must come upon them in power; for they that 
had then got possession were so exceeding high, and 
such great persecution was acted by them, who called 
themselves saints, that they would take from Friend^ 



SS4 DRAMATIC SCENES 1658 

their copybold lands, because they could not swear in 
their courts. 

Sometimes, when we laid these suiferings before Oliver 
Cromwell, he would not believe it. Wherefore Thomas 
Aldam and Anthony Pearson were moved to go through 
all the jails in England, and to get copies of Friends' 
commitments under the jailer's hands, that they might 
lay the we^bt of their sufferings upon Oliver Crom- 
weU. 

''So shall tliy Goverament be Reat 
^m Thee** 
And when he would not give cider for the releasing 
of them, Thomas Aldam was moved to take his cap 
from ofT his head, and to rend it in pieces before him, 
and to say unto him, " So shall thy government be rent 
from thee and thy house." Another Friend also, a 
woman, was moved to go to the parliament (that was 
envious against Friends) with a pitcher in her band, 
which she broke into pieces before them, and told them, 
" so should they be broken to pieces " ; which came to 
pass shortly after. 

Cramwell Lying in State 
Now was there a greaf pother made about the image 
or effigies of Oliver Cromwell lying in state ; men stand- 
ing and sounding with trumpets over his image, after he 
was dead. At this my spirit was greatly grieved, and 
the Lord, I found, was highly offended. Then did I 
write the following lines, and sent among them, to 
reprove their wickedness, and warn them to repent : — 

" O friends, what are ye doing ! What mean ye to 

sound before an image I Will not all sober people think 



i6s9 THE MAVOR OF NORWICH 285 

ye are like madmen ? O, how am I grieved with your 
abominations 1 O, how am I wearied 1 My soul is 
wearied with you, saith the Lord : will I not be avenged 
of you, think ye, for your abominations ? O, how have 
ye plucked down and set up ! How are your hearts 
made whole, and not rent! How are ye turned to- 
fooleries ! Which things in times past, ye stood over. 
How have ye left my dread, saith the Lord! Fear 
therefore, and repent, lest the snare and the pit take you 
all. The great day of the Lord is come upon all your 
abominations ; the swift hand of the Lord is turned 
against them. The sober people in these nations stand 
amazed at your doings, and are ashamed, as if ye would 
bring in Popery. G. F." 

A Meeting at Norwich 

1659. — After I had stayed some time in London, and 
had visited Friends' meetings there and thereabouts, and 
the Lord's power was set over all, I travelled into the 
counties again, passing through Essex and Suffolk, into 
Norfolk, visiting Friends, till I came to Norwich, where 
we had a meeting about the time called Christmas. The 
mayor of Norwich, having got previous notice of the 
meeting I intended to have there, granted a warrant to 
apprehend me. When I was come thither, and heard of 
the warrant, I sent some Friends to the mayor to reason 
with him about it. His answer was, the soldiers should 
not meet; and did we think to meet ? He would have us 
to go and meet without the city ; for he said the town's- 
people were so rude that he could hardly order them, and 
he feared that our meeting would make tumults in the 
town. But our Friends told him, we were a peaceable 
people, and that he ought to keep the peace ; for we 
could not but meet to worship God, as our manner was. 



ii 



286 « AN UNGODLY MEETING " 1659 

So he became moderate, and did not send his officers to 
the meeting. 

A large one it was, and abundance of rude people 
came with an intent to do mischief; but the Lord's 
power came over them, so that they were chained by it, 
though several priests were there, and professors and 
Ranters. Among the priests, one, whose name was 
Townsend, stood up and cried, " Error, blasphemy, and 
an ungodly meeting ! " I bid him not burden himself 
with that which he could not make good ; and I asked 
him what was our error and blasphemy ; for I told him, 
he should make good his words before I had done with 
him, or be shamed. As for an ungodly meeting, I said, 
I believed there were many people there that feared God, 
and therefore it was both unchristian and uncivil in him, 
to charge civil, godly people with an ungodly meeting. 
He said, my error and blasphemy was in that I said, 
that people must wait upon God by his power and 
Spirit, and feel his presence when they did not speak 
words. 

Confounding the Priest 

I asked him then, whether the apostles and holy men 
of God did not hear God speak to them in their silence, 
before they spoke forth the Scripture, and before it was 
written? He replied, Yes, David and the prophets 
heard God, before they penned the Scriptures, and felt 
his presence in silence, before they spoke them forth. 
Then said I, All people take notice, he said this was 
error and blasphemy in me to say these words; and 
now he hath confessed it is no more than the holy men 
of God in former times witness. So I showed them, 
that as the holy men of God, who gave forth the Scripture 
as they were moved by the Holy Ghost, and learned of 



1659 "A SUBTLE MAN" 287 

God, before they spoke them forth ; so must they all 
hearken and hear what the Spirit saith, which will lead 
them into all truth, that they may know God and Christy 
and may understand the Scriptures. O, said the priest, 
this is not that George Fox I would speak withal ; this 
is a subtle man, said he. So the Lord's power came 
over all, and the rude people were made moderate, and 
were reached by it ; and some professors that were there, 
called to the priests, saying, ** Prove the blasphemy and 
errors which ye have charged them with ; ye have spoken 
much against them behind their backs, but nothing ye can 
prove now (said they) to their faces." 

But the priest began to get away ; whereupon I told 
him, we had many things to charge him withal, therefore 
let him set a time and place to answer them ; which he 
did and went his way. A glorious day this was, for truth 
came over all, and people were turned to God by his 
power and Spirit, and to the Lord Jesus Christ, their free 
teacher, who was exalted over all. And as we passed 
away, people's hearts were generally filled with love 
towards us ; yea, the ruder sort of them desired another 
meeting, for the evil intentions they had against us were 
thrown out of their hearts. 

At night I passed out of town to a Friend's house, 
and thence to Colonel Dennis's, where we had a great 
meeting ; and afterwards travelled on, visiting Friends 
in Norfolk, Huntingdonshire, and Cambridgeshire. 
But George Whitehead and Richard Hubberthorn 
stayed about Norwich to meet the priest, who was 
soon confounded, the Lord's power came so over 
him. 

After I had travelled through many counties in the 
Lord's service, and many were convinced, notwithstand- 
ing the people in some places were very rude, I returned 



288 FOX'S REMARKABLE WARNINGS 1659 

to London, when General Monk was come up thither, 
and the gates and post of the city were pulling down. 
Long before this I had a vision, wherein I saw the city lie 
in heaps and the gates down ; and it was then represented 
to nne, just as I saw it several years after, lying in heaps, 
when it was burned. 

Divers times, both by word and writing, had I fore- 
warned the several powers, both in Oliver's time and 
after, of the day of recompense that was coming upon 
them ; but they rejecting counsel, and slighting those 
V isitations of love to them, I was moved now, before they 
were quite overturned, to lay their backsliding, hypocrisy, 
and treacherous dealing before them, thus : 

Fo^s Prophecies Fulfilled 
" Friends, now are the prophecies fulfilled and fulfill- 
ing upon you, which have been spoken to you by the 
yieople of God in your courts, steeple-houses, towns, 
cities, markets, highways, and at your feasts, when ye 
were in your pleasures, and puffed up, that ye would 
neither hear God nor man ; when ye were in your height 
of authority, though raised up from a mean state, none 
might come nigh you without bowing, or the respect of 
persons, for ye were in the world's way, compliments, and 
fashions, which, for conscience' sake towards God they 
could not go into, being redeemed therefrom ; therefore 
they were hated by you for that cause. But how are ye 
Ijrought low, who exalted yourselves above your brethren, 
and threw the just and harmless from among you, until 
at last God hath thrown you out ; and when ye cast the 
innocent from among you, then ye fell to biting one 
another until ye were consumed one of another. And 
so the day is come upon you, which before was told you, 
though ye would not believe It. And are not your hearts 



1 659 FOX NOT BALD 289 

so hardened, that ye will hardly yet believe, though ready 
to go into captivity ? 

" Was it not told you, when ye spilt the blood of the 
innocent in your steeple-houses, markets, highways, and 
cities, yea, and even in your courts also, because they 
said the word * Thou ' to you, and could not put off 
their hats to you, that if something did not arise up 
amongst yourselves, to avenge the blood of the innocent, 
there would come something from beyond the seas, which 
lay reserved there, which being brought by the arm of 
God, the arm of flesh and strongest mountain cannot 
withstand ? Yet ye would not consider, regard, or hear ; 
but cried, * Peace, Peace,' and feasted yourselves, and sat 
down in the spoil of your enemies, being treacherous 
both to God and man ; and who will trust you now ? 
Have ye not made covenants and oaths ? and broken 
covenants and oaths between God and man, and made 
the nations breakers both of covenants and oaths ; so 
that nothing but hypocrisy, rottenness, and falsehood 
under fair pretence, was amongst you ? G. F." 

Looking for a Bald Jesuit 

At Dorchester we had a great meeting in the evening 
at our inn, which many soldiers attended, and were 
pretty civil. But the constables and officers of the 
town came, under pretence to look for a Jesuit, whose 
head (they said) was shaved ; and they would have all 
put off their hats, or they would take them off, to look 
for the Jesuit's shaven crown. So they took off my hat 
(for I was the man they aimed at), and looked very 
narrowly, but not finding any bald or shaven place on 
my head they went away with shame ; and the soldiers 
and other sober people were greatly offended with 
them. But it was of good service for the Lord, and all 

T 



L... 



290 A TERRIBLE JUDGMENT 1659 

things wrought together for good ; for it affected the 
people ; and after the officers were gone, we had a fine 
meeting, and people were turned to the Lord Jesus 
Christ, their teacher, who had bought them, and would 
reconcile them to God, 

Thence we passed into Somersetshire, where the 
Presbyterians and other professors were very wicked, 
and often disturbed Friends' meetings. One time espe- 
cially (as we were then informed) there was a very wicked 
man, whom they got to come to the Quakers' meeting ; 
this man put a bear's skin on his back, and undertook 
with that to play pranks in the meeting. Accordingly, 
setting himself just opposite to the Friend that was 
speaking, he lolled his tongue out of his mouth, having 
his bear's skin on his back, and so made sport to his 
wicked followers, and caused a great disturbance in the 
meeting. But an eminent judgment overtook him, and 
his punishment slumbered not; for as he went back 
from the meeting there was a bull-baiting in the way 
which he stayed to see ; and coming within the bull's 
reach, he struck his horn under the man's chin into his 
throat, and struck his tongue out of his mouth, so that it 
hung lolling out, as he had used it before, in derision in 
the meeting. And the bull's horn running up into the 
man's head, he swung him about upon his horn in a 
most remarkable and fearful manner. Thus he that 
came to do mischief amongst God's people was mis- 
chiefed himself ; and well would it be, if such apparent 
examples of Divine vengeance would teach others to 
beware. 

While I was in Cornwall, there were great shipwrecks 
about the Land's End. Now it was the custom of that 
country, that at such a time both rich and poor went out, 
to get as much of the wreck as they could, not caring to 



•ws/ 



i6s9 CORNISH WRECKERS 291 

save the people's lives ; and in some places, they call 
shipwreck's, Gods grace. These things troubled me; it 
grieved my spirit to hear of such unchristian actions, 
considering how far they were below the heathen at 
Melita, who received Paul, made him a fire, and were 
courteous towards him, and them that had suffered ship- 
wreck with him. Wherefore I was moved to write a 
paper, and send it to all the parishes, priests, and 
magistrates, to reprove them for such greedy actions, 
and to warn and exhort them that, if they could assist to 
save people's lives, and preserve their ships and goods, 
they should use their diligence therein ; and consider, if 
it had been their own condition, they would judge it 
hard, if they should be upon a wreck, and people 
should strive to get what they could from them, and 
not regard their lives. A copy of this paper here 
follows : 

Warning to Cornish Wreckers 

" Friends and People, 

... Do not take people's goods from them by force 
out of their ships, seamen's or others', neither covet ye 
them ; but rather endeavour to preserve their lives, and 
their goods for them ; for that shows a spirit of com- 
passion, and the spirit of a Christian. But if ye be 
greedy and covetous of other men's goods, not mattering 
what becomes of the men. Would ye be served so your- 
selves ? If ye should have a ship cast away in other 
places, and the people should come to tear the goods 
and ship in pieces, not regarding to save the men's lives, 
but be ready to fight one with another for your goods, 
do not ye believe such goods would become a curse to 
them ? And may ye not as surely believe, such kind of 
actions will become a curse unto you ? When the spoil 



292 CORNISH WRECKERS 1659 

of one ship's goods is idly spent, and consumed upon 
the lusts, in ale-houses, taverns, and otherwise, then ye 
gape for another. Is this to < do as ye would be done 
by,' which is the law and the prophets ? 

Priest Hull's Fruit 

" Therefore, priest Hull, are these thy fruits ? What 
dost thou take people's labour and goods for ? Hast 
thou taught them no better manners and conversation, 
who are so brutish and heathenish ? Now all such 
things we judge in whomsoever. But if any Friend, or 
others, preserve men's lives, and endeavour to save their 
goods and estates, and restore what they can of a 
wreck to the owners ; if they consider such for their 
labour, doing in that case unto them what they would 
have done unto themselves, that we approve. And if 
they buy or sell, and do not make a prey, that is allowed 
of still, in the way of* doing as ye would be done by,' 
keeping to the law and to the prophets : that is^ if ye 
should be wrecked in another country, ye would have 
other people to save your lives and goods, and have your 
goods restored to you again, and you would commend 
them for so doing. All that do otherwise, that wait for a 
wreck, and get the goods for themselves, not regarding 
the lives of the men ; but if any of them escape drown- 
ing, let them go begging up and down the country ; and 
if any escape with a little, sometimes rob them of it ; — 
all that do so, are not for preserving the creation, but 
for destroying it ; and those goods which are so gotten, 
shall be a curse, a plague, and a judgment to them, and 
the judgments of God will follow them for acting such 
things ; the witness in your consciences shall answer it. 
Therefore, all ye who have done such things, * do so no 
more lest a worse thing come unto you.' But that which 



•I 



i66o GENERAL MONK AND QUAKERS 293 

is good, do j preserve men's lives and estates, and labour 
to restore the loss and breach ; that the Lord requires. 
Be not like a company of greedy dogs, and worse than 
heathens, as if ye had never heard of God, nor Christ, 
nor the Scriptures, nor pure religion. ... G. F.'' 

This paper had good service among the people ; and 
Friends have endeavoured much to save the lives of the 
crews in times of wrecks, and to preserve the ships and 
goods for them. And when some that have suffered 
shipwreck have been almost dead and starved. Friends 
have taken them to their houses, to succour and recover 
them ; which is an act to be practised by all true 
Christians. 

About this time the soldiers under General Monk's 
command were rude and troublesome at Friends' meet- 
ings in many places, whereof complaint being made to 
him, he gave forth the following order, which somewhat 
restrained them : — 

Troops at the Meetings 

"St. James's, the gth of March, 1659. 
" I do require all officers and soldiers to forbear to 
disturb the peaceable meetings of the Quakers, they 
doing nothing prejudicial to the Parliament or Common- 
wealth of England. " George Monk." 

1660. — ^We passed to Tewkesbury, and so to Wor- 
cester, visiting Friends in their meetings as we went. 
And in all my time I never saw the like drunkenness as 
in the towns, for they had been choosing parliament-men. 

I came to Balby in Yorkshire, where our yearly meet- 
ing at that time was held in a great orchard of John 
Kilam's, where it was supposed some thousands of 



294 SOLDIERS AT MEETING 1660 

peopk and Friends were gathered together. In the 
morning I heard that a troop of horse was sent from 
York to break up our meeting, and that the militia, 
newly raised, was to join them. I went into the meet- 
ing, and stood up on a great stool, and after I had 
spoken some time, two trumpeters came up, sounding 
their trumpets near me, and the captain of the troop 
cried, "Divide to the right and left, and make way " ; 
then they rode up to me. 

I was declaring the everlasting truth, and word of life, 
in the mighty power of the Lord. The captain bid me 
** come down, for he was come to disperse our meeting." 
After some time I told him they all knew we were a 
peaceable people, and used to have such great meetings ; 
but if he apprehended that we met in a hostile way, I 
desired him to make search among us, and if he found 
either sword or pistol about any there, let such suffer. 
He told me, " he must see us dispersed, for he came all 
night on purpose to disperse us." I asked him, **what 
honour it would be to him, to ride with swords and pistols 
amongst so many unarmed men and women as there 
were ? If he would be still and quiet, our meeting pro- 
bably might not continue above two or three hours ; and 
when it was done, as we came peaceably together, so we 
should part ; for he might perceive the meeting was so 
large, that all the country thereabouts could not entertain f^ 

them, but that they intended to depart towards their 
homes at night." 

He said, " he could not stay to see the meeting ended, 
but must disperse them before he went." I desired him 
then, if he himself could not stay, that he would let a 
dozen of his soldiers stay, and see the order and peace- 
ableness of our meeting. He said, " he would permit us 
an hour's time " ; and left half a dozen soldiers with us. 



( 



I 



1660 A DESPERATE MAN 295 

Then he went away with his troop, and Friends of the 
house gave the soldiers that stayed, and their horses, 
some meat. When the captain was gone, the soldiers 
that were left told us, ** we might stay till night if we 
would." But we stayed but about three hours after, and 
had a glorious, powerful meeting. 

**A Desperate Man** 

After the meeting, Friends passed away in peace, 
greatly refreshed with the presence of the Lord, and 
filled with joy and gladness, that the Lord's power had 
given them such dominion. Many of the militia soldiers 
stayed also, and were much vexed that the captain and 
troopers had not broken up our meeting, and cursed 
them. It was reported that they intended to do us some 
mischief that day ; but the troopers, instead of assisting 
them, were rather assistant to us, in not joining with 
them, as they expected, but preventing them from doing 
the mischief they designed. Yet this captain was a 
desperate man, for it was he that had said to me in 
Scotland, that " he would obey his superior's commands ; 
and if it were to crucify Christ he would do it; or 
execute the great Turk's commands against the Christians, 
if he were under him." So that it was an eminent 
power of the Lord, which chained both him and his 
troopers, and those envious militia-soldiers also, who 
went away, not having power to hurt any of us, nor to 
break up our meeting. 

The Charity of Friends 

[Skipton]. — To this meeting came many Friends out 
of most parts of the nation ; for it was about business 
relating to the church, both in this nation and beyond 
the seas. Several years before, when I was in the North, 



^96 RfiLlfeVlKG T'HE POOR \666 

I was moved to recommend the setting up of this meet- 
ing for that service ; for many Friends suffered in divers 
parts of the nation, their goods were taken from them 
contrary to the law, and they understood not how to 
help themselves, or where to seek redress. But after 
this meeting was set up, several Friends who had been 
magistrates, and others that understood something of 
the law, came thither, and were able to inform Friends, 
and to assist them in gathering up the sufferings, that 
they might be laid before the justices, judges, or Par- 
liament. 

Giving Away Bread 

This meeting had stood several years, and divers 
justices and captains had come to break it up ; but when 
they understood the business Friends met about, and 
saw their books and accounts of collections for relief of 
the poor, how we took care one county to help another, 

(^ and to help our friends beyond the seas, and provide 

^ for our poor, that none of them should be chargeable 

to their parishes, &c., the justices and officers confessed 
we did their work, and passed away peaceably and 
lovingly, commending Friends' practice. Sometimes 
there would come two hundred of the poor of other 
people, and wait there till the meeting was done (for all 
the country knew we met about the poor) and after the 
meeting. Friends would send to the bakers for bread, 
and give every one of these poor people a loaf, how 

^- many soever there were of them ; for we were taught to 

« do good unto all ; though especially to the household 

^ of faith." 

I went to Swarthmore, Francis Howgill and Thomas 
Curtis being with me. I had not been long there before 
Henry Porter, a justice, sent a warrant by the chief con- 



t66o FOX AGAIN ARRESTED 29? 

stable and three petty constables to apprehend me. I 
had a sense of this beforehand ; and being in the parlour 
with Richard Richardson and Margaret Fell, her servants 
came, and told her there were some come to search the 
house for arms ; and they went up into the chambers 
under that pretence. It came upon me to go out to them; 
and as I was going by some of them, I spoke to them ; 
whereupon they asked me my name. I readily told 
them my name ; and then they laid hold on me, saying, 
" I was the man they looked for," and led me away to 
Ulverstone. 

Fox Ill-Created 

They kept me all night at the constable's house, and 
set a guard of fifteen or sixteen men to watch me ; some 
of whom sat in the chimney, for fear I should go up it ; 
such dark imaginations possessed them. They were very 
rude and uncivil^ and would neither suffer me to speak 
to Friends, nor suffer them to bring me necessaries ; but 
with violence thrust them out, and kept a strong guard 
upon me. Very wicked and rude they were, and a great 
noise they made about me. One of the constables, 
whose name was Ashburnham, said, '* He did not think 
a thousand 2 men could have taken me." Another of the 
constables, whose name was Mount, a very wicked man, 
said, " He would have served Judge Fell himself so, it 
he had been alive, and he had had a warrant for him." 
Next morning, about six, I was putting on my boots and 
spurs to go with them before some justice; but they 
pulled off the latter, took my knife out of my pocket, 
and hastened me away along the town, with a party of 
horse and abundance of people, not suffering me to 
stay till my own horse came down. 

When I was gone about a quarter of a mile with 



■^1 



298 LED BY THE HALTER 1660 

them, some Friends^ with Margaret Fell and her children, 
came towards me; and then a great party of horse 
gathered about me in a mad rage and fury, crying out, 
*< Will they rescue him ? Will they rescue him ? ^' 
Whereupon I said unto them, " Here is my hair, here is 
my back, here are my cheeks, strike on ! " With these 
words their heat was a little assuaged. Then they 
brought a little horse, and two of them took up one of 
my legs, and put my foot in the stirrup, and two or three 
lifting over my other leg, set me upon it behind the 
saddle, and so led the horse by the halter ; but I had 
nothing to hold by. When they were come some 
distance out of the town, they beat the little horse, and 
made him kick and gallop ; whereupon I slipped off 
him, and told them, **They should not abuse the 
creature." They were much enraged at my getting off, 
and took me by the legs and feet, and set me upon the 
same horse, behind the saddle again; and so led it 
about two miles, till they came to a great water called 
the Carter-Ford. 

By this time my own horse was come to us, and the 
water being deep, and their little horse scarcely able to 
carry me through, they let me get upon my own, through 
the persuasion of some of their own company, leading him 
through the water. One wicked fellow kneeled down, 
and lifting up his hands, blessed God that I was taken. 
When I was come over the Sands, I told them I heard I 
had liberty to choose what justice I would go before ; 
but Mount and the other constables cried, " No, I should 
not." Then they led me to Lancaster, about fourteen 
miles, and a great triumph they thought to have had; but 
as they led me, I was moved "to sing praises to the 
Lord, in his triumphing power over all." 



i66o BEFORE THE JUSTICE 299 

'*Look at his Eyes'* 

When I was come to Lancaster, the spirits of the 
people being mightily up, I stood and looked earnestly 
upon them ; and they cried, " Look at his eyes ! " 
After a while I spoke to them; and then they were 
pretty sober. Then came a young man, and took me to 
his house ; and after a little time the officers had me to 
Major Porter's, the justice, and who had sent forth the 
warrant against me; he had several others with him. 
When I came in, I said, " Peace be amongst you ! " 
Porter asked me, " Why I came down into the country 
that troublesome time?" I told him, "To visit my 
brethren." "Then," said he, "you have great meetings 
up and down." I told him though we had, our meetings 
were known throughout the nation to be peaceable, and 
we were a peaceable people. 

He said, "We saw the devil in people's faces.*' I 
told him, "If I saw a drunkard, or a swearer, or a 
peevish, heady man, I could not say I saw the Spirit of 
God in him." And I asked him, "If he could see the 
Spirit of God ? " He [said, " We cried against their 
ministers." I told him, while we were as Saul, sitting 
under the priests, and running up and down with their 
packets of letters, we were never called pestilent fellows, 
nor makers of sects ; but when we were come to exercise 
our consciences towards God and man, we were called 
pestilent fellows, as Paul was. He said, we could 
express ourselves well enough, and he would not dispute 
with me ; but he would restrain me, I desired to know, 
" for what, and by whose order he sent his warrant for 
me " ; and I complained to him of the abuse of the 
constables and other officers, after they had taken me, 
and in their bringing me thither. 



300 IN THE DARK HOUSE 1660 

Arguing with the Justice 

He would not take notice of that, but told me, " He 
had an order, but would not let me see it ; for he would 
not reveal the king's secrets "; and besides, " a prisoner," 
he said, " was not to see for what he was committed." 
I told him that was not reason ; for how should he 
make his defence then ? I said, *' I ought to have a copy 
of it " j but he said, " There was a judge once that fined 
a man for letting a prisoner have a copy of his mittimus ; 
and," said he, " I have an old clerk, though I am a 
young justice." Then he called to his clerk, saying, ** Is 
it not ready yet ? Bring it," meaning the mittimus ; but 
it not being ready, he said to me, " I was a disturber of 
the nation." I told him I had been a blessing to the 
nation, in and through the Lord's power and truth, and 
the Spirit of God in all consciences would answer it. 
Then he charged me as " an enemy to the king ; that I 
endeavoured to raise a new war, and imbrue the nation 
in blood again." I told him I had never learned the 
postures of war, but was clear and innocent as a child 
concerning those things, and therefore was bold. 

Then came the clerk with the mittimus, and the jailer 
was sent for, and commanded to take and put me into 
the Dark-house« and to let none come to me ; but keep 
me there a close prisoner, till I should be delivered by the 
king or parliament. Then the justice asked the constables 
where my horse was ; " for I hear," said he, " that he 
has a good horse; have ye brought it?" I told him 
where my horse was, but he did not meddle with him. 
As they took me to the jail, the constable gave me my 
Icnife again, and then asked me to give it him; but 
I told him, nay, he had not been so civil to me. 
So they put me into the jail, and the under-jailer, one 



i66o ABUSED IN PRISON 301 

Hardy, a very wicked man, was exceedingly rude and 
cruel, and many times would not let me have meat 
brought in, but as I could get it under the door. 
Many people came to look at me, some in great 
rage, and very uncivil and rude. Once there came two 
young priests, and very abusive they were ; the worst of 
people could not be worse. Amongst those that came 
in this manner, old Preston's wife, of Howker, was one. 
She used many abusive words, telling me, " My tongue 
should be cut out," and that " I should be hanged " ; 
showing me the gallows. But the Lord God cut her 
off, and she died in a miserable condition. 

The Charges against Fox 

Being now a close prisoner in the common jail at 
Lancaster, I desired Thomas Cummins and Thomas 
Green to go to the jailer, and desire of him a copy of 
my mittimus, that I might know what I stood com- 
mitted for. They went ; and the jailer answered, " he 
could not give a copy of it, for another had been fined 
for so doing " ; but he gave them liberty to read it over. 
To the best of their remembrance the matters therein 
charged against me were, " that I was a person gene- 
rally suspected to be a common disturber of the peace 
of the nation, an enemy to the king, and a chief upholder 
of the Quakers' sect ; and that, together with others of 
my fanatic opinion, I have of late endeavoured to raise 
insurrections in these parts of the country, and to 
embroil the whole kingdom in blood. Wherefore the 
jailer was commanded to keep me in safe custody, until I 
should be released by order of the king and parliament." 

When I had thus got the heads of the charge con- 
tained in the mittimus, I wrote a plain answer, in vindica- 
tion of my innocency in each particular ; as follows : 



S02 FALSE CHARGES AGAINST FOX 1660 

" I am a prisoner at Lancaster, committed by Justice 
Porter. A copy of the mittimus I cannot get, but such 
expressions I am told are in it, as are very untrue ; as 
< that I am generally suspected to be a common disturber 
of the nation's peace, an enemy to the king, and that I, 
with others, endeavour to raise insurrections to embroil 
the nation in blood ' ; all which is utterly false, and I do, 
in every part thereof, deny it. For I am not a person 
generally suspected to be a disturber of the nation's peace, 
nor have I given any cause for such suspicion ; for through 
the nation I have been tried for these things formerly. 

Previous Arrests 

" In the days of Oliver, I was taken up on pretence 
of raising arms against him, which was also false; for I 
meddled not with raising arms at all. Yet I was then 
carried up a prisoner to London, and brought before 
him ; when I cleared myself, and denied the drawing of 
a carnal weapon against him, or any man upon the 
earth; for my weapons are spiritual, which take away 
the occasion of war, and lead into peace. Upon my 
declaring this to Oliver, I was set at liberty by him. 

«* After this I was taken, and sent to prison by Major 
Ceely in Cornwall, who, when I was brought before the 
judge, informed against me, * that I took him aside, and 
told him, that I could raise forty thousand men in an 
hour's time, to involve the nation in blood, and bring in 
King Charles.' This also was utterly false, and a lie of 
his own inventing, as was then proved upon him : for I 
never spoke any such word to him. I never was found 
in any plot ; I never took any engagement or oath ; nor 
ever learned war-postures. 

" As those were false charges against me then, so are 
these now, which come from Major Porter, who is lately 






i66o NO ENEMY TO THE KING 303 

appointed to be justice, but wanted power formerly to 
exercise his cruelty against us ; which is but the wicked- 
ness of the old enemy. The peace of the nation I am 
not a disturber of, nor ever was ; but seek the peace of 
it, and of all men, and stand for all nations' peace, and 
all men's peace upon the earth, and wish all knew my 
innocency in these things. 

" And whereas Major Porter says, < I am an enemy to 
the king ' : this is false ; for my love is to him and to all 
men, though they be enemies to God, to themselves, and 
to me. And I can say, it is of the Lord that he is come 
in, to bring down many unrighteously set up ; of which 
I had a sight three years before he came in. It is much 
he should say I am an enemy to the king, for I have no 
reason so to be, he having done nothing against me. 
But I have been often imprisoned and persecuted these 
eleven or twelve years by them that have been against 
both the king and his father, even the party that Porter 
was made a major by, and bore arms for ; but not by 
them that were for the king. I was never an enemy to 
the king, nor to any man's person upon the earth. I 
am in the love that fulfils the law, which thinks no evil, 
but loves even enemies, and would have the king saved, 
and come to the knowledge of the truth, and be brought 
into the fear of the Lord, to receive his wisdom from above, 
by which all things were made and created ; that with that 
wisdom he may order all things to the glory of God. 

False Charges 

"Whereas he calls me, *a chief upholder of the 
Quakers' sect.' I answer : the Quakers are not a sect, 
but are in the power of God, which was before sects 
were ; they witness the election before the world began, 
and are'^come to live in the life, which the prophets and 






SC4 FALSE CHARGES i66o 

apostles lived in, who gave forth the Scriptures ; there- 
fore are we hated by envious, wrathful, wicked, and 
persecuting men. But God is the upholder of us all by 
his mighty power, and preserves us from the wrath of 
the wicked, that would swallow us up. 

•« And whereas he says, ' that I, together with others 
of my fanatic opinion, as he calls it, have of late 
endeavoured to raise insurrections, and to embroil the 
whole kingdom in blood ' : I say this is altogether false ; 
to these things I am as a child, and know nothing of 
them. The postures of war I never learned : my weapons 
are spiritual and not carnal : for with carnal weapons I 
do not fight : I am a follower of him who said, ' My 
kingdom is not of this world.' And though these lies 
and slanders are raised upon me, I deny the drawing of 
any carnal weapon against the king or parliament, or any 
man upon earth ; for I am come to the end of the law, 
• to love enemies, and wrestle not with flesh and blood ' j 
but am in that which saves men's lives. 

No Fanatic 

" A witness I am against all murderers, plotters, and 
all such as would ' imbrue the nation in blood ' ; for it 
is not in my heart to have any man's life destroyed. 
And as for the word fanatic, which signifies furious, 
foolish, mad, &c., he might have considered himself, 
before he had used that word, and have learned the 
humility which goes before honour. We are not furious, 
foolish, or mad; but through patience and meekness 
have borne lies and slanders, and persecutions many 
years, and have undergone great sufferings. The 
spiritual man that wrestles not with flesh and blood, 
and the Spirit, that reproves sin in the gate, which 
is the Spirit of truth, wisdom, and sound judgment; 



i66o "AN INNOCENT SUFFERER" 305 

this is not mad, foolish, furious, which fanatic signifies ; 
but all are of a mad, furious, foolish spirit that wrestle 
with flesh and blood, with carnal weapons, in their 
furiousness, foolishness, and rage. This is not the 
Spirit of God, but of error, that prosecutes in a mad, 
blind zeal, like Nebuchadnezzar and Saul. 

" Now, inasmuch as I am ordered to be kept prisoner 
till I be delivered by order from the king or parliament, 
therefore have I written these things to be laid before 
you, the king and parliament, that ye may consider 
of them before ye act any thing therein ; that ye may 
weigh, in the wisdom of God, the intent and end 
of men's spirits, lest ye act the thing that will bring the 
hand of the Lord upon you, and against you, as many 
have done before, who have been in authority, whom 
God hath overthrown, in whom we trust, whom we 
fear and cry unto day and night ; who hath heard 
us, doth, and will hear us, and avenge our cause. For 
much innocent blood has been shed; and many have 
been persecuted to death by such as have been in 
authority before you, whom God hath vomited out, 
because they turned against the just. Therefore con- 
sider your standing, now that ye have the day, and 
receive this as a warning of love to you. 

** From an innocent sufferer in bonds, and close 
prisoner in Lancaster Castle, called 

"George Fox." 

Margaret Fell's Protest 

Upon my being taken and forcibly carried away from 
Margaret Fell's house, and charged with things of so 
high a nature, she was concerned, looking upon it to be 
an injury offered to herself. Whereupon she wrote 
the following lines, and distributed them : 

u 



306 MARGARET FELL'S LETTER 1660 

« To aU Magistrates^ concerning the wrong taking up and 
imprisoning of George Fox at Lancaster. 
" I do inform the governors of this nation that Henry 
Porter, mayor of Lancaster, sent a warrant, with four 
constables, to my house, for which he had no authority or 
order. They searched my house, and apprehended George 
Fox in it, who was not guilty of the breach of any law or 
of any offence against any in the nation. After they had 
taken him, and brought him before the said Henry 
Porter, bail was offered, what he would demand, for 
his appearance, to answer what could be laid to his 
charge ; but he (contrary to law, if he had taken him 
lawfully) refused to accept of any bail, and put him in 
close prison. After he was in prison, a copy of his 
mittimus was demanded, which ought not to be denied 
to any prisoner, so that he may see what is laid to his 
charge; but it was denied him: a copy he could not 
have, they were suffered only to read it over. Every- 
thing that was there charged against him was utterly 
false; he was not guilty of any one charge in it, as will 
be proved and manifested to the nation. Let the 
governors consider it I am concerned in this thing, 
inasmuch as he was apprehended in my house ; and if 
he be guilty, I am too. So I desire to have this searched 
out. " Margaret Fetx." 

Major Porter's Quandary 

After this Margaret Fell determined to go to London, 
to speak with the king about my being taken, and 
to show him the manner of it, and the unjust dealing 
and evil usage I had received. When Justice Porter 
heard of this, he vapoured that he would go and meet 
her in the gap. But when he came before the king, 
having been a zealous man for the parliament against > 



i66o ROBBER OF HORNBY CASTLE SOI 

the king, several of the courtiers spoke to him concerning 
his plundering their houses; so that he quickly had 
enough of the court, and soon returned into the country. 
Meanwhile the: jailer seemed very fearful, and said he 
was afraid Major Porter would hang him because he 
had not put me in the Dark-house. But when the jailer 
waited on him, after his return from London, he was 
very blank and down, and asked " how I did," pretend- 
ing he would find a way to set me at liberty. But 
having overshot himself in his mittimus, by ordering me 
" to be kept a prisoner till I should be delivered by the 
king or parliament," he had put it out of his power to 
release me if he would. He was the more down also 
upon reading a letter which I sent him ; for when he 
was in the height of his rage and threats against me, 
and thought to ingratiate himself into the king's favour 
by imprisoning me, I was moved to write to him, and 
put him in mind " how fierce he had been against the 
king and his party, though now he would be thought 
zealous for the king." 

An Appeal to the King 

Among other things in my letter, I called to his 
remembrance that when he held Lancaster Castle 
for the parliament against the king, he was so rough 
and fierce against those that favoured the king that he 
said " he would leave them neither dog nor cat, if they 
did not bring him provision to the castle." I asked 
him also «* whose great buck's horns^those were that 
were in his house ; and where he had both them and 
the wainscot from that he ceiled his house withal ; had 
he them not from Hornby Castle ? " 

About this time Ann Curtis, of Reading, came to see 
me ; and understanding how I stood committed, it was 



i .- 



MS QUAKERESS AND THE KtNG 1660 

upon her also to go to the king about it. Her father, 
who had been sheriff of Bristol, had been hung near his 
own door for endeavouring to bring in the king; on 
which consideration she had some hopes the king might 
hear her on my behalf. Accordingly, when she returned 
to London, she and Margaret Fell went to the king 
together, who, when he imderstood whose daughter she 
was, received her kindly. And her request to him 
being ** to send for me up, and hear the cause himself," 
he promised her he would, and commanded his secretary 
to send down an order for bringing me up. 

But when they came to the secretary for the order, he, 
being no friend to us, said **it was not in his 
power; he must act according to law, and I must 
be brought up by an habeas corpus before the judges." 
So he wrote to the judge of the King's Bench, signifying 
that it was the king's pleasure that I should be sent up 
by an habeas corpus. Accordingly a writ was sent down, 
and delivered to the sheriff; but because it was 
directed to the chancellor of Lancaster the sheriff put it 
off to him ; on the other hand, the chancellor would 
not make the warrant upon it, but said the sheriff must 
do that. At length both chancellor and sheriff were 
got together; but being both enemies to truth, they 
sought occasion for delay, and found, they said, an 
error in the writ, which was that being directed to the 
chancellor it stated, " George Fox in prison under your 
custody," whereas the prison I was in was not, they said, 
in the chancellor's custody, but in the sheriffs ; so the 
word your should have been his. On this, they 
returned the writ to London, only to have that one 
word altered. 

When it was altered, and brought down again, the 
sheriff refused to carry me up unless I would seal a 



i66o AT THE JAIL WINDOW 309 

writing to him, and become bound to pay for the seal- 
ing and the charge of carrying me up j which I refused, 
telling them I would not seal anything to them nor be 
bound. So the matter rested a while, and I continued 
in prison. Meanwhile the assize came on ; but as there 
was a writ for removing me up, I was not brought before 
the judge. At the assize many people came to see me, 
and I was moved to speak out of the jail window to 
them. 

Fox to King Charles 

I was moved also to write to the king, to " exhort him 
to exercise mercy and forgiveness towards his enemies, 
and to warn him to restrain the profaneness and loose- 
ness that had got up in the nation on his return. It was 
thus : 

''To the King/ 
" King Charles, 

" Thou camest not into this nation by sword nor by 
victory of war, but by the power of the Lord. Now if 
thou live not in it, thou wilt not prosper. If the Lord 
hath showed thee mercy and forgiven thee, and thou 
dost not show mercy and forgiveness, the Lord God will 
not hear thy prayers, nor them that pray for thee. If 
thou stop not persecution and persecutors, and take 
away all laws that hold up persecution about religion ; if 
thou persist in them, and uphold persecution, that will 
make thee as blind as those that have gone before thee ; 
for persecution hath always blinded those that have gone 
into it. Such God by his power overthrows, doth his 
valiant acts upon, and bringeth salvation to his oppressed 
ones. 

If thou bear the sword in vain, and let drunkenness, 
oaths, plays, may-games, with such like abominations 












510 FOX WRITES TO THE KING 1660 

and vanities be encouraged or go unpunished, as setting 
up may-poles, with the image of the crown on the top of 
them, &c., the nations will turn quickly like Sodom and 
Gomorrah, and be as bad as the old world, who grieved 
the Lord until he overthrew them ; and so he will you 
if these things be not suppressed. Hardly was there so 
much wickedness at liberty before as there is at this 
day, as though there was no terror nor sword of 
magistracy ; which doth not grace the government, nor 
is a praise to them that do well. Our prayers are for 
them that are in authority, that under them we may live 
a godly life, in which we have peace, and that we may 
not be brought into ungodliness by them. Hear, and 
consider, and do good in thy time, whilst thou hast 
power; be merciful and forgive ; that is the way to over- 
come and obtain the kingdom of Christ. G. F." 

A Question of Expense 

It was long before the sheriff would yield to remove 
me to London, unless I would seal a bond to him, and 
bear their charges ; which I still refused to do. Then 
they consulted how to convey me, and first concluded 
to send up a party of horse with me. I told them, " If 
I were such a man as they had represented me to be, 
they had need send a troop or two of horse to guard 
me." When they considered what a charge it would be 
to them to send up a party of horse with me, they altered 
their purpose, and concluded to send me up guarded 
only by the jailer and some bailiffs. But upon further 
consideration, they found that would be a great 
charge to them also, and therefore sent for me to the 
jailor's house, and told me if I would put in bail that I 
would be in London such a day of the term, I should 
have leave to go up with some of my own friends. 



i66o FOX GOES TO LONDON Sll 

I told them I would neither put in bail nor give one 
piece of silver to the jailer ; for I was an innocent man, 
and they had imprisoned me wrongfully, and laid a false 
charge upon me. Nevertheless, I said if they would let 
me go up with one or two of my friends to bear me com- 
pany, I might go up, and be in London such a day, if 
the Lord should permit ; and if they desired it, I, or any 
of my friends that went with me, would carry up their 
charge against myself. At last, when they saw they could 
do no otherwise with me, the sheriff yielded, consenting 
that I should come up with some of my friends, without 
any other engagement than my word, to appear before 
the judges at London such a day of the term if the Lord 
should permit. 

Released on Parole 

Whereupon I was let out of prison, and went to 
Swarthmore, where I stayed for two or three days, and 
then to Lancaster again, and so to Preston, having 
meetings amongst Friends, till I came into Cheshire to 
William Gandy's, where there was a large meeting out of 
doors, the house not being sufficient to contain it. That 
day the Lord's everlasting Seed was set over all, and 
Friends were turned to it, who is the Heir of the Pro- 
mise. Thence I came to Staffordshire and Warwick- 
shire, to Anthony Bickliffs ; and at Nun-Eaton, at the 
house of a priest's widow, we had a blessed meeting, 
wherein the everlasting Word of Life was powerfully 
declared, and many settled in it. Then travelling 
on, visiting Friends' meetings, in about three weeks 
from my coming out of prison I reached London, 
Richard Hubberthorn and Robert Widders being 
with me. 

When we came to Charing-Cross, multitudes of people 



312 BURNING THE KING'S JUDGES 1660 

were gathered together to see the burning of the bowels 
of some of the old king's judges, who had been hung, 
drawn, and quartered. 

In Judges' Chambers 

We went next morning to Judge Mallet's chamber, who 
was putting on his red gown, to go sit upon some more 
of the king's judges. He was very peevish and froward, 
and said I might come another time. We went again 
to his chamber, when Judge Foster was with him, who 
was called the lord chief justice of England. With me 
was one called Esquire Marsh, who was one of the bed- 
chamber to the king. When we had delivered to the 
judges the charge that was against me, and they had read 
to those words, "that I and my friends were embroiling 
the nation in blood,'' &c., they struck their hands on 
the table. Whereupon I told them "I was the man 
whom that charge was against, but I was as innocent of 
any such thing as a new-bom child, and had brought it 
up myself; and some of my friends came up with me, 
without any guard." 

As yet they had not minded my hat, but now seeing 
it on, they said, " What, did I stand with my hat on ! " 
I told them I did not so in any contempt of them. 
Then they commanded it to be taken of! ; and when 
they called for the marshal of the King's Bench, they said 
to him, " You must take this man, and secure him ; but 
let him have a chamber, and not put him amongst the 
prisoners." "My lord," said the marshal, " I have no 
chamber to put him into ; my house is so full I cannot 
tell where to provide a room for him but amongst the 
prisoners." " Nay," said the judge, " you must not put 
him amongst the prisoners." But when he still answered, 
hQ had no other place to put me in. Judge Foster sai<J 



i66o FOX BEFORE KING'S BENCH 313 

to me, " Will you appear to-morrow about ten o'clock at 
the King's Bench bar in Westminster-Hall ? " I said, 
"Yes, if the Lord give me strength." Then said 
Judge Foster to the other judge, " If he says yes, and 
promises it, you may take his word " ; so I was dis- 
missed. 

At the King's Bench 

Next day I appeared at the King's Bench bar at the 
hour appointed, Robert Widders, Richard Hubberthorn, 
and Esquire Marsh going with me. I was brought into 
the middle of the court ; and as soon as I came in was 
moved to look round, and turning to the people said, 
" Peace be among you "•; and the power of the Lord 
sprang over the court. The charge against me was read 
openly. The people were moderate, and the judges 
cool and loving ; and the Lord's mercy was to them. 
But when they came to that part which said " that I 
and my friends were embroiling the nation in blood and 
raising a new war, and that I was an enemy to the king," 
&c., they lifted up their hands. 

Then, stretching out my arms, I said, " I am the man 
whom that charge is against ; but I- am as innocent as a 
child concerning the charge, and have never learned any 
war-postures. And," said I, " do ye think that if I and 
my friends had been such men as the charge declares, 
that I would have brought it up myself against myself ? 
Or that I should have been suffered to come up with only 
one or two of my friends with me ? Had I been such a man 
as this charge sets forth, I had need to have been guarded 
with a troop or two of horse. But the sheriff and 
magistrates of Lancashire thought fit to let me and my 
friends come up with it ourselves, nearly two hundred 
mil^s, without any guard at all ; which, ye may be sure, 











^ 
'> 






*5 




^ 



Y 



4 A •} 







\ 



1660 



FRIENDS IN THE LORDS 



317 












'^x 



/» 



I ^ 




and many flocked in unto the truth. Richard Hubber- 
thorn had been with the king, who said, " None should 
molest us so long as we lived peaceably," and promised 
this to us upon the word of a king, telling him we might 
make use of his promise. Some Friends also were 
admitted into the House of Lords, and had liberty to 
declare their reasons why they could not pay tithes, 
swear, or go to the steeple-house worship, or join with 
others in worship, and they heard them moderately. 
And there being about seven hundred Friends in prison 
in the nation, who had been committed under Oliver's 
and Richard's government, upon contempts (as they 
call them), when the king came in he set them all at 
liberty. There seemed at that time an inclination and 
intention in the government to grant Friends liberty 
because they were sensible that we had suffered as well 
as they under the former powers. But still, when any- 
thing was going forward in order thereto, some dirty 
spirits or other, that would seem to be for us, threw 
something in the way to stop it. 

Fifth Monarchy Insurrection 

It was said there was an instrument drawn up for con- 
cur liberty, and that it only wanted signing ; 
suddenly that wicked attempt of the Fifth-monarchy 
broke out, and put the city and nation in an 
^Tbis was on a First-day night, and very 
[s we had had that day, wherein the 
over all, and his power was exalted 
iftidnight, or soon after, the drums 
^^Arm, Arm ! " I got up out of 
took boat, and landing at 
mgh Whitehall. They 
' but I passed through 



;ioing 




314 A FRIEND AT COURT 1660 

they would not have done had they looked upon me to 
be such a man." 

The Sherifrs Return 

Then the judge asked me whether it should be filed, 
or what I would do with it. I answered, " Ye are judges, 
and able, I hope, to judge in this matter, therefore 
do with it what ye will ; for I am the man these 
charges are against, and here ye see I have brought 
them up myself; do ye what ye will with them, I leave 
it to you." Then Judge Twisden beginning to speak 
some angry words, I appealed to Judge Foster and Judge 
Mallet, who had heard me overnight. Whereupon they 
said, " They did not accuse me, for they had nothing 
against me." Then stood up Esquire Marsh, who was 
of the king's bedchamber, and told the judges, " It was 
the king's pleasure that I should be set at liberty, seeing 
no accuser came up against me." They asked me, 
" Whether I would put it to the king and council ? " I 
said, " Yes, with a good will." Thereupon they sent 
the sheriffs return, which he made to the writ of habeas 
corpusy containing the matter charged against me in the 
mittimus, to the king, that he might see for what I wais 
committed. The return of the sheriff of Lancaster was 
thus : 

" By virtue of his Majesty's writ, to me directed, and 
hereunto annexed, I certify, that before the receipt of 
the said writ, George Fox, in the said writ mentioned, 
was committed to his Majesty's jail at the castle of 
Lancaster, in my custody, by a warrant from Henry 
Porter, Esq., one of his Majesty's justices of peace within 
the county palatine aforesaid, bearing date the fifth of 
June now last past ; for that he, the said George Fox, 



V 
t 



i66o THE KING RELEASES FOX 315 

was generally suspected to be a common disturber of the 
peace of this nation, an enemy to our sovereign lord the 
king, and a chief upholder of the Quakers' sect ; and 
that he, together with others of his fanatic opinion, have 
of late endeavoured to make insurrections in these parts 
of the country, and to embroil the whole kingdom in 
blood. And this is the cause of his taking and detain- 
ing. Nevertheless, the body of the said George Fox I 
have ready before ITiomas Mallet, knight, one of his 
Majesty's justices, assigned to hold pleas before his 
Majesty, at his chamber in Serjeant's Inn, in Fleet Street, 
to do and receive those things which his Majesty's said 
justice shall determine concerning him in this behalf,' as 
by the aforesaid writ is required. 

« George Chetham, Esq., Sheriff." 

Free After Twenty "Weeks in Jail 

On perusal of this, and consideration of the whole matter, 
the king, being satisfied of my innocency, commanded 
his secretary to send an order to Judge Mallet for my 
release, which he did thus : 

" It is his Majesty's pleasure, that you give order for 
releasing, and setting at full liberty, the person of George 
Fox, late a prisoner in Lancaster jail, and commanded 
hither by an habeas corpus. And this signification of 
his Majesty's pleasure shall be your sufficient warrant. 
Dated at Whitehall, the 24th of October, 1660. 

" Edward Nicholas. 

" For Sir Thomas Mallet, Knight, 
one of the Justices of the King's Bench." 

When this order was delivered. Judge Mallet forthwith 
sent his warrant to the marshal of the King's Bench for 
my release, as follows : 



^ 



Sl6 THE JUSTICE'S TERROR ^ 1660 

" By virtue of a warrant, which this morning I have 
received from the Right Hon. Sir Edward Nicholas, 
Knight, one of his Majesty's principal secretaries, for the 
releasing and setting at liberty of George Fox, Ute a 
prisoner in Lancaster jail, and from thence brought 
hither by habeas corpus^ and yesterday committed unto 
your custody ; I do hereby require you accordingly to 
release and set the said prisoner, George Fox, at liberty; 
for which this shall be your warrant and discharge. 
Given under my hand, the 2Sth day of October, in the 
year of our Lord God 1660. 

"Thomas Mallet. 

*' To Sir John Lenthal, Knight, 
Marshal of the King's Bench, or his deputy." 

Thus, after being a prisoner more than twenty weeks, 
I was freely set at liberty by the king's command, 
the Lord's power being wonderfully wrought for the 
clearing of my innocency ; Porter, who committed me, 
not daring to appear to make good the charge he had 
falsely suggested against me. 

Friends set at LibeHy 

When it was known I was discharged from Lancaster 
Castle, a company of envious, wicked spirits were 
troubled, and terror took hold of Justice Porter ; for he 
was afraid I would take advantage of the law against 
him for my wrong imprisonment, and thereby undo him, 
his wife and children. Indeed, I was pressed by some 
in authority to make him and the rest examples ; but I 
said " I should leave them to the Lord ; if the Lord 
forgave them, I should not trouble myself with them." 

The everlasting power of the Lord was over all, and 
his blessed truth, life, and light shone over the nation, 
and great and glorious meetings we had, and very quiet ; 






i66o FRIENDS IN THE LORDS 317 

and many flocked in unto the truth. Richard Hubber- 
thom had been with the king, who said, " None should 
molest us so long as we lived peaceably," and promised 
this to us upon the word of a king, telling him we might 
make use of his promise. Some Friends also were 
admitted into the House of Lords, and had liberty to 
declare their reasons why they could not pay tithes, 
swear, or go to the steeple-house worship, or join with 
others in worship, and they heard them moderately. 
And there being about seven hundred Friends in prison 
in the nation, who had been committed under Oliver's 
and Richard's government, upon contempts (as they 
call them), when the king came in he set them all at 
liberty. There seemed at that time an inclination and 
intention in the government to grant Friends liberty 
because they were sensible that we had suffered as well 
as they under the former powers. But still, when any- 
thing was going forward in order thereto, some dirty 
spirits or other, that would seem to be for us, threw 
something in the way to stop it. 

Fifth Monarchy Insurrection 

It was said there was an instrument drawn up for con- 
firming our liberty, and that it only wanted signing ; 
when suddenly that wicked attempt of the Fifth-monarchy 
people broke out, and put the city and nation in an 
uproar. This was on a First-day night, and very 
glorious meetings we had had that day, wherein the 
Lord's truth shone over all, and his power was exalted 
above all ; but about midnight, or soon after, the drums 
beat, and the cry was, " Arm, Arm ! " I got up out of 
bed, and in the morning took boat, and landing at 
Whitehall-stairs, walked through Whitehall. They 
looked strangely at me there, but I passed through 



"^^^'^ 



318 TROUBLE IN PALL MALL 1660 

them, and went to Pail-Mall, where divers Friends came 
to me, though it had now become dangerous passing 
the streets ; for by this time the city and suburbs were 
up in arms, and exceedingly rude the people and soldiers 
were ; insomuch that Henry Fell, going to a Friend's 
house, the soldiers knocked him down, and he would 
have been killed, had not the Duke of York come by. 
Great mischief was done in the city this week ; and 
when the next First-day came, as Friends went to their 
meetings, many were taken prisoners. 

Fox in Pall Mall and Whitehall 

I stayed at Pall-Mall, intending to be at the meeting 
there ; but on Seventh-day night a company of troopers 
came and knocked at the door. The servant letting 
them in, they rushed into the house and laid hold of 
me ; and there being amongst them one that had served 
under the parliament, he put his hand to my pocket and 
asked " whether I had any pistols ? " I told him he 
knew I did not carry pistols, why therefore ask such a 
question of me, whom he knew to be a peaceable man ? 
Others of the soldiers ran into the chambers, and there 
found in bed Esquire Marsh, who, though he was one 
of the king's bedchamber, out of his love to me, came 
and lodged where I did. When they came down again, 
they said, " Why should we take this man away with us ? 
We will let him alone." " O," said the parliament 
soldier, " he is one of the heads, and a chief ringleader." 
Upon this the soldiers were taking me away, but Esquire 
Marsh hearing of it, sent for him that commanded the 
party, and desired him to let me alone, for he would see 
me forthcoming in the morning. 

In the morning before they could fetch me, and before 
the meeting was gathered, there came a company of foot 



i66o « A PREACHER OF RIGHTEOUSNESS " Slfl 

soldiers to the house, and one of them drawing his sword, 
held it over my head. I asked him " why he drew his 
sword at an unarmed man?" at which his fellows 
being ashamed, bid him put up his sword. These foot 
soldiers took me away to Whitehall, before the troopers 
came for me. As I was going out several Friends were 
coming in to the meeting, whose boldness and cheerful- 
ness I commended, and encouraged them to persevere 
therein. When I was brought to Whitehall the soldiers 
and people were exceedingly rude, yet I declared truth 
to them ; but some great persons coming by, who were 
very full of envy, " What," said they, " do ye let him 
preach ? Put him into such a place where he may not 
stir." So into that place they put me, and the soldiers 
watched over me. I told them though they could confine 
my body and shut that up, yet they could not stop the 
Word of Life. Some came and asked me "What I 
was ? " I told them " A preacher of righteousness." 

After I had been kept there two or three hours. 
Esquire Marsh spoke to Lord' Gerrard, and he came and 
bid them set me at liberty. The marshal, when I was 
discharged, demanded fees. I told him I could not give 
him any, neither was it our practice ; and asked him how 
he could demand fees of me, who was innocent. Then 
I went through the guards, the Lord's power being over 
them ; and after I had declared truth to the soldiers, I 
went up the streets with two Irish colonels that came 
from Whitehall, to an inn, where many Friends were at 
that time prisoners under a guard. I desired these 
colonels to speak to the guard to let me go in to visit my 
friends, that were prisoners there ; but they would not. 
Then I stepped up to the sentry, and desired him to let 
me go up; and he did so. While I was there the 
soldiers went to Pall-Mall again to search for me there ; 



320 MARGARET FELL AND THE KING 1660 

but not finding me, they turned towards the inn, and bid 
all come out that were not prisoners ; so they went out. 
But I asked the soldiers that were within, " Whether I 
might not stay there a while with my friends ? " They 
said, "Yes." I stayed, and so escaped their hands 
again. 

Towards night I went to Pall- Mall, to see how it was 
with the Friends there ; and after I had stayed a while, 
I went up into the city. Great rifling of houses there 
was at this time to search for people. I went to a private 
friend's house, and Richard Hubberthorn was with me. 
There we drew up a declaration against plots and 
fightings, to be presented to the king and council; 
but when finished, and sent to print, it was taken in the 
press. 

Margat^t Fell and the King 

On this insurrection of the Fifth-monarchy men, great 
havoc was made both in city and country, so that it was 
dangerous for sober people to stir abroad for several 
weeks after; men or women could hardly go up and 
down the streets to buy provisions for their families 
without being abused. In the country they dragged 
men and women out of their houses, and some sick men 
out of their beds by the legs. Nay, one man in a fever 
the soldiers dragged out of bed to prison, and when he was 
brought there he died. His name was Thomas Pachyn. 

Margaret Fell went to the king, and told him what sad 
work there was in the city and nation, and showed him 
we were an innocent, peaceable people, and that we 
must keep our meetings as heretofore, whatever we 
suffered ; but that it concerned him to see that peace 
was kept, that no innocent blood might be shed. 

The prisons were now everywhere filled with Friends 



i66o THE KING'S PROCLAMATION 321 

and others in the city and country, and the posts were 
so laid for the searching of letters that none could pass 
unsearched. We heard of several thousands of our 
Friends being cast into prison in several parts of the 
nation, and Margaret Fell carried an account of them to 
the king and council. Next week we had an account 
of several thousands more being cast into prison ; and 
she went and laid them also before the king and 
council. They wondered how we could have such 
intelligence, having given strict charge for the in- 
tercepting of all letters ; but the Lord so ordered it 
^ that we had an account, notwithstanding all their 
stoppings. 

Having lost our former declaration in the press, we 
hastily drew up another against plots and fighting, got 
it printed, and sent some copies to the king and 
council; others were sold in the streets, and at the 
Exchange. Which declaration was some years after 
reprinted. 

This declaration somewhat cleared the dark air that 
was over the city and country. And soon after the king 
gave forth a proclamation, "That no soldiers should 
search any house without a constable." But the jails 
were still full, many thousands of Friends being in 
prison ; which mischief was occasioned by the wicked 
rising of the Fifth-monarchy men. But when those that 
were taken came to be executed, they did us the justice 
to clear us openly from having any hand in or knowledge 
of their plot. After that, the king being continually 
importuned thereunto, issued a declaration, «*That 
Friends should be set at liberty without paying fees." 
But great labour, travail, and pains were taken before 
this was obtained ; for Thomas Moor and Margaret Fell 
went often to tire king about it. 

X 



SiS KING'S JUDGES HUNG 

Much blood was shed this year, many of the old 
king's judges being hung, drawn, and quartered. 
Amongst them that so suffered, Colonel Hacker was 
one, who sent me prisoner from Leicester to London in 
Oliver's time, of which an account is given before. A 
sad day it was, and a repaying of blood with blood. For 
in the time of Oliver Cromwell, when several men were 
put to death by him, being hung, drawn, and quartered 
for pretended treasons, I felt ftom the Lord God that 
their blood would be required ; and I said as much then 
to several. And now upon the king's return, when 
several that had been against him were put to death, as 
the others that were for him had been before by Oliver, 
this was sad work, destroying people contrary to the 
nature of Christians, who have the nature of Iambs and 
sheep. 

The Persecution of Friends 
But there was a secret hand in bringing this day upon 
that hypocritical generation of professors, who, being got 
into power, grew proud, haughty, and cruel beyond 
others, and persecuted the people of God without pity. 
Therefore when Friends were under cruel persecutions 
and suiTerings in the Commonwealth's time, I was moved 
of the Lord to write to Friends to draw up accounts of 
their sufferings, and lay them before the justices at their 
sessions ; and if they would not do justice, then to lay 
them before the judges al the assize ; and if they would 
not do justice, then to lay them before the parliament, 
the protector, and his council, that they might all see 
what was done under their government ; and if they 
would not do justice, then to lay it before the Lord, who 
would hear the cries of the oppressed, and of the widows 
and fatherless whom they had made so. 



1660 I 



i66o SPOILING OF GOODS 323 

For that which we suffered for, and for which our 
goods were spoiled, was our obedience to the Lord in his 
Power and in his Spirit, who was able to help and to 
succour, and we had no helper in the earth but him. And 
he heard the cries of his people, and brought an over- 
flowing scourge over the heads of all our persecutors, 
which brought a dread and a fear amongst and on them 
all : so that those who had nicknamed us (who are the 
children of light) and in scorn called us Quakers, the 
Lord made to quake ; and many of them would have 
been glad to have hid themselves amongst us ; and some 
of them, through the distress that came upon them, did 
at length come to confess to the truth. O ! the daily 
reproaches, revilings, and beatings we underwent 
amongst them, even in the highways, because we could 
not put off our hats to them, and for saying Thou and 
Thee to them ! O ! the havoc and spoil the priests 
made of our goods, because we could not put into their 
mouths and give them tithes; besides casting into 
prisons, and laying great fines upon us, because we could 
not swear! 

**This Day of Overturning** 

But for all these things did the Lord God plead with 
them. Yet some were so hardened in their wickedness 
that when they were turned out of their places and 
offices they said, " If they had power they would do the 
same again." And when this day of overturning was 
come upon them, they said, " It was all on account of 
us." Wherefore I was moved to write to them, and ask 
them, <* Did we ever resist them when they took away 
our ploughs and plough-gears, our carts and horses, our 
corn and cattle, our kettles and platters from us, whipped 
us, set us in the stocks, and cast us into prison, and all 




324 EXTRAORDINARY WARNINGS 

this only for serving and worshipping God in spirit and 
truth, and because we could not conform to their 
religions, inanners, customs, and fashions ? Did we 
ever resist them ? Did we not give them our backs to 
beat, and our cheeks to pull off the hair, and our faces to 
spit on 7 

" Had not their priests, that prompted them on to such 
work, pulled them with themsdves into the ditch ? Why 
then would they say, ' It was all through of us,' when it 
was owing to themselves and theii priests, their blind 
prophets, that followed their own spirits, and could 
foresee nothing of these times and things that were come 
upon them, which we had long forewarned them of, as 
Jeremiah and Christ had forewarned Jerusalem. They 
had thought to weary us out and undo us, but they undid 
themselves. Whereas we could prdse God, notwithstand- 
all theu- plundering of us, that we had a platter, a horse, 
and plough still." 

Disregarded Warnii^s 

Many ways were these professors warned, by word, by 
writings, and by signs ; but they would believe none, 
till it was too late. William Sympson was moved of the 
Lord to go, several times for three years, naked and 
barefoot before them, as a sign unto them, in markets, 
courts, towns, cities, to priests' and great men's houses, 
telling them, " So should they be stripped naked, as he 
was stripped ! " And sometimes he was moved to put 
on sackcloth and besmear his face, and tell them, " So 
would the Lord God besmear all their religion as he was 
besmeared. Great sufferings did that poor man undergo, 
sore whippings with horse-whips and coach-whips on 
his bare body, grievous stonings and imprisonments, in 
three years time, before the king came in, that they 



i66o WHiTE SHEET A^JD rf ALTER 325 

might have taken warning; but they would not: they 
rewarded his love with cruel usage. Only the mayor of 
Cambridge did nobly to him, for he put his gown about 
him and took him into his house. 

Another Friend, Robert Huntingdon, was moved of 
the Lord to gO' into Carlisle steeple-house with a white 
sheet about him, amongst the great Presbyterians and 
Independents there, to show them that the surplice was 
coming up again : and he put a halter about his neck to 
show them that a halter was coming upon them ; which 
was fulfilled upon some of our persecutors not long 
after. 

Another, Richard Sale, living near Chester, being con- 
stable of the place where he lived, had a Friend sent to 
him with a pass, whom those wicked professors had 
taken up for a vagabond, because he travelled in the 
work of the ministry; and this constable being con- 
vinced by the Friend that was thus brought to him, 
gave him his pass and liberty, and was afterwards him- 
self cast into prison. 

After this, on a lecture-day, Richard Sale was moved 
to go to the steeple-house, in the time of their worship, 
and to carry those persecuting priests and people a 
lantern and candle, as a figure of their darkness ; but 
they cruelly abused him, and like dark professors as they 
were, put him into their prison called Little-Ease ; and 
so squeezed his body therein that not long after he 
died. Many wamiftgs of many sorts were Friends 
moved, in the power of the Lord, to give to that genera- 
tion ; which they not only rejected but abused Friends, 
calling us giddy-headed Quakers ; but God brought his 
judgments upon those persecuting priests and magis- 
trates. For when the king came in most of them were 
turned out of their places and benefices an<J the spoilers 



32(J " INTOLERABLE TOLERATION ** 1 660 

were spoiled : and then we could ask them, ** Who were 
the giddy heads now ? " 



•"When the King Came in** 

Then many confessed we had been true prophets to 
the nation, and said, " Had we cried against some priests 
only, they should have liked us then ; but crying against 
all made them dislike us." But now they saw those 
priests, which were then looked upon to be the best, 
were as bad as the rest. For, indeed, some of those 
that were counted the most eminent were the bitterest 
and greatest stirrers up of the magistrates to persecu- 
tion ; and it was a judgment upon them to be denied 
the free liberty of their consciences when the king came 
in, because when they were uppermost they would not 
have liberty of conscience granted to others. One Hewes, 
of Plymouth, a priest of great note in Oliver's days, 
when some liberty was granted, prayed " that God would 
put it into the hearts of the chief magistrates of the 
nation to remove this cursed toleration." Others of 
them prayed against it under the name of Intolerable 
Toleration. 

But a while after, when the king was come in, and 
priest Hewes turned out of his great benefice for not 
conforming to the Common Prayer, a Friend of Plymouth 
meeting with him asked, " Whether he would account 
toleration accursed now ? " and " Whether he would not 
now be glad of a toleration ? " To which the priest 
returned no answer, save by the shaking of his head. 
But as stiff as these men were then against toleration, it 
is well known that many of them petitioned the king for 
toleration, and for meeting-places, and paid for licences 
too. But to return to the present time, the latter end of 
1660 and beginning of 1661. 



i 



i66i TO KILL ALL QUAKERS 327 

1661. — Although those Friends that had been impri- 
soned on the rising of the Monarchy-men were set at 
liberty, meetings were much disturbed, and great suffer- 
ings Friends underwent. For besides what was done by 
officers and soldiers, many wild fellows and rude people 
often came in. There came one time, when I was at 
Pall-Mall, an ambassador with a company of Irishmen 
and rude fellows; the meeting was over before they 
came, and I was gone up into a chamber, where I heard 
one of them say, " He would kill all the Quakers." 

A Scene in Pall Mall 

I went down to him, and was moved in the power of 
the Lord to speak to him. I told him, " The law said 
« an eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth ' ; but thou 
threatenest to kill all the Quakers, though they have 
done thee no hurt. But," said I, " here is gospel for 
thee : here is my hair, here is my cheek, and here is my 
shoulder," turning it to him. This came so over him 
that he and his companions stood as men amazed, and 
said if that was our principle, and if we were as we said, 
they never saw the like in their lives. I told them what 
I was in words I was the same in life. Then the 
ambassador, who had stood without, came in; for he 
said that Irish colonel was such a desperate man that 
he durst not come in with him, for fear he should do us 1^; 

some mischief; but truth came over him, and he carried ;;J^ 

himself lovingly towards us ; as also did the ambas- 
sador ; for the Lord's power was over them all. 

About this time we had an account that John Love, a 
Friend that was moved to go and bear testimony against 
the idolatry of the Papists, was dead in prison at Rome : 
it was suspected he was privately put to death in prison. 
John Perrot was also a prisoner there, and being released, 






■'ii 



>-i^< 










828 THE KING AND THE QUAKERS 166 

came over again ; but after his arrival here he, with 
Charles Baily and others, turned aside from the unity of 
Friends and truth. Whereupon I was moved to issue a 
paper, declaring how the Lord would blast him and his 
foUowa's if they did not repent and return, and that 
they should wither like the grass on the house-top, 
which many of them did; but others returned and 
repented. 

"I wUl Stop that Vein" 
Also before this time we received account from New 
England " that the government there had made a law to 
banish the Quakers out of their colonies, upon pain of 
death, in case they returned ; and that several Friends, 
having been so banished, and returning, were taken, and 
actually hung; and that many more were in prison, in 
danger of the like sentence being executed upon them. 
When those were put to death, I was in prison at Lan- 
caster, and had a perfect sense of their sufferings, as 
though it had been myself, and as though the halter had 
been put about my own neck ; though we had not at 
that time heard of it 

But as soon as we heard of it, Edward Burrough went 
to the king and told him, "There was a vein of inno- 
cent blood opened in his dominions, which, if it were 
not stopped, would overrun all." To which the king 
replied, " But I will stop that vein." Edward Burrough 
said, " Then do it speedily, for we do not know how 
many may soon be put to death." The king answered, 
"As speedily as ye will. Call," said he to some present, 
" the secretary, and I will do it presently." The secre- 
tary being called, a mandamus was forthwith granted. 

A day or two after, Edward Burrough going again to 
the king to desire the matter might be expedited, the 



1 



t66i QUAKERS iN NEW ENGLAND 329 

king said, '* He had no occasion at present to send a 
ship thither, but if we would send one we might do it 
as soon as we chose." Edward Burrough then asked 
the king " if it would please him to grant his deputation 
to one called a Quaker to carry the mandamus to New 
England ? " He said, " Yes, to whom ye will." Where- 
upon E. B. named Samuel Shattock, who being an inha- 
bitant of New England, was banished by their law to be 
hung if he came again ; and to him the deputation was 
granted. Then he sent for Ralph Goldsmith, an honest 
Friend, who was master of a good ship, and agreed with 
him for ;^3oo, goods or no goods, to sail in ten days. 
He forthwith prepared to set sail, and, with a prosperous 
gale, in about six weeks arrived before the town of 
Boston, in New England, upon a First-day morning. 
Many passengers went with him, both of New and Old 
England, Friends whom the Lord moved to go to bear 
testimony against those bloody persecutors, who had 
exceeded all the world in that age in their persecutions. 

Governor Endicott^s Visitor 

The townsmen at Boston seeing a ship come into the 
bay with English colours, soon came on board and asked 
for the captain. Ralph Goldsmith told them he was 
the commander. They asked him if he had any letters ? 
He said, " Yes." They asked if he would deliver them ? 
He said, " No,, not to-day." So they went on shore, and 
reported there was a ship full of Quakers, and that Samuel 
Shattock was among them, who they knew was, by then: 
law, to be put to death for coming again after banishment; 
but they knew not his errand nor his authority. 

So all being kept close that day, and hone of the 
ship's company suffered to land, next morning Samuel 
Shattock, the king's deputy, and Ralph Goldsmith, the 



BSO AT JUDGE ENDICOTT'S 1661 

commander of the vessel, went on shore ; and sending 
back to the ship the men that landed them, they two 
went through the town to the governor's (John Endicott) 
door, and knocked. He sent out a man to know their 
business. They sent him word their business was from 
the king of England, and they would deliver their 
message to none but the governor himself. They were 
then admitted, and the governor came to them; and 
having received the deputation and the mandamus, he 
put off his hat, and looked upon them. Then going 
out, he bid the Friends follow him. He went to the 
deputy-governor, and after a short consultation, came 
out to the Friends, and said, <<We shall obey his 
Majesty's commands." 

After this the master gave liberty to the passengers to 
land ; and presently the noise of the business flew about 
the town, and the Friends of the town and the passengers 
of the ship met together, to offer up their praises and 
thanksgivings to God, who had so wonderfully delivered 
them from the teeth of the devourer. While they were 
thus met, a poor Friend came in, who, being sentenced 
by their bloody law to die, had lain some time in irons, 
expecting execution. This added to their joy, and 
caused them to lift up their hearts in high praises to 
God, who is worthy for ever to have the praise, the glory, 
and the honour ; for he only is able to deliver, to save, 
and to support all that sincerely put their trust in him. 

The King's Letter 

Here follows a copy of the mandamus : 

" Charles R. 
" Trusty and well beloved, we greet you well. Having 
been informed that several of our subjects amongst you, 



i66i What THfi kiNO SAit) tsi 

called Quakers, have been and are imprisoned by you, 
whereof some have been executed, and others, as hath 
been represented unto us, are in danger to undergo the 
like, we have thought fit to signify our pleasure in that 
behalf for the future; and do hereby require, that if 
there be any of those people called Quakers amongst 
you now already condemned to suffer death or other 
corporal punishment, or that are imprisoned, and 
obnoxious to the like condemnation, you are to 
forbear to proceed any further therein ; but that jou 
forthwith send the said persons, whether condemned or 
imprisoned, over into this our kingdom of England, 
together with the respective crimes or offences laid to 
their charge : to the end such course may be taken with 
them here as shall be agreeable to our laws and their 
demerits. And for so doing, these our letters shall be 
your sufficient warrant and discharge. Given at our 
Court at Whitehall the 9th day of September, 1661, in 
the thirteenth year of our reign." 

Subscribed : ** To our trusty and well beloved John 
Endicott, Esq., and to all and every other the 
governor or governors of our plantations of New 
England, and of all the colonies thereunto belong- 
ing, that now are, or hereafter shall be : and to all 
and every the ministers and officers of our planta- 
tions and colonies whatsoever, within the continent 
of New England. By his Majesty's command, 

" William Morris." 

Fox and the New England Magistrates 

Some time after this several New England magistrates 
came over, with one of their priests. We had several 
discourses with them concerning their murdering our 



-'H^ 



3S2 , JESUITS OR FRIENDS? i6^i 

Friends, the servants of the Lord; but they were 
ashamed to stand to their bloody actions. On one of 
these occasions I asked Simon Broadstreet, one of the 
New England magistrates, ** Whether he had not a hand 
in putting to death those four servants of Gk)d whom 
they hung for being Quakers only, as they had nick- 
named them ? " He confessed he had. I then asked 
him and the rest of his associates that were present, 
"Whether they would acknowledge themselves to be 
subject to the laws of England; and if they did, by 
what laws they had put our Friends to death ? " They 
said, " They were subject to the laws of England ; and 
had put our Friends to death by the same law that the 
Jesuits were put to death in England." 

I asked them then, "Whether they believed those 
Friends of ours, whom they had put to death, were 
Jesuits or jesuitically affected ? " They said nay. 
" Then," said I, " ye have murdered them, if ye have 
put them to death by the law that Jesuits are put to 
death here in England, and yet confess they were no 
Jesuits. By this it plainly appears ye have put them to 
death in your own wills, without any law.*' Then 
Simon Broadstreet, finding himself and his company 
ensnared by their own words, asked, " Did we come to 
catch them ? " I told them they had caught themselves, 
and they might justly be questioned for their lives ; and 
if the father of William Robinson, one of them that 
were put to death, were in town, it was probable he 
would question them, and bring their lives into jeopardy. 

Here they began to excuse themselves, saying, " There 
was no persecution now amongst them " ; but next morn- 
ing we had letters from New England, giving us account 
that our Friends were persecuted there afresh. We went 
again, and showed them our letters, which put them 



i66i NEW ENGLAND PERSECUTIONS SSS 

both to silence and to shame ; and in great fear they 
seemed to be lest some one should call them to account 
and prosecute them for their lives, especially Simon 
Broadstreet; for he had at first, before so many wit- 
nesses, confessed he had a hand in putting our Friends 
to death, that he could not get off from it ; though he 
afterwards through fear shuffled, and would have unsaid 
it again. After this, he and the rest soon returned to 
New England again. 

Persecuted as Persecutors 

I went also to Governor Winthrop, and discoursed 
with him on these matters; he assured me, ^*He had no 
hand in putting our Friends to death, or in any way 
persecuting them ; but was one of them that protested 
against it." These stingy persecutors of New England 
were a people that fled thither out of Old England from 
the persecution of the bishops here ; but when they had 
got power into their own hands, they so far exceeded the 
bishops in severity and cruelty, that whereas the bishops 
had made them pay twelve pence a Sunday (so called) 
for not coming to their worship here, they imposed a 
fine of five shillings a-day upon such as should not con- 
form to their will-worship there ; and spoiled the goods 
of Friends that could not pay it. Besides, many they 
imprisoned, divers they whipped, and that most cruelly ; 
of some they cut off the ears, and some they hanged ; 
as the books of Friends' sufferings in New England 
largely show, particularly that written by George Bishop, 
of Bristol, entitled " New England Judged." Some of 
the old royalists were earnest with Friends to prosecute 
them, but we told them we left them to the Lord, to 
whom vengeance belongeth, and he would repay it. 
And the judgments of God have since fallen heavy on 



.s. 



334 THEE AND THOU 1661 

them; for the Indians have been raised up against 
them, and have cut off many of thera. 

About this time I lost a very good book, being taken 
in the printer's hands ; it was a useful teaching work, 
containing the signification and explanation of names, 
parables, types, and figures in the Scriptures. They 
who took it were so affected with it that they were loth 
to destroy it ; but thinking to make a great advantage of 
it, they would have let us have it again if we would have 
given them a great sum of money for it ; which we were 
not free to do. 

A Book on Thee and Thou 

Before this, while I was prisoner in Lancaster castle, 
the book called " The Battledore " was published, which 
was written to show that in all languages Thou and 
Thee is the proper and usual form of speech to a single 
person ; and You to more than one. This was set forth 
in examples or instances taken from the Scriptures, and 
books of teaching, in about thirty languages. J. Stubbs 
and Benjamin Furly took great pains in compiling it, 
which I set them upon ; and some things I added to it. 
When it was finished, copies were presented to the king 
and his council, to the bishops of Canterbury and 
London, and to the two universities one each; and 
many purchased them. 

The king said it was the proper language of all 
nations; and the bishop of Canterbury, being asked 
what he thought of it, was at a stand, and could not tell 
what to say to it. For it did so inform and convince 
people that few afterwards were so rugged towards us 
for saying Thou and Thee to a single person, for which 
before they were exceedingly fierce against us. Thou 
and Thee was a sore cut to proud flesh and them that 



&i 



i66i FRIENDS AS TRAVELLERS SS5 

sought self-honour, who, though they would say it to 
God and Christy could not endure to have it said to 
themselves. So that we were often beaten and abused, 
and sometimes in danger of our lives, for using those 
words to some proud men, who would say, " What ! . you 
ill-bred clown, do you Thou me? " as though Christian 
breeding consisted in saying You to one; which is 
contrary to all their grammar and teaching books, by 
which they instructed their youth. 

Friends Abroad 

This year several Friends were moved to go beyond 
the seas, to publish Truth in foreign countries. John 
Stubbs, and Henry Fell, and Richard Costrop were 
moved to go towards China and Prester John's country ; 
but no masters of ships would carry them. With much 
ado they got a warrant from the king ; but the East India 
Company found means to avoid it, and the masters of their 
ships would not carry them. Then they went into 
Holland, hoping to get passage there, but none could 
they get there either. Then John Stubbs and Henry 
Fell took shipping for Alexandria in Egypt, intending to 
go by the caravans from thence. Meanwhile Daniel 
Baker being to go to Smyrna, drew Richard Costrop, 
contrary to his own freedom, to go along with him ; and 
in the passage Richard falling sick, Daniel Baker left him 
so in the ship, where he died : but that hard-hearted 
man afterwards lost his own condition. 

John Stubbs and Henry Fell reached Alexandria ; but 
they had not been long there before the English consul 
banished them : yet before they came away they dis- 
persed many books and papers, for opening the principles 
and way of truth to the Turks and Grecians. They 
gave the book called " The Pope's Strength Broken " to 



-fj T, 



SS6 • SWEAR NOT AT ALL • 1662 

an old friar, for him to give or send to the Pope ; which, 
when the friar had perused, he placed his hand on his 
breast and confessed, ^*What was written therein was 
truth ; but," said he, " if I should confess it openly, they 
would burn me." John Stubbs and Henry Fell, not 
being suffered to go further, returned to England, and 
came to London again. John had a vision that the 
English and Dutch, who had joined together not to carry 
them, would fall out one with the other : and so it came 
to pass. 

About this time the oaths of allegiance and supremacy 
were tendered to Friends as a snare, because it was 
known we could not swear, and thereupon many were 
imprisoned, and divers premunired. Upon that occasion 
Friends published in print " The grounds and reasons 
why they refused to swear " ; besides which I was 
moved to issue these few lines, to be given to the 
magistrates : 

" The world saith; « Kiss the book ' ; but the book 
saith, * Kiss the Son, lest he be angry.' And the Son 
saith, * Swear not at all,' but keep to Yea an^d Nay in all 
your communications ; for whatsoever is more than this 
Cometh of evil. Again, the world saith, ' Lay your hand 
on the book,' but the book saith, * Handle the word ' ; 
and the word saith, * Handle not the traditions,' nor the 
inventions, nor the rudiments of the world. And God 
saith, * This is my beloved Son, hear him,' whois the life, 
the truth, the light, and the way to God. G. F." 

A Letter to the King 

1662. — Now there being very many Friends in prison 
in the nation, Richard Hubberthorn and I drew up a paper 
concerning them, and got it delivered to the king, that 



i66z FOX TO THE KING SS7 

he might understand how we were dealt with by his 
officers. It was directed thus : 



" For the King, 
" Friend, 

** Who art the chief ruler of these dominions, here is 
a list of some of the sufferings of the people of God, in 
scorn called Quakers, that have suffered under the 
changeable powers before thee, by whom there have been 
imprisoned, and under whom there have suffered for good 
conscience' sake, and for bearing testimony to the truth as 
it is in Jesus, * three thousand one hundred and seventy- 
three persons ' ; and there lie yet in prison, in the name of 
the Commonwealth, * seventy-three persons,' that we know 
of. And there died in prison in the time of the Common- 
wealth, and of Oliver and Richard, the protectors, through 
cruel and hard imprisonments, upon nasty straw and in 
dungeons, * thirty-two persons.' There have been also im- 
prisoned in thy name, since thy arrival, by such as thought 
to ingratiate themselves thereby with thee, * three thou- 
sand sixty and eight persons.' Besides this, our meetings 
are daily broken up by men with clubs and arms, though 
we meet peaceably, according to the practice of God's 
people in the primitive times, and our Friends are thrown 
into waters, and trod upon, till the very blood gushes out of 
them ; the number of which abuses can hardly be uttered. 

" Now this we would have of thee, to set them at 
liberty that He in prison in the names of the Common- 
wealth and of the two Protectors, and them that lie in 
thy own name, for speaking the truth, and for good 
conscience' sake, who have not lifted up a hand against 
thee or any man ; and that the meetings of our Friends, 
who meet peacefully together in the fear of God, to 
worship him, may not be broken up by rude people with 

Y 



'1 



338 "OUR YEA AND NAY" 1662 

their clubs, swords, and Staves. One of the greatest 
things that we hare suffered for formerly was because 
we could not swear to the Protectors and all the change- 
able governments; and now we are imprisoned because 
we cannot take the oath of all^iance. Now, if our yea 
be not yea, and nay, nay, to thee, and to all men upon 
the earth, let us suffer as much for breaking that as 
others do for breaking an oath. We have suffered these 
many years, both in lives and estates, under these change- 
able governments, because we cannot swear, but obey 
Christ's doctrine, who commands, ■ we should not swear 
at all' (Matt. v. James v.), and this we seal with our lives 
and estates, with our yea and nay, according to the 
doctrine of Christ. 

" Hearken to these things, and so consider them, in 
the wisdom of God, that by it such actions may be 
stopped ; thou that hast the government, and mayest do 
it. We desire that all that are in prison may be set at 
liberty, and that for the time to come they may not be 
imprisoned for conscience and for truth's sake; and if 
thou question the innocency of their sufferings, let them 
and their accusers be brought up before thee, and we 
shall produce a more particular and full account of their 
sufferings, if required. 

"G. F. andR. H." 

Fox's Jailer Repents 
I mentioned before that in the year 1650 I was kept 
prisoner six months in the house of correction at Derby, 
and that the keeper of the prison, a cruet man, and one 
that had dealt very wickedly towards me, was smitten 
in himself, the plagues and terrors of the Lord falling 
upon him because thereof. This man, being afterwards 
convinced of truth, wrote me the following letter : 



i66z THE JAILER'S ADMIRATION 339 

« Dbar Friend, 
*^ Having such a convenient messenger, I could do no 
less than give thee an account of my present condition, 
remembering that in the first awakening of me to a 
sense of life and of the inward principle, Grod was pleased 
to make use of thee as an instrument. So that sometimes 
I am taken with admiration that it should come by such 
a means as it did; that is to say, that Providence should 
order thee to be my prisoner, to give me my first real 
sight of the truth. It makes me many times think of the 
jailer's conversion by the apostles. O happy George 
Fox ! that first breathed that breath of life within the 
walls of my habitation ! Notwithstanding my outward 
losses are since that time such that I am become nothing 
in the world, yet I hope I shall find all these light afflic- 
tions, which are but for a moment, will work for me a far 
more exceeding and eternal weight of glory. They have 
taken all from me, and now, instead of keeping a prison, 
I am rather waiting the time when I shall become a 
prisoner myself. Pray for me, that my Cdth fail not, but 
that I may hold out unto death, that I may receive a 
crown of life. 1 earnestly desire to hear from thee, and 
of thy condition, which would very much rejoice me. 
Not having else at present but my kind love unto thee, 
and all Christian Friends with thee, in haste, I rest 
thine in Christ Jesus, Thomas Sharman." 

"Derby, 22d of the 4th Month, i66a." 

Lord Beaumont's Seizure 

From Bamet Hills we came to Swannington in Leices- 
tershire, where William Smith and some other Friends 
came to me ; but they went away towards night, leaving 
me at a Friend's house in Swannington. At night, as I 
was sitting in the hall speaking to a widow woman and 



340 Pox SEARCHEO i66t 

her daughter, there came one called Lord Beaumont 
with a company of soldiers, who, slapping their -swords 
on the door, rushed into the house with swords and 
pistols in their hands, crying, " Put out the candles, and 
make fast the doors." Then they seized upon the 
Friends in the house and asked ^* if there were no more 
about the house ? " The Friends told them there was 
one man more in the hall. There being some Friends 
out of Derbyshire, one of them was named Thomas 
Fauks ; and this Lord Beaumont, after he had asked aU 
their names, bid his man set down that man's name 
Thomas Fox ; but the Friend said his name was not 
Fox, but Fauks. 

Committed to Leicester Gaol 

In the meantime some of the soldiers came, and 
brought me out of the hall to him. He asked me my 
name ; I told him my name was George Fox, and that 
I was well known by that name. " Ay," said he, " you are 
known all the world over." I said " I was known for 
no hurt, but for good." Then he put his hands into my 
pockets to search them, and pulled out my comb-case, 
and afterwards commanded one of his officers to search 
further for letters, as he pretended. I told him I was 
no letter-carrier, and asked him why he came amongst 
a peaceable people with swords and pistols, without a 
constable, contrary to the king's proclamation, and to the 
late act ? For he could not say there was a meeting, I 
being only talking with a poor widow woman and her 
daughter. By reasoning thus with him became some- 
what down ; yet sending for the constables, he gave 
them charge of us, and to bring us before him next 
morning. 

Accordingly the constables set a watch of the town's- 



i66z FOX AGAIN ARRESTED 341 

people upon us that night, and had us next morning to his 
house, about a mile from Swannington. When we came 
before him he told us " we met contrary to the act." I 
desired him to show us the act. " Why," says he, " you 
have it in your pocket." I told him he did not find us 
in a meeting. Then he asked us " whether we would 
take the oath of allegiance and supremacy?" I told 
him I never took any oath in my life, nor engagement, 
nor covenant. Yet still he would force the oath upon 
us. I desired him to show us the oath, that we might 
see whether we were the persons it was to be tendered 
to, and whether it was not for the discovery of Popish 
recusants. At length he brought a little book ; but we 
called for the statute book. He would not show us 
that, but caused a mittimus to be made, which mentioned 
" that we were to have had a meeting." With this he 
delivered us to the constables to convey us to Leicester 
jail. 

Preaching on the Way to Jail 

But when -they had brought us back to Swannington, 
being harvest time, it was hard to get anybody to go 
with us I for the people were loath to go with their neigh- 
bours to prison, especially in such a busy time. They 
would have given us our mittimus, to carry it ourselves 
to the jail ; for it had been usual for constables to give 
Friends their own mittimuses (for they durst trust 
Friends), and they have gone themselves with them to 
the jailer. But we told them, though our Friends had 
sometimes done so, yet we would riot take this mittimus, 
but some of them should go with us to the jail. At last 
they hired a poor labouring man to go with us, who was 
loath to go though hired. So we rode to Leicester, 
being five in number ; some carried their Bibles open in 



yM 



-/J 



■^} 



iM 



zi 



%. 



342 IN THE PRISON YARD 1661 

their hands, declaring the truth to the people, as we 
rode, in the fields and through the towns, and telling 
them " we were prisoners of the Lord Jesus Christ, 
going to sufler bonds for his name and truth's sake." 
One woman Friend carried her wheel on her lap to spin 
on in prison ; and the people were mightily affected. 

At Leicester we went to an inn. The roaster of the 
house seemed troubled that we should go to the prison ; 
and being himself in commission, he sent for lawyers in 
the town to advise with, and would have taken up the 
mittimus, and kept us in his own house, and not have 
let us go into the jail. But I told Friends it would be 
a great chaige to lie at an inn ; and many Friends and 
people would be coming to visit us, and it might be 
hard for him to bear our having meetings in bis house ; 
besides, we had many Friends in the prison already, and 
we had rather be with them. So we let the man know 
that we were sensible of his kindness, and to prison we 
went ; the poor man that brought us thither delivering 
both the mittimus and us to the jailer. This jailer had 
been a very wicked, cruel man. Six or seven Friends 
being in prison before! we came, he bad taken some 
occasion to quarrel with^them, and thrust them into 
the dungeon amongst the felons, where there was hardly 
room for them to lie down. 

A Surly Jailer 
We stayed all that day in the prison-yard, and desired 
the jailer to let us have some straw. He surlily answered, 
"You do not look like men that would lie on straw." 
After a while, William Smith, a Friend, came to me, and 
he being acquainted in the house I asked him " what 
rooms there were in it, and what rooms Friends had 
usually been put into before they were put into the 



1 662 THE WIFE WAS MASTER S4S 

dungeon ? " I asked him also whether the jailer or his 
wife was master? He said the wife was master; and 
that though she was lame, and sat mostly in her chair, 
being only able to go on crutches, yet she would beat 
her husband when he came within her reach if he did 
not do as she would have him. 

I considered probably many Friends might come to 
visit us, and that, if we had a room to ourselves, it would 
be better for them to speak to me, and me to them, as 
there should be occasion. Wherefore I desired WiUiam 
Smith to go speak with the woman, and acquaint her, if 
she would let us have a room, suffer our Friends to 
come out of the dungeon, and leave it to us to give her 
what we would, it might be better for her. He went, 
and after some reasoning with her, she consented ; and 
we were had into a room. Then we were told that the 
jailer would not suifer us to have any drink out of the 
town into the prison, but that what beer we drank we 
must take of him. I told them I would remedy that, 
for we would get a pail of water and a little wormwood 
once a day, and that might serve us ; so we should 
have none of his beer, and the water he could not 
deny us. 

Preaching in Prison 

Before we came, when the few Friends that were 
prisoners there, met together on First-days, if any of 
them was moved to pray to the Lord, the jailer would 
come up with his quarter-staff in his hand, and his 
mastiff dog at his heels, and pluck them down by the 
hair of the head, and strike them with his staff; but 
when he struck Friends the mastiff dog, instead of 
falling upon them, would take the staff out of his hand. 
When the First-day came, I spoke to one of^my fellow- 



a** MEETINGS IN JAIL 1662 

prisoners to cany a stool and set it in the yard, and 
^ve notice to the debtors and felons that there would 
be a meeting in the yard, and they that would hear the 
word of the Lord declared might come thither. So the 
debtors and prisoners gathered in the yard, and we went 
down and had a very precious meeting, the jailer not 
meddling. Thus every First-day we had a meeting as 
long as we stayed in prison ; and several came in out of 
the town and country. Many were convinced, and 
some received the Lord's truth there, who have stood 
faithful witnesses for it ever since. 

In Court 

When the sessions came, we were brought before the 
justices, with many more Friends, sent to prison while 
we were there, to the number of about twenty. Being 
brought into the court, the jailer put as into the place 
where the thieves were put, and then some of the justices 
b^an to tender the oaths of allegience and supremacy 
to us, 1 told them I never took any oath in my life, 
and they knew we could not swear, because Christ and 
his apostle forbade it ; therefore they put it but as a 
snare to us. We told them, if they could prove that 
after Christ and the apostle had forbid swearing, they did 
ever command Christians to swear, then we would take 
these oaths ; otherwise we were resolved to obey Christ's 
command and the apostle's exhortation. They said 
" we must take the oath that we might manifest our 
allegiance to the king." 

I told them I had been formerly sent up a prisoner 
by Colonel Hacker, from that town to London, under 
pretence that I held meetings to plot to bring in King 
Charles. I also desired them to read our mittimus, 
which set forth the cause of our commitment to be that 



1 662 "GUILTY" SU 

" we were to have a meeting " ; and I said Lord Beau- 
mont could not by that act send us to jail unless we had 
been taken at a meeting, and found to be such persons 
as the act speaks of; therefore we desired they would 
read the mittimus, and see how wrongfully we were im- 
prisoned. They would not take notice of the mittimus, 
but called a jury, and indicted us for refusing to take 
the oaths of allegiance and supremacy. When the jury 
was sworn and instructed, as they were going out, one 
that had been an alderman of the city spoke to them, 
and bid them " have a good conscience " ; and one of 
the jury, being a peevish man, told the justices there was 
one affronted the jury ; whereupon they called him up 
and tendered him the oath also, and he took it. 

Set at Liberty 

While we were standing where the thieves used to 
stand, a cut-purse had his hand in several Friends' 
pockets. Friends declared it to the justices, and showed 
them the man. They called him up before them, and 
upon examination he could not deny it ; yet they set 
him at liberty. 

It was not long before the jury returned, and brought 
us in guilty ; and then, after some words, the justices 
whispered together, and bid the jailer take us down to 
prison again ; but the Lord's power was over them and 
his everlasting truth, which w^ declared boldly amongst 
them. There being a great concourse of people, most 
of them followed us ; so that the crier and bailiffs were 
fain to call the people back again to the court. We 
declared the truth as we went down the streets all along, 
till we came to the jail, the streets being full of people. 
When we were in our chamber again, after some time 
the jailer came to us, and desired all to go forth that 



S46 



SET AT LIBERTY 



1663 



were not prisoners. When they were gone he said, 
<< Gentlemen, it is the court's pleasure that ye should 
all be set at liberty, except those that are in for tithes ; 
and you know there are fees due to me ; but I shall 
leave it to you to give me what you will." 

Thus were we all set at liberty suddenly, and passed 
every one into his service. Leonard Fell stayed with 
me, and we two went again to Swannington. I had a 
letter from Lord Hastings, who hearing of my imprison- 
ment, had written from London to the justices of the 
sessions to set me at liberty. I had not delivered this 
letter to the justices, but whether they had any know- 
ledge of his mind from any other hand, which made 
them discharge us so suddenly, I know not. But this 
letter I carried to Lord Beaumont who had sent us to 
prison ; and when he had broken it open and read it 
he seemed much troubled ; but at last came a little 
lower ; yet threatened us if we had any more meetings 
at Swannington, he would break them up and send 
us to prison again. But notwithstanding his threats, 
we went to Swannington, and had a meeting with 
Friends there, and he neither came nor sent to break 
it up. 

**1 am the Man** 

1663. — ^We went to Ashford, where we had a quiet 
and a very blessed meeting and on First-day we had a 
very good and peaceable one at Cranbrook. Then we 
went to Tenterden, and had one there, to which many 
friends came from several parts, and many other people 
came in, and were reached by the truth. 

When the meeting was over, I walked with Thomas 
Briggs into a field, while our horses were got ready ; and 
turning my head, I espied a captain coming and a great 






i663 ** WHERE IS GEORGE FOX ? " S4T 

company of soldiers with lighted matches and muskets. 
Some of them came to us and said " we must go to 
their captain." When they had brought us before him 
he asked, " Where is George Fox ? which is he ? " I 
said, " I am the man.'* Then he came to me and was 
somewhat struck, and said, " I will secure you among 
the soldiers." So he called for them to take me. He 
took Thomas Briggs and the man of the house, with 
many more ; but the power of the Lord was mightily 
over them all. Then he cam^ to me again and said, 
" I must go along with him to the town " ; and he carried 
himself pretty civilly, bidding the soldiers bring the rest 
after. 

As we walked I asked him " why they did thus " ; for 
I had not seen so much to do a great while, and I bid 
him be civil to his peaceable neighbours. When we were 
come to the town they had us to an inn that was the 
jailer's house ; and after a while the mayor of the town 
and this captain, and the lieutenant, who were justices, 
came together and examined me, ** why I came thither 
to make a disturbance ? " I told them I did not come 
to make a disturbance, neither had I made any since I 
came. They said, there was a law against the Quakers* 
meetings, made only against them. I told them I knew 
no such law. Then they brought forth the act that was 
made against Quakers and others ; I told them that was 
against such as were a terror to the king's subjects, and 
were enemies, and held principles dangerous to the 
government, and therefore that was not against us, for we 
held truth ; and our principles were not dangerous to 
the government, and our meetings were peaceable, as 
they knew, who knew their neighbours were a peaceable 
people. 



. ■w-i*-.^*!.-.^^ ■ 



S48 FOX IN COURT 1663 

**So wc Parted** 

They told me ** I was an enemy to the king." I 
answered, We loved all people and were enemies to none ; 
that I, for my own part, had been cast into Derby dungeon, 
about the time of Worcester fight, because I would not 
take up arms against him, and that I was afterwards 
brought by Colonel Hacker to London as a plotter to 
bring in King Charles, and was kept prisoner there till 
set at liberty by Oliver. They asked me, "whether I was 
imprisoned in the time of the insurrection?" I said 
yes ; I had been imprisoned then, and since that also 
and had been set at liberty by the king's own command. 
I opened the act to them, and showed them the king's 
late declaration ; gave them the examples of other justices, 
and told them also what theHouse of Lords had said of it. 

I spoke also to them concerning their own conditions, 
exhorting them to live in the fear of God, to be tender 
towards their neighbours that feared Him, and to mind 
God's wisdom, by which all things were made and created, 
that they might come to receive it, be ordered by it, and 
by it order all things to God's glory. They demanded 
bond of us for our appearance at the sessions ; but we, 
pleading our innocency, refused to give bond. Then 
they would have us promise to come no more there ; 
but we kept clear of that also. When they saw they 
could not bring us to their terms, they told us " we 
should see they were civil to us, for it was the mayor's 
pleasure we should all be set at liberty." I told them 
their civility was noble, and so we parted. 

A Terrible Nemesis 

In Cornwall I was informed there was one Colonel 
Robinson^ a very wicked man, who, after the king came 



1663 FANATIC HUNTING 349 

in, was made a justice of peace, and became a cruel per- 
secutor of Friends, of whom he sent many to prison. 
Hearing that they had some little liberty, through the 
favour of the jailer, to come home sometimes to visit 
their wives and children, he made great complaint thereof 
to the judge at the assize against the jailer ; whereupon 
the jailer was fined a hundred marks, and Friends were 
kept very strictly up for a while. 

After he was come home from the assize, he sent to a 
neighbouring justice, to desire him to go a fanatic-hunting 
with him. On the day that he intended, and was pre- 
pared to go, he sent his man about with his horses, and 
walked himself on foot from his dwelling-house to a 
tenement where his cows and dairy were kept, and where 
his servants were then milking. When he came there 
he asked for his bull. The maid-servants said they had 
shut him into the field, because he was unruly amongst 
the kine, and hindered their milking. Then he went 
into the field to the bull, and having formerly accustomed 
himself to play with him, he began to fence at him with 
his staff. But the bull snuffed at him, and passed a little 
back : then turning upon him again, ran fiercely at him 
and struck his horn into his thigh, and heaving him upon 
his horn, threw him over his back, and tore up his thigh 
to his belly. 

When he came to the ground again he gored him with 
his horns, run them into the ground in his rage and 
violence, roared, and licked up his master's blood. The 
maid-servant, hearing her master cry out, ran into the 
field and took the bull by the horns to pull him off from 
her master. The bull, without hurting her, put her 
gently by with his horns, but still fell to goring him and 
licking up his blood. Then she ran and got some men 
that were at work not far off to come and rescue her 



.,»* 



850 



A TERRIBLE DEATH 



1663 



master ; but they could not at all beat off the bull, till 
they brought mastiff dogs to set on him ; and then he 
fled in great rage and fury. 

Upon hearing of it his sister came and said to him, 
« Alack 1 brother, what a heavy judgment is this that has 
befallen you I " He answered, " Ah ! sister, it is a heavy 
judgment indeed. Pray let the bull be killed, and the 
flesh given to the poor," said he. They carried him 
home, but he died soon after. The bull was grown so 
fierce that they were forced to shoot him ; for no man 
durst come near to kill him. Thus does the Lord some- 
times make some examples of his just judgment upon 
the persecutors of his people, that others may fear and 
learn to beware. 



** Carry Them, Then** 

After the meeting we passed to Collumpton and Wel- 
lington. There had been very great persecution in that 
country and town a little before, ins6much that some 
Friends questioned the peaceableness of our meeting ; 
but the Lord's power chained all, and his gloiy shone 
over all. Friends told us how they had broken up their 
meetings by warrants from the justices, and how by 
their warrants they were required to carry Friends 
before the justices ; and Friends bid them " carry them 
then." 

The ofl5cers told Friends " they must go " : but 
Friends said, nay; that was not according to their 
warrants, which required them to carry them. Then 
they were forced to hire carts and waggons, and horses, 
and to lift Friends into their waggons and carts, to carry 
them before a justice. When they came to a justice's 
house, sometimes he happened to be from home, and if 
he were a moderate man he would get out of the way, 






^, 



1663 OFFENDED PRIESTS 351 

and then they were obliged to carry them before another^ 
so that they were many days carting and carrying 
Friends up and down from place to place. And when 
afterwards the officers came to lay their charges for this 
upon the town, the town's-people would not pay it, but 
made them bear it themselves ; which broke the neck of 
their persecution there for that time. The .like was 
done in several other places, till the officers had shamed 
and tired themselves, and then they were glad to give 
over. 

Friends in the SteepIe^House 

At one place they warned Friends to come to the 
steeple-house. Friends met to consider of it, and finding 
freedom to go the steeple-house, they met together there. 
Accordingly when they came thither, they sat down to 
wait 4ipon the Lord in his power and Spirit, and minded 
the Lord Jesus Christ, their Teacher and Saviour ; but 
did not mind the priest. When the officers saw that, 
they came to them to put them out of the steeple-house 
again; but the Friends told them it was not time- for 
them to break up their meeting yet. A while after, 
when the priest had done, they came to the Friends 
again, and would have had them go home to dinner ; 
but the Friends told them they did not choose to go to 
dinner, they were feeding upon the bread of life. So there 
they sat, waiting upon the Lord, and enjoying his power 
and presence, till they found freedom in themselves to 
depart. Thus the priesf s people were offended because 
they could not get them to the steeple-house : and when 
there they were offended because they could not get 
them out again. 

So eager were the magistrates about this time to stir 
up persecution in those parts (Northumberland), that 



i 



«« FIVE POUNDS OFFERED FOR FOX 1663 

some offered five shillings and some a noble a day to 
any that could apprehend the speakers amongst the 
Quakers; but it being now the time of the quarter 
sessions tn that county, the men who were so hired were 
gone to the sessions to get their wages, and so all our 
meetings were at that time quiet. 

Friends came to visit us; and we had a fine oppor- 
tunity to be refreshed together. We went that night 
to Francis Benson's, in Westmoreland, near Justice 
Fleming's house. This Justice Fleming was at that time 
in a great rage against Friends, and me in particular ; 
insomuch that in the open sessions at Kendal just 
before, be had bid five pounds to any man that should 
take me, as Francis Benson told me. And it seems, as 
I went to this Friend's house, I met one man coming 
from the sessions that had this five pounds offered him 
to take me, and he knew me ; for as I passed by him he 
said to his companion, That is George Fox ; yet he had 
not power to touch me, for the Lord's power preserved 
me over them all. The justices being so e^er to have 
me, and I being so often near them, and yet they missing 
me, tormented them the more. 

Fox at KirbyHall 

I went thence to James Taylor's at Cartmel, where I 
stayed First-day, and had a precious meeting ; and after 
it 1 came over the Sands to Swarthmore. 

When I came there they told me Colonel Kirby had 
sent his lieutenant thither to take me, and that he had 
searched trunks and chests for me. That night as I was 
in bed I was moved of the Lord to go next day to 
Kirby-Hall, which was Colonel Kirby's bouse, about five 
miles off, to speak with him, and I did so. When I 
came thither, I found the Flemings, and several others 



1663 AT COLONEL KIRBY'S 353 

of the gentry (so called) of the country, come to take 
their leave of Colonel Kirby, he being about to go up 
to London to the parliament. I was shown into the 
parlour amongst them ; but Colonel Kirby was not then 
within, being gone out ; so they said little to me, nor I 
much to them. 

But presently he came in, and I told him that under- 
standing he was desirous to see me, " I came to visit 
him, to know what he had to say to me, and whether he 
had anything against me." He said, before all the com- 
pany, " As he was a gentleman, he had nothing against 
me. But," said he, " Mistress Fell must not keep great 
meetings at her house, for they meet contrary to the 
act." I told him, " that act did not take hold on us, but 
on such as met to plot and contrive, and to raise insur- 
rections against the king, whereas we were no such 
people; for he knew that they that met at Margaret 
Fell's house were his neighbours and a peaceable 
people." After many words had passed, he shook me 
by the hand, and said again " he had nothing against 
me " ; and others of them said I was a deserving man. 
So we parted, and I returned to Swarthmore. 

Noise of a Plot 

Shortly after, when Colonel Kirby was gone to 
London, there was a private meeting of the justices and 
deputy-lieutenants at Holker-Hall, where Justice Preston 
lived ; and there they granted a warrant to apprehend 
me. I heard over-night both of their meeting and of 
the warrant, and so could have escaped out of their 
reach if I would ; for I had not appointed any meeting 
at that time, and I had cleared myself of the north, and 
the Lord's power was over all. But I considered, there 
being a noise of a plot in the north, if I should go 

z 



354 AT HOLKER-HALL 1663 

away, they might fall upon Friends ; but if I gare up 
myself to be taken, it might stop them, and the Friends 
should escape the better. So I gave up to be taken, and 
prepared myself against they came. Next day an office 
came with sward and pistols to take me. I told him 
" I knew his errand before, and had given up myself to 
be taken ; for if I would have escaped their imprison- 
ment I could have gone forty miles off before he came ; 
but I was an innocent man, and so cared not what they 
could do to me." He asked me " how I heard of it, 
seeing the order was made privately in a parlour." I 
said it was no matter, it was sufficient that I heard of it. 

I asked him to let me see his order : whereupon he 
laid his hand on his sword, and said, '■ I must go with 
him before the lieutenants, to answer such questions as 
they should propose to me." 1 told him it was but civil 
and reasonaUe for him to let me see his order ; but he 
would not. Then said I, I am ready. So I went along 
with him, and Margaret Fell accompanied us to Holker- 
Hall. When we came thither, there was one Rawlinson, 
a justice, and one called Sir George Middleton, and 
many more that I did not know, besides old Justice 
Preston, who lived there. 

They brought Thomas Atkinson, a Friend of Cartmel, 
as a witness against me, for some words which he had 
told to one Knipe, who had informed them ; which words 
were " that I had written against the plotters, and had 
knocked them down." These words they could not 
make much of, for I told them I had heard of a plot, and 
had written against it. Old Preston asked me whether 
I had a hand in that script? I asked him what he 
meant? He said in the Battledore. I answered. 
Yes. Then he asked me whether I understood 
languages. I said sufficient for myself; and that I 



1 663 FOX INDIGNANT 355 

knew no law that was transgressed by it. I told them 
also that "to understand outward languages was no 
matter of salvation ; for the many tongues began but at 
the confusion of Babel ; and if I did understand any- 
thing of them, I judged and knocked them down again 
for any matter of salvation that was in them. There- 
upon he turned away and said, " George Fox knocks 
down all the languages : come," said he, " we wiU examine 
you of higher matters." 

Fez Upbraids the Magistrates 

Then said George Middleton, " You deny God and 
the church and the faith." I replied, "Nay, I own 
God and the true church and the true faith. But what 
church dost thou own ? " said I (for I understood he was 
a Papist). Then he turned again and said, " you are a 
rebel and a traitor." I asked him to whom he spoke, 
or whom did he call rebel : he was so full of envy that 
for a while he could not speak, but at last he said " he 
spoke it to me." 

With that I struck my hand on the table, and told 
him " I had suffered more than twenty such as he 
or than any that was there ; for I had been cast into 
Derby dungeon for six months together, and had suffered 
much because I would not take up arms against this 
king before Worcester fight.. I had been sent up 
prisoner out of my own country by Colonel flacker 
to Oliver Cromwell, as a plotter to bring in King Charles 
in the year 1654 ; and I had nothing but love and 
good-will to the king, and desired the eternal good and 
welfare of him and all his subjects." "Did you ever hear 
the like ? " said Middleton. " Nay," said I, " ye may 
hear it again if ye will. For ye talk of the king, a 
<:ompany of you, but where were ye in Oliver's days, and 



356 EASING THE MAGISTRATES 1663 

what did ye do then for him ? But I have more love to 
the king for his eternal good and welfare than any of 
you have." 

"This Man Hath Great Power" 
Then they asked me " whether I had heard of the 
plot ? " and I stud, " Yes, I had beard of it" They 
asked me how I had heard of it, and whom I knew 
in it ? 1 told them I had heard of it through the high- 
sheriff of Yorkshire, who had told Dr. Hodgson that 
there was a plot in the north ; that was the way I heard 
of it ; but 1 never heard of any such thing in the south, 
nor till I came into the north. And as for knowing any 
in the plot, I was as a child in that, for I knew none 
of them. Then said they, "Why would you write 
against it if you did not know some that were in it? " I 
saki, "My reason was because you are so forward 
to mash the innocent and guilty together, therefore 
I wrote against it to clear the truth from such things, 
and to stop all forward, foolish spirits from running into 
such things. I sent copies of it into Westmorland, 
Cumberland, Durham, and Yorkshire, and to you here. I 
sent another copy of it to the king and his coundl, and 
it is likely it may be in print by this time." 

One of them said, " O, this man hath great power 1 " 
I said, "Yes, I had power to write against plotters." 
Then said one of them, " You are against the laws of the 
land." I answered, " Nay, for I and my Friends direct 
all people to the Spirit of God in them, to mortify 
the deeds of the fiesh. This brings them into well- 
doing, and from that which the magistrate's sword 
is agiunst, which eases the magistrates, who are for the 
punishment of evil-doers. So people being turned to the 
Spirit of God, which brings them to mortify the deeds 



L 



i663 FOX REFUSES TO SWEAR 357 

of the flesh, — this brings them from under the occasion 
of the magistrate's sword ; and this must needs be one 
with magistracy, and one with the law, which was added 
because of transgression, and is for the praise of them 
that do well. In this we establish the law, are an ease 
to the magistrates, and are not against, but stand for, all 
good government" 

Tendering the Oath 

Then George Middleton cried, " Bring the book and 

put the oaths of allegiance and supremacy to him," 

Now he himself being a Papist, I asked him " whether 

he had taken the oath of supremacy, who was a 

swearer ? As for us, we could not swear at all, because 

Christ and the apostle had forbidden it." Some of them 

would not have had the oath put to me, but have 

set me at liberty. But the rest would not agree to that ; 

for this was their last snare, and they had no other way 

to get me into prison, as all other things had been 

cleared to them. This was like the Papist's sacrament 

of the altar, by which they ensnared the martyrs. So 

they tendered me the oath, which I could not take; 

whereupon they were about to make my mittimus to 

send me to Lancaster jail ; but considering of it, they 

only engaged me to appear at the sessions, and so for 

that time dismissed me. I went back with Margaret 

Fell to Swarthmore ; and soon after Colonel West came 

to see me, who was at that time a justice of peace. He 

told us " he acquainted some of the rest of the justices 

that he would come over to see me and Margaret Fell ; 

but it may be," said he, " some of you will take 

offence at it." I asked him " what he thought they 

would do with me at the sessions " ; and he said " they 

would tender the oath to me again." 



\ 



SS8 FOX COMES WHEN CALLED 1665 

The sessions coming on, 1 went to Lancaster, and 
appeared according to my engagement There was 
upon the bench Justice Fleming, who had bid five 
pounds in Westmorland to any man that would 
apprehend me ; for he was a justice both in West- 
morland and Lancashire. There were also Justice 
Spencer, Colonel West, and old Justice Rawlinson the 
lawyer, who gave the charge, and was very sharp against * 
truth and Friends ; but the Lord's power stopped them. 
The session vras large, and the concourse of people great ; 
and way being made for me, I came up to the bar and 
stood there with my hat on, they looking earnestly 
upon me and I upon them for a pretty space. 

Respect to Magistrates 

Proclamation being made for all to keep silence upon 
pain of imprisonment, and all being quiet, I said twice, 
" Peace be among you." The chairman asked " if I 
knew where I was"; I swd, "Yes, I do, but it may be," 
said I, " my hat offends you ; that is a low thing, that 
is not the honour that I give to magistrates, for the true 
honour is from above ; which I have received, and 
I hope it is not the hat which ye look upon to be the 
honour." The chairman said "they looked for the hat 
too," and asked " wherein I showed my respect to 
magistrates if I did not put off my hat?" I replied, "in 
coming when they called me." Then they bid one " take 
off my hat." After which it was some time before they 
spoke to me, and I felt the power of the Lord to arise. 

After some pause, old Justice Rawlinson, the chair- 
man, asked me " if I knew of the plot ? " I told him 
" I had heard of it in Yorkshire by a Friend, that had it 
from the high sheriff." Then they asked me " whether I 
had declared it to the m^istrates." I said, " I had sent 



1 663 A SNARE FOR FOX 359 

papers abroad against plots and plotters, and also to 
you, as soon as I came into the country, to take all 
jealousies out of your minds concerning me and my 
friends; for it was and is our principle to declare against 
such things." They asked me then, "if I knew not of 
an act against meetings." I said " I knew there was an 
act that took hold of such as met to the terrifying of 
the king's subjects, and were enemies to the king, 
and held dangerous principles ; but I hoped they did 
not look upon us to be such men, for our meetings were 
not to terrify the king's subjects, neither are we enemies 
to him or any man." 

Committed to Prison 

Then they tendered me the oaths of allegiance 
and supremacy. I told them **I could not take any 
oath at all, because Christ and his apostle had forbid it; 
and they had had sufficient experience of swearers, first one 
way, then another ; but I had never taken any oath in 
my life." Then Rawlinson asked me " whether I held it 
was unlawful to swear ? " This question he put on purpose 
to ensnare me; for by an act that was made, such were 
liable to banishment or a great fine that should say it 
was " unlawful to swear." But I seeing the snare, avoided 
it, and told him " that in the time of the law amongst 
the Jews, before Christ came, the law commanded 
them to swear ; but Christ, who doth fulfil the law in 
his gospel-time, commands * not to swear at all '; and the 
apostle James forbids swearing, even to them that were 
Jews and had the law of God." After much discourse, 
they called for the jailer, and committed me to prison. 

I had about me the paper which I had written as a 
testimony against plots, which I desired they would 
read, or suffer to be read, in open court ; but they would 



360 FRIENDS REFUSE TITHES 1663 

not. So being committed for refusing to swear, " I bid 
them and all the people take notice that I suffered for 
the doctrine of Christ and for my obedience to his 
command." Afterwards I understood the justices said 
they had private instructions from Colonel Kirby to 
prosecute me, notwithstanding his fair carriage and 
seeming kindness to me before, when he declared before 
many of them " that he had nothing against me." 

In Prison for Tithes 

Amongst those that were then in prison, there were 
four Friends for tithes, who had been sent at the suit of 
the Countess of Derby, and had lain near two years and 
a half. One of these, Oliver Atherton, a man of a 
weakly constitution, was, through his long and hard im- 
prisonment in a cold, raw, unwholesome place, brought 
so low and weak in his body that there appeared 
no hope for his life unless he might be removed. 
Wherefore a letter was written on his behalf to the 
Countess, and sent by his son Godfrey Atherton, where- 
in were laid before her " the reasons why he and the 
rest could not pay tithes ; because if they did they 
should deny Christ come in the flesh, who by his 
coming had put an end to tithes, and to the priesthood 
to which they had been given, and to the commandment 
by which they had been paid under the law. His weak 
condition of body was also laid before her, and the 
apparent likelihood of his death if she continued to 
hold him there; that she might be moved to pity 
and compassion, and also warned not to draw the guilt 
of his innocent blood upon herself." 

When his son went to her with his father's letter, 
a servant of hers abused him, plucked off his cap, and 
threw it ew|iy, and put him out of the gate. Never- 



i663 COUNTESS AS PERSECUTOR 36l 

theless the letter was delivered into her own hand, but 
she shut out all pity and tenderness, and continued him 
in prison till death. When his son returned to his 
father^ in prison, and told him, as he lay on his dying 
bed, that the Countess denied his liberty, he only said, 
" She hath been the cause of shedding much blood, but 
this will be heaviest blood that ever she spilt " ; and 
soon after he died. Friends having his body delivered 
to them to bury, as they carried it from the prison to 
Ormskirk, the parish wherein he had lived, they stuck 
up papers upon the crosses at Garstang, Preston, and 
other towns through which they passed, with this 
inscription : — " This is Oliver Atherton, of Ormskirk 
parish^ persecuted to death by the Countess of Derby for 
good conscience sake towards God and Christ because he 
could not give her tithes^^ &c. ; setting forth at large the 
reasons of his refusing to pay tithes, the length of his 
imprisonment, the hardships he had undergone, her hard- 
heartedness towards him, and the manner of his death. 

The Countess and the Quakers 

After his death, Richard Cubban, another of her 
prisoners for tithes, wiote a large letter to her, on behalf 
of himself and his fellow-prisoners at her suit, laying 
their innocency before her ; and " that it was ' not out 
of wilfulness, stubbornness, or covetousness that they 
refused to pay her tithes, but purely in good conscience 
towards God and Christ ; and letting her know that, if 
she should be suffered to keep them there till they 
every one died, as she had done their fellow-sufferer 
Oliver Atherton, they could not yield to pay her. And 
therefore desired her to consider their case in a Christian 
spirit, and not bring their blood upon herself also." But 
she would not show any pity or compassion towards 



362 A DRAMATIC DEATH 1663 

them, who had now suffered hard imprisonment about 
two years and a half under her. Instead thereof she 
sent to Garstang, and threatened to complain to the 
king and council, and bring them into trouble, for 
suffering the paper concerning Oliver Atherton's death 
to be stuck upon their cross. The rage that she ex- 
pressed made the people take the more notice of it, and 
some of them said " the Quakers had given her a bone 
to pick." But she, that regarded not the life of an 
innocent sufferer for Christ, lived not long after herself; 
for that day three weeks that Oliver Atherton's body was 
carried through Ormskirk to be buried she died ; and 
her body was carried that day seven weeks through the 
same town to her burying-place. Thus the Lord pur- 
sued the hard-hearted persecutor, 

Foz Refuses to take the Oath 
I was kept till the assize; and Judge Turner and 
Judge Twjsden coming that circuit I was brought before 
Judge Twisden on the 14th day of the month called 
March, in the year 1663. When 1 was set to the bar 
I said, " Peace be amongst you all." The judge looked 
upon me and said, " What ! do you come into the court 
with your hat on?" Upon which, the jailer taking 
it off, I said, " The hat is not the honour that comes 
from God." Then said the judge to me, "Will 
you take the oath of aUegiance, George Fox ? " I said, 
" I never took any oath in my life nor any covenant 
or engagement." " Well," said he, " will you swear 
or not? " I answered, " I am a Christian, and Christ 
commands me ' not to swear,' and so does the apostle 
James, and whether 1 should obey God or man do thou 
judge." " I ask you again," said he, " whether you will 
swear or not ? " I answered again, " I am neither Turk, 



i663 FOX CORNERS THE JUDGE S6S 

Jew, nor heathen, but a Christian, and should show 
forth Christianity." 

And I asked him " if he did not know that Christians 
in the primitive times, under the ten persecutions, and 
some^also of the martyrs in Queen Mary's days, refused 
swearing, because Christ and the apostle had forbidden 
it ? " I told him also ** they had had experience enough 
how many men had first sworn for the king and then 
against him. But as for me I had never taken an oath 
in my life ; and my allegiance did not lie in swearing 
but in truth and faithfulness; for I honour all men, 
much more the king. But Christ, who is the great 
Prophet and King of kings, who is the Saviour of the 
world, and the great Judge of all the earth, saith, * I must 
not swear.' Now, whether must I obey Christ or thee ? 
For it is in tenderness of conscience and in obedience 
to the commands of Christ that I do not swear ; and 
we have the word of a king for tender consciences." 
Then I asked the judge. ** if he owned the king ? " 

Fox not a ** Sirrah** 

« Yes," said he, « I do own the king." « Why then," 
said I, "dost thou not observe his declaration from 
Breda and his promises made since he came into England, 
* that no man should be called in question for matters 
of religion so long as he lived peaceably?' If thou 
ownest the king," said I, " why dost thou call me into 
question and put me upon taking an oath, which is a 
matter of religion, seeing neither thou nor any else can 
charge me with unpeaceable living?" Upon this he 
was moved, and looking angrily at me, said, " Sirrah, 
will you swear ? " 

I told him " I was none of his sirrahs, I was a 
Christian ; and for him, an old man and a judge, to sit 



S64 JUDGE USES NICKNAMES 1663 

there and give nick-names to prisoners it did not become 
either his grey hairs or his office." ** Well," said he, " I 
am a Christian too." "Then do Christian works," said 
I. "Sirrah!" said he, " thou thinkest to frighten me 
with thy words." Then catching himself and looking 
aside, he said, " Hark I I am using the word [sirrah] 
again "^; and so checked himself. I said, " I spoke to 
thee in love ; for that language did not become thee, a 
judge. Thou oughtest to instruct a prisoner in the 
law if he were ignorant and out of the way." " And I 
speak in love to thee too," said he. " But," said I, 
" love gives no nick-names." 

Then he roused himself up and said, " I will not be 
afraid of thee, George Fox ; thou speakest so loud, thy 
voice drowns mine and the court's ; I must call for three 
or four criers to drown thy voice : thou hast good lungs." 

**Takc him away» Jailer** 

"I am a prisoner here," said I, " for the Lord Jesus 
Christ's sake ; for his sake do I suffer, for him do I stand 
this day; and if my voice were five times louder I 
should lift it up and sound it for Christ's sake, for whose 
cause I stand this day before your judgment-seat, in 
obedience to Christ, who commands not to swear ; before 
whose judgment-seat you must all be brought and must 
give an account." "Well," said the judge, "George 
Fox, say whether thou wilt take the oath, yea or nay ? " 
I replied, " I say, as I said before, whether ought I to 
obey God or man, judge thou ? If I could take any 
oath at all I should take this ; for I do not deny some 
oaths only, or on some occasions, but all oaths, according 
to Christ's doctrine, who hath commanded his followers 
not to swear at all. Now if thou or any of you, or your 
ministers or priests here will prove that ever Christ or 



i663 FOX'S ADVICE TO THE JUDGE 365 

his apostles, after they had forbid all swearing, com- 
manded Christians to swear, then I will swear." I saw 
several priests there, but not one of them offered to 
speak. 

" Then," said the judge, " I am a servant to the king, 
and the king sent me not to dispute with you, but to 
put the laws in execution; therefore tender him the 
oath of allegiance." " If thou love the king," said I, 
** why dost thou break his word and not keep his decla- 
rations and speeches, wherein he promised liberty to 
tender consciences ? I am a man of a tender conscience, 
and, in obedience to Christ's command, I cannot swear." 
** Then you will not swear," said the judge ; " take him 
away, jailer." I said, "It is for Christ's sake that I 
cannot swear, and for obedience to his command I 
suffer, and so the Lord forgive you all." So the jailer 
took me away ; but I felt the mighty power of the Lord 
was over them all. 

The sixteenth day of the same month I was brought 
before Judge Twisden again : he was somewhat offended 
at my hat ; but it being the last morning of the assize 
before he was to leave town, and not many people there, 
he made the less of it. He asked me *« whether I would 
traverse, stand mute, or submit." But he spoke so fast 
that it was hard to know what he said. However, I told 
him "I desired I might have liberty to traverse the 
indictment and try it." Then said he, " Take him 
away, I will have nothing to do with him, take him 
away." I said, " Well, live in the fear of God and do 
justice." "Why," said he, "have not I done you 
justice?" I replied, "That which thou hast done has 
been against the command of Christ." So I was taken 
to the jail again and kept prisoner till the next 
assizes. ^ 



S66 JOB r. JUDGE 1663 

Some time before this assize Margaret Fell was sent 
prisoner to Lancaster jail by Fleming Kirby and Preston, 
justices j and at the assize the oath was tendered to her 
also, and she was again committed to prison to lie till 
the next assize. 

**0 Justice Flemingl** 

Now Justice Fleming being one of the fiercest and 
most violent justices in persecuting Friends, and sending 
his honest neighbours to prison for religion's sake, and 
many Friends being at this time in Lancaster jail com- 
mitted by him, and some having died in prison, we that 
were then prisoners had it upon us to write to him as 
follows ; 

" O Justice Fleming ! 
" Mercy, compassion, love, and kindness adorn and 
grace men and magistrates. O ! dost thou not hear the 
cry of the widows, and the cry of the fatherless, who 
were made so through persecution! Were they not 
driven like sheep from constable to constable, as 
though they had been the greatest transgressors or 
malefactors in the land ? Which grieved and tendered 
the hearts of many sober people, to see how their 
innocent neighbours and countrymen, who were of a 
peaceable carriage, and honest in their lives and con- 
versations amongst men, were used and served ! One 
more is dead whom thou sent to prison, having left five 
children, both fatherless and motherless. How canst 
thou do otherwise than take care of these fatherless 
infants, and also of the other's wife and family ? Is it 
not thy place ? Consider Job (c. xxix.). He was a 
father to the poor, he delivered the poor that cried, and 
the fatherless that had none to help. He broke the 



1^1 



i663 SOME BRAVE QUAKERS 367 

jaws of the wicked, and plucked the spoil out of his 
teeth. But oh 1 measure thy life and his, and take heed 
of the day of God's eternal judgment, which will come, 
and the sentence and decree from Christ, when every 
man must give an account, and receive a reward accord- 
ing to his deeds. Then it will be said, ' Oh, where are 
the months that are past ! ' 

" Again, Justice Fleming, consider, when John Stubbs 
was brought before thee, having a wife and four small 
children, and little to live on but what they honestly 
got by their own diligence, as soon as he appeared thou 
criedst out, ' Put the oath to that man.' And when he 
confessed that he was but a poor man, thou hadst no 
regard ; but cast away pity, not hearing what he would 
say. And now he is kept in prison because he could 
not swear and break the command of Christ and the 
apostle ; it is to be hoped thou wilt take care for his 
iamily, that his children do not starve ; and see that they 
do not want bread. Can this be allegiance to the king, 
to do that which Christ and his apostle say is evil, and 
brings into condemnation ? Would not you have cast 
Christ and the apostle into prison, who commanded 
' not to swear,' if they had been in your days ? 

"Consider thy Poor Neighbour" 

" Consider also thy poor neighbour, William Wilson, 
who was known to all the parish and neighbours to be 
an industrious man, and careful to maintain his wife and 
children ; yet had httle but what he got with his hands 
in diligence and travels to supply himself. How should 
his wife maintain her children, when thou hast cast her 
husband into prison, and thereby made him incapable of 
working for them ? Therefore it may be expected thou 
wilt have a care of his wife and children, Sid see they 



I- 



368 AN APPEAL TO THE JUDGE 1663 

do not want ; for how should they live, having no other 
way to be sustained but by the little that he got? 
Surely the noise of this is in the very markets, the death 
of thy two neighbours ; and the cry of the widows and 
fatherless is heard. All those fatherless and widows are 
made so for righteousness' sake. For might not John 
Stubbs and William Wilson have had their liberty still 
if they would have sworn, though they had been such 
as go after mountebanks and stage-plays, or run a- 
hunting ? 

" O ! consider, for the Lord's mind is otherwise ; he 
is tender. And the king hath declared his mind to be 
that there should be no cruelty inflicted upon his peace- 
able subjects. Besides, several poor, honest people were 
fined who had need to have something given them ; and 
it had been more honourable to have given them some- 
thing than to fine them and send them to prison ; some 
of whom live upon the charity of other people. What 
honour or grace can it be to thee to cast thy poor 
neighbours into prison who are peaceable, seeing thou 
knowest these people cannot do that which thou requirest 
of them if it were to save their lives or all that they 
have? Because in tenderness they cannot take any 
oath, thou makest that a snare to them. 

What the People Say 

" What, thinkest thou, do the people say concerning 
this ? * We know,' say they, * the Quakers' principle, 
that keep to Yea and Nay ; but we see others swear and 
forswear.' For many of you have sworn first one way 
and then another. So we leave it to the Spirit of God 
in thy conscience, Justice Fleming, who wast so eager 
for the taking of George Fox, and so offended with them 
# that had not taken him, and now hast fallen upon thy 






1 663 JUSTICE'S JUSTICE S69 

poor neighbours. But, oh ! where is thy pity for their 
poor, fatherless children, and motherless infants ? O, 
take heed of Herod's hard-heartedness, and casting away 
all pity ! Esau did so, not Jacob. 

" Here is also Thomas Walters, of Bolton, cast into 
prison, and the oath imposed on him through thee ; and 
for denying to swear at all, in obedience to Christ's 
command, he is continued in prison ; having five small 
children, and his wife near confinement. Surely thou 
shouldst take care for them also, and see that his wife 
and small children do not want ; who are as fatherless, 
and she as a widow, through thee. Dost thou not hear 
in thy ears the cry of the fatherless, and the cry of the 
widows, and the blood of the innocent speak, who 
through thee have been persecuted to prison, and are 
now dead ? O ! heavy sentence at the day of judg- 
ment! How wilt thou answer, when thou and thy 
works come to be judged — when thou shalt be brought 
before the judgment-seat of the Almighty, who in thy 
prosperity hast made widows and fatherless for righteous- 
ness' sake, and for tenderness of conscience towards 
God ? The Lord knows and sees it ! 

♦^O Man I Consider** 

" O man ! consider in thy lifetime, how thou hast 
stained thyself with the blood of the innocent ! When 
thou hadst power, and might have done good amongst 
thy peaceable neighbours, and would not, but used thy 
power not to a good intent, but contrary to the Lord's 
mind and to the king's. The king's favour, his mercy, 
and clemency to sober people, and to tender consciences, 
have been manifested by declarations and proclama- 
tions, which thou hast abused and slighted by perse- 
cuting his peaceable subjects. For at London, and in 

2 A 



i 



370 JUDGE FLEMING'S WIFE DIES 1664 

other parts, the Quakers' meetings are peaceable ; and 
if thou look but as fiar as Yorkshire, where the plot hath 
been, Friends' innocency hath cleared itself in the hearts 
of sober justices ; and for you here to Ml upon your 
peaceable neighbours and people, and to be rigorous 
and violent against them that are tender, godly, and 
righteous, it is no honour to you. How many drunkards 
and swearers, fighters, and such as are subject to vice, 
have you caused to be brought before your courts ? It 
were more honourable for you to look after such ; for 
the law was not made for the righteous, but for sinners 
and transgressors. Therefore, consider, and be humbled 
for these things ; for the Lord may do to thee as thou 
hast done to others ; and thou dost now know how soon 
there may be a cry in thy own family, as the cry is 
amongst thy neighbours, of the fatherless and widows 
that are made so through thee. But the Quakers can 
and do say, * The Lord forgive thee, and lay not these 
things to thy charge, if it be his will.' " 

Besides this, which went in the name of many, I sent 
him also a line subscribed by myself only, and directed — 

" To Daniel Fleming. 
" Friend, 
"Thou hast imprisoned the servants of the Lord, 
without the breach of any law ; therefore take heed what 
thou doest, for in the light of the Lord God thou 
art seen, lest the hand of the Lord be turned against 
thee ! G. F." 

It was not long after this ere Fleming's wife died, and 
left him thirteen or fourteen motherless children. 

1664. — Before the next assizes, there was a quarter- 
sessions held at Lancaster by the justices; to which, 



i66+ BEFORE JUDGE TURNER 371 

though we were not brought, I put Friends upon draw- 
ing up an account of their suflferings, and laying them 
before the justices in their open sessions. For Friends 
had suffered deeply by fines and distresses, the baihffs 
and officers making great havock and spoil of their 
goods J but no redress was afforded. 

A Match for the Judge 

In the sixth month, the assizes were held again at 
Lancaster, and the same judges, Twisden and Turner, 
came that circuit again ; but Judge Turner then sat on 
the crown bench, and so I was brought before him. 
Before I was called to the bar I was put among the 
murderers and felons for about two hours, the people, 
the justices and the judge also gazing upon me. After 
they had tried several others they called me to the bar, 
and empannelled a jury. Then the judge asked the 
justices " whether they had tendered me the oath at the 
sessions." They said " they had." Then he bid "give 
them the book, that they might swear they had tendered 
me the oath at the sessions." They said "they had." 
Then he bid, " give them the book, that they might 
swear they had tendered me the oath according to the 
indictment," Some of the justices refused to be sworn ; 
but the judge said he would have it done, to take away 
all occasion of exception. 

When the jury were sworn, and the justices had 
sworn that " they had tendered me the oath according 
to the indictment," the judge asked me "whether I 
had not refused the oath at the last assizes ? " I said 
" I never took an oath in my life, and Christ, the 
Saviour and Judge of the world, said, ' Swear not at all.' " 
The judge seemed not to take notice of my answer, but i 

asked me "whether or not I had refused to take the jj 



372 SCENE IN COURT 1664 

oath at the last assizes ? " I said, " the words that I 
then spoke to them were, that if they could prove either 
judge, justices, priest, or teacher, that after Christ and 
the apostle had forbidden swearing, they commanded 
that Christians should swear, I would swear." 

The judge said he was not at that time to dispute 
whether it was lawful to swear, but to inquire whether I 
had refused to take the oath or not. I told him " those 
things mentioned in the oath, as plotting against the 
king, and owning the Pope's, or any other foreign power, 
I utterly deny." " Well," said he, " you say well in that, 
but did you deny to take the oath ? what say you ? " 
" What wouldst thou have me to say ? " said I ; " for I 
have told thee before what I did say." Then he asked 
me " if I would have these men to swear that I had 
taken the oath ? " I asked him " if he would have those 
men to swear that I had refused the oath ? " at which 
the court burst out into laughter. I was grieved to see 
so much lightness in a court where such solemn matters 
are handled, and thereupon asked them " if this court 
was a play-house ? where is gravity and sobriety," said I, 
" for this behaviour doth not become you." 

''Guilty** 

Then the clerk read the indictment, and I told the 
judge **I had something to speak to it"; for I had 
informed myself of the errors that were in it. He told 
me " he would hear afterwards any reasons that I could 
allege why he should not give judgment." Then I spoke 
to the jury, and told them " that they could not bring 
me in guilty according to that indictment, for the indict- 
ment was wrong laid, and had many gross errors in it." 
The judge said, " I must not speak to the jury, but he 
would speak to them," and he told them I had denied 



166+ FOX*S PRISON 373 

to take the oath at the last assizes ; and, said he, " I 
can tender the oath to any man now, and premunire 
him for not taking it " ; and he said they must bring me 
in guilty, seeing I refused to take the oath. 

Then said I, " What do ye do with a form ? ye may 
throw away your form then." And I told the jury " it 
lay upon their consciences, as they would answer it to 
the Lord God before his judgment-seat," Then the 
judge spoke again to the jury, and I called to him to 
"do me justice." The jury brought me in guilty. 
Whereupon I told them that " both the justices and 
they had forsworn themselves, and therefore they had 
small cause to laugh, as they did a little before." O ! 
the envy, rage, and malice that appeared against me, 
and the lightness ; but the Lord confounded them, and 
they were wonderfully stopped. So they set me aside, 
and called up Margaret Fell, who had much good service 
among them; and then the court broke up near the 
second hour. 

A Terrible Prison 

In the afternoon we were brought again to have 
sentence passed upon us. Margaret Fell desired that 
sentence might be deferred till the next morning. I 
desired nothing but law and justice at his hands, for 
thieves had mercy ; only I requested the judge to send 
some one to see my prison, which was so bad they 
would put no creature they had in it ; and I told him 
that Colonel Kirby, who was then on the bench, said 
" I should be locked up, and no flesh alive should come 
to me." The judge shook his head, and said, " when 
the sentence was given he would leave me to the favour 
of the jailer." 

Most of the gentry of the country were gathered 



:n4 ERRORS IN FOX'S INDICTMENT 1664 

together, expecting to hear the sentence ; and the noise 
among the people was "that I should be transported." 
But they were all crossed at that time ; for the sentence 
being deferred till next morning, I was sent to prison 
again. Upon my complaining of the badness of my 
prison, some of the justices, with Colonel Kirby, went 
up to see it ; but when they came they durst hardly go 
in, the floor was so bad and dangerous, and the place 
so open to wind and rain. Some that came up said, 
" sure it was a jakes-house." When Colonel Kirby saw 
it, and heard what others said of it, he excused the 
matter as well as he could, saying, ** I should be removed 
ere long to some more convenient place." 

Fez's Extraordinary Defence 

Next day, towards eleven, we were called again to 
hear the sentence ; and Margaret Fell, being called first 
to the bar, had counsel to plead, who found many errors 
in her indictment; whereupon, after the judge had 
acknowledged them, she was set by. Then the judge 
asked "what they could say to mine?" I was not 
willing to let any man plead for me, but to speak to it 
myself; and, indeed, though Margaret had some that 
pleaded for her, yet she spoke as much herself as she 
would. But before I came to the bar I was moved in 
my spirit to pray that God would confound their wicked- 
ness and envy, set his truth over all, and exalt his Seed. 
The Lord heard and answered, and confounded them in 
their proceedings against me ; and though they had most 
envy against me, yet the most gross errors were found in 
my indictment. 

Now, I having put by others from pleading for me, 
the judge asked me " what I had to say why he should 
not pass sentence upon me ? " I told him " I was no 



1664 FOX AS PLEADER 375 

lawyer, but I had much to say if he would have patience 
to hear." At that he laughed, and others laughed also, 
and said, **Come, what have you to say? he can say 
nothing." "Yes," said I, "I have much to say, have 
but the patience to hear me." Then I asked him 
" whether the oath was to be tendered* to the king's sub- 
jects or to the subjects of foreign princes ? " He said 
"to the subjects of this realm." "Then," said I, "look 
at the indictment, and ye may see that ye have left out 
the word * subject' ; so not having named me in the indict- 
ment as a subject, ye cannot premunire me for not taking 
the oath." Then they looked over the statute and the 
indictment, and saw that it was as I said ; and the judge 
confessed it was an error. 

I told him " I had something else to stop his judg- 
ment," and I desired him to look what day the indict- 
ment said the oath was tendered to me at the sessions 
there. They looked, and said " it was the eleventh day 
of January." " What day of the week were the sessions 
held on ? " said I. " On a Tuesday," said they. " Then," 
said I, " look at your almanacs, and see whether there 
were any sessions held at Lancaster on the eleventh day 
of January, so called?" So they looked, and found 
that the eleventh day was the day called Monday, and 
that the sessions were on the day called Tuesday, which 
was the twelfth day of that month. 

" Look now," said I, " ye have indicted me for re- 
using the oath in the quarter sessions held at Lan-** 
caster on the eleventh day of January last, and the 
justices have sworn that they tendered me the oath in 
open sessions here that day, and the jury upon their 
oaths have found me guilty thereupon ; and yet ye see 
there were no sessions held in Lancaster that day." 
Then the judge, to cover the matter, asked, " whether 




^ 



376 JUDGES IN A FRET 1664 

the sessions did not begin on the eleventh ? " but some 
in the court answered, '< no ; the sessions held but one 
day, and that was the twelfth." Then the judge said, 
'* this was a great mistake, and an error." Some of the 
justices were in a great rage at this, and were ready to 
quit the bench ; they stamped and said, " Who hath 
done this ? somebody hath done it on purpose " ; and a 
great heat was amongst them. " Then," said I, " are 
not the justices here, that hare sworn to this indictment, 
forsworn men in the face of the country ? " 

Mistakes in the Indictment 

"But this is not all," said I, «* I have more yet tooifer 
why sentence should not be given against me." Then I 
asked, " in what year of the king the last assize here was 
holden, which was in the month called March last ? " 
The judge said, " it was in the sixteenth year of the king." 
" But," said I, " the indictment says it was in the 
fifteenth year." They looked, and found it so. This 
also was acknowledged to be another error. Then they 
were all in a fret again, and could not tell what to say ; 
for the judge had sworn the officers of the court, that the 
oath was tendered to me at the assize mentioned in the 
indictment. 

" Now," said I, "is not the court here forsworn also, 
who have sworn that the oath was tendered to me at the 
assize holden here in the fifteenth year of the king, 
when it was in his sixteenth year, and so they have 
sworn a year false? " The judge bid them look whether 
Margaret FelPs indictment was so or not They looked, 
and found it was not so. 

I told the judge, " I had more yet to offer to stop 
sentence " ; and asked him, " whether all the oath ought 
to be put into the indictment or not ? " " Yes," said 



1 664 THE JUDGE'S JUSTICE 377 

he, " it ought to be all put in." •* Then," said I, "com- 
pare the indictment with the oath, and there thou 
mayest see these words, viz. [or by any authority 
derived, or pretended to be derived from him, or his see] 
left out of the indictment, which is a principal part of the 
oath, and in another place the words [heirs and suc- 
cessors] are left out." The judge acknowledged these 
also to be great errors. 

**Nay, I have had Enough** 

" But," said I, " I have something further to allege." 
" Nay," said the judge, " I have enough, you need say no 
more." " If," said I, ** thou hast enough, I;^desire nothing 
but law and justice at thy hands, but . I don't look for 
mercy." " You must have justice," said he, " and you 
shall have law." Then I asked, " Am I at liberty and 
free from all that hath ever been done against me in this 
matter?" "Yes," said the judge, "you are free from 
all that hath been done against you. But then," starting 
up in a rage, he said, " I can put the oath to any man 
here, and I will tender you the oath again." I told him, 
"he had examples enough yesterday of swearing and 
false-swearing, both in the justices and the jury ; for I 
saw before mine eyes, that both justices and jury had for- 
sworn themselves." The judge asked me, " if I would 
take the oath ? " "I bid him do me justice for my false 
imprisonment all this while; for what had I been 
imprisoned so long for ? and I told him I ought to be 
set at liberty." " You are at liberty," said he, " but I 
will put the oath to you again." 

An Unjust Judge 

Then I turned me about and said, " All people, take 
notice, this is a snare, for I ought to be set free from the 



378 FOX AND THE BIBLE 1664 

jailer and from this court/' But the judge cried, " Give 
him the book " ; and the sheriff and the justices cried, 
" Give him the book." Then the power of darkness 
rose up in them, like a mountain, and a clerk lifted up 
a book to me. I stood still and said, << if it be a Bible, 
give it me into my hand." " Yes, yes/' said the judge 
and justices, <' give it him into his hand." So I took it 
and looked into it, and said, <' I see it is a Bible, I am 
glad of it." 

Now he had caused the jury to be called, and they 
stood by; for after they had brought in their former 
verdict, he would not dismiss them, though they desired 
it ; but told them, " he could not dismiss them yet, for 
he should have business for them, and therefore they 
must attend and be ready when they were called." 
When he said so, I felt his intent, that if I was freed, he 
would come on again. So I looked him in the face, 
and the witness of God started up in him, and made him 
blush when he looked at me again, for he saw that I saw 
him. Nevertheless, hardening himself, he caused the 
oath to be read to me, the jury standing by ; and when 
it was read, he asked me, " whether I would take the 
oath or not ? " 

Then said I, " ye have given me a book here to kiss 
and to swear on, and this book which ye have given me 
to kiss, says, * Kiss the Son ' ; and the Son says in this 
book, * Swear not at all ' ; and so says also the apostle 
James. Now, I say as the book says, and yet ye im- 
prison me; how chance ye do not imprison the book for 
saying so ? How comes it that the book is at liberty 
amongst you, which bids me not swear, and yet ye 
imprison me for doing as the book bids me ? Why 
don't ye imprison the book ? " 

As I was speaking this to them, and held up the Bible 



i664 FOX INVINCIBLE 379 

open in my hand, to show them the place in the book, 
where Christ forbids swearing, they plucked the book out 
of my hand again ; and the judge said, " Nay, but we will 
imprison George Fox." Yet this got abroad over all the 
country as a by-word, " that they gave me a book to 
swear on, that commanded me * not to swear at all ' ; 
and that the Bible was at liberty, and I in prison for 
doing as the Bible said." 

More Words with Judge and Jury 

Now when the judge still urged me to swear, I told 
him, ** I never took oath, covenant, or engagement in my 
life, but my yea or nay was more binding to me than an 
oath was to many others ; for had they not had experience 
how little men regarded an oath ; and how they had 
sworn one way and then another ; and how the justices 
and court had forsworn themselves now ? " I told him 
" I was a man of a tender conscience, and if they had any 
sense of a tender conscience, they would consider, that 
it was in obedience to Christ's command that I could not 
swear. But," said I, " if any of you can convince me, 
that after Christ and the apostle had commanded not to 
swear, they altered that command and commanded 
Christians to swear ; then ye shall see I will swear." 
There being many priests by, I said, " if ye cannot do it, 
let your priests stand up and do it." But not one of the 
priests made any answer. ** O," said the judge, " all the 
world cannot convince you." 

"No," said I, "how is it like the world should 
convince me ; for * the whole world lies in wickedness ' ; 
but bring out your spiritual men, as ye call them, to 
convince me." Then both the sheriff and the judge said, 
" the angel swore in the Revelations." I replied, " when 
God bringeth in his first-begotten Son into the world, he 



J! 



1 

I 



J 



380 FOX REMANDED 1664 

saithy < Let all the angels of God worship Him ' ; and He 
saith, « swear not at all.' " " Nay," said the judge, " I 
will not dispute." Then I spoke to the jury, telling 
them, << it was for Christ's sake that I could not swear, 
and therefore I warned them not to act contrary to that 
of God in their consciences, for before his judgment-seat 
they must all be brought." And I told them, " that as 
for plots and persecution for religion and Popery, I do 
deny them in my heart ; for I am a Christian, and shall 
show forth Christianity amongst you this day* It is 
for Christ's doctrine I stand." More words I had 
both with the judge and jury before the jailer took me 
away. 

Remanded 

In the afternoon I was brought up again, and put 
among the thieves some time, when I stood with my hat 
on till the jailer took it off. Then the jury having found 
this new indictment against me " for not taking the oath," 
I was called to the bar ; and the judge asked me, "what 
I would say for myself" ; I bid them read the indictment, 
for I would not answer to that which I did not hear. 
The clerk read it, and as he read the judge said, " take 
heed it be not false again " ; but he read it in such 
a manner that I could hardly understand what he read. 
When he had done the judge asked me, " what I said to 
the indictment ? " I told him, ** at once hearing so 
large a writing read, and at such a distance that I could 
not distinctly hear all the parts of it, I could not well tell 
what to say to it ; but if he would let me have a copy, 
and give me time to consider it, I would answer it." 

This put them to a little stand; but after a while the 
judge asked me " what time I would have ? " I said, 
"till the next assize." " But," said he, "what plea will 



i664 COLONEL KIRBY'S ORDER 381 

you now make ? are you guilty or not guilty ? " I said, 
" I am not guilty at all of denying swearing obstinately 
and wilfully ; and as for those things mentioned in the 
oath, as Jesuitical plots and foreign powers, I utterly 
deny them in my heart ; and if I could take any oath I 
should take that ; but I never took any oath in my life." 
The judge said, ** I said well ; but," said he, " the king 
is sworn, the parliament is sworn, I am sworn, the 
justices are sworn, and the law is preserved by oaths." 

I told him " they had had sufficient experience of 
men's swearing, and he had seen how the justices and 
jury had sworn wrong the other day ; and if he had read 
in the " Book of Martyrs " how many of the martyrs 
had refused to swear, both within the time of the ten 
persecutions and in Bishop Bonner's days, he might see 
that to deny swearing in obedience to Christ's command 
was no new thing." He said " he wished the laws were 
otherwise." I said, " Our Yea is yea, and our Nay is 
nay ; and if we transgress our yea and our nay, let us 
suffer as they do, or should do, that swear falsely." 
This, I told him, we had offered to the king ; and the 
king said " it was reasonable." 

After some further discourse they committed me to 
prison again, there to lie till the next assize; and Colonel 
Kirby gave order to the jailer " to keep me close, and 
suffer no flesh alive to come at me, for I was not fit," he 
said, " to be discoursed with by men." 

A Wintei* in Prison 

Then I was put into a tower, where the smoke of the 
other prisoners came up so thick that it stood as dew 
upon the walls, and sometimes it was so thick that I 
could hardly see the candle when it burned ; and I 
being locked under three locks, the under-jailer, wh^n 



i 



382 RAIN IN THE CELL 1664 

the smoke was great, would hardly be persuaded to come 
up to unlock one of the uppermost doors, for fear of the 
smoke, so that I was almost smothered. Besides, it 
rained in upon my bed, and many times, when I went to 
stop out the rain in the cold winter season, my shirt was 
wet through with the rain that came in upon me while I 
was labouring to stop it out. And the place being high 
and open to the wind, sometimes as fast as I stopped it, 
the wind blew it out again. In this manner did I lie all 
that long, cold winter till the next assize ; in which time 
I was so starved with cold and rain that my body was 
greatly swelled, and my limbs much benumbed. 

The assize began on the i6th day of the month called 
March, 1664-5. The same Judges, Twisden and 
Turner, coming that circuit again. Judge Twisden sat 
this time on the crown-bench, and before him I was 
brought. I had informed myself of the errors in this 
indictment also. For though at the assize before. Judge 
Turner had said to the officers in court, " Pray see that 
all the oath be in the indictment, and that the word 
• subject ' be in, and that the day of the month and the 
year of the king be put in right; for it is a shame that so 
many errors should be seen and found in the face of the 
country " ; yet there were many errors, and those great 
ones, in this indictment, as well as in the former. Surely 
the hand of the Lord was in it to confound their mis- 
chievous work against me, and to blind them therein ; 
insomuch, that although after the indictment was drawn 
at the former assize, the judge examined it himself and 
tried it with the clerks, yet the word " subject " was left 
out of this indictment also, the day of the month was put 
in wrong, and several material words of the oath were 
left out ; yet they went on confidently against me, think- 
ing all was safe and well. 



i664 MORE ILLEGAL MISTAKES SSS 

When I was set to the bar, and the jury called over to 
be sworn, the clerk asked me, first, ** whether I had any 
objection to make against any of the jury ? " I told him 
" I knew none of them." Then, having sworn the jury, 
they swore three of the officers of the court to prove 
" that the oath was tendered to me at the last assizes, 
according to the indictment." " Come, come," said the 
judge, " it was not done in a corner." Then he asked 
me " what I had said to it, or whether I had taken the 
oath at the last assize ? " I told him what I had said, 
viz., " that the book they gave me to swear on says, 

* swear not at all ' " ; and I repeated more of what I 
had formerly said to them, as it now came to my remem- 
brance. Whereupon the judge said, " I will not dispute 
with you but in point of law." 

An Illegal Sentence 

" Then," said I, " I have something to speak to the 
jury concerning the indictment." He told me I must 
not speak to the jury, but if I had anything to say I must 
speak to him. Then I asked him, "whether the oath 
was to be tendered to the king's subjects only, or to the 
subjects of foreign princes?" He replied, "to the 
subjects of this realm ; for I will speak nothing to you," 
said he, " but in point of law." " Then," said I, " look 
in the indictment, and thou mayest see that the word 

* subject ' is left out of this indictment also. And there- 
fore, seeing the oath is not to be tendered to any but the 
subjects of this realm, and ye have not put me in as a 
subject, the court is to take no notice of this indict- 
ment." I had no sooner spoken than the judge cried, 
"Take him away, jailer, take him away." So I was 
presently hurried away. The jailer and people looked 
when I should be called for again; but I was never 



SB* FOX ILLEGALLY SENTENCED 1664 

brought to the court any more, though I had many other 
great errors to assign in the indictment. After I was 
gone the judge asked the jury, "if they were agreed?" 
They said, " yes," and found for the king against me, as 
I was told. But 1 was never called to hear sentence 
given, nor was any given against me, that I could 
hear of. 

I understood that when they had looked more nairowly 
into the indictment, they saw it was not good ; and the 
judge having sworn the officers of the court, that the oath 
was tendered me at the assize before such a day, accord- 
ing as was set in the indictment, and that being the 
wrong day, I should have proved the officers of the 
court forsworn men agEun, if the judge would have 
suffered me to plead to the indictment ; which was 
thought to be the reason why he hurried me away so 
soon. The jut^e had passed sentence of premunire 
upon Margaret Fell before I was brought in; and it 
seems, when I was hurried away, they recorded me as a 
premunired person, though I was never brought to hear 
the sentence, or knew of it ; which was very illegal. For 
they ought not only to have had me present to hear the 
sentence given, but also to have asked me first, " what I 
could say why sentence should not be given £^ainst 
me ? " But they knew I had so much to say, that they 
could not give sentence if they heard it. 

Foresees the Fii« of London 
While I was prisoner in Lancaster castle, there was 
a great noise and talk of the Turks overspreading 
Christendom, and great fears entered many. But one day 
as I was walking in my prison chamber " I saw the Lord's 
power turn against me, and that he was turning back 
again," And I declared to some what the Lord had let 



1664 tithes: 385 

me see, when there were such fears of his overrunning 
Christendom ; and within a month after the news came, 
that they had given him a defeat. 

Another time, as I was walking in my chamber, with 
my eye to the Lord, " I saw the angel of the Lord with 
a glittering drawn sword stretched southward, as though 
the court had been all on fire." Not long after the 
wars broke out with Holland, the sickness broke forth, 
and afterwards the fire of London ; so the Lord's sword 
was drawn indeed. 

By reason of my long and close imprisonment in so 
bad a place, I was become very weak in body ; but the 
Lord's power was over all, supported me through all, and 
enabled me to do service for him, and for his truth and 
people, as the place would admit. For while I was in 
Lancaster prison, I answered several books, as " The 
Mass," "The Common-Prayer," "The Directory," and 
" The Church-Faith " ; which are the four chief religions 
that are got up since the apostles' days. 

Concerning Tithes 

And there being several Friends in prison at Lancaster 
and other prisons for not paying tithes, I was moved to 
give forth the following lines concerning tithes : 

" In the time of the law, they that did not bring their 
tithes into the store-house, robbed God ; then there was 
not meat in their house ; therefore the Lord commanded 
< to bring them into his house, that there might be meat 
in the store-house, which was to fill the fatherless, 
stranger, and widow.' But these priests, who are 
counterfeits, who take people's tithes now by a law, are 
from the beast ; and if any will not pay them, they 
imprison them, or make them pay treble. These rob 

3 B 



586 THEATENED WITH BANISHMENT 1664 

the poor, rob the fatherless ; and the stranger and the 
widow are not filled ; so their cry is gone up to heaven 
against these. Many are made almost beggars by these 
oppressing priests, their cattle and corn being taken 
away, and they cast into prison. Others are sued at 
law by them, and have treble damage taken from them ; 
yet such priests are cried up to be ministers of the 
gospel. 

" Though when the unchangeable priest was come, the 
priesthood that was changeable was denied, as we now 
deny these. But if any be moved now to cry against 
them, they are stocked, beat, or imprisoned. Many are 
now in prison at Lancaster and in other places by a 
national law ; the like whereof was never done by the 
law of God, which was delivered to Moses. For we do 
not read that under Moses's law any suffered imprison- 
ment or spoiling of their goods for not paying tithes, or 
had to pay treble damage. Surely, surely, the cry for 
vengeance will be heard, which arises from the oppressed 
souls that lie under the altar. • . . G. F." 

Leaves Lancaster Jail 

1665. — After the assize. Colonel Kirby and some 
other justices were very uneasy with my being at Lan- 
caster j for I had galled them sore at my trials there, 
and they laboured much to get me removed to some 
remote place. Colonel Kirby threatened I should be 
sent far enough, and sometimes said I should be sent 
beyond sea. About six weeks after the assizes they got 
an order from the king and council to remove me from 
Lancaster ; and with it they brought a letter from the 
Earl of Anglesea, wherein was written, " That if those 
things were found true against me, which I was charged 
withal, I deserved no clemency or mercy"; yet the 



N 



1665 CRUELTY TO FOX 387 

greatest matter they had against me was, because I could 
not disobey the command of Christ, and swear. 

When they had prepared for my removal, the under- 
sheriff and the head-sheriffs man, with some bailiffs, 
came and fetched me out of the castle, when I was so 
weak with lying in the cold, wet, and smoky prison, that 
I could hardly go or stand. They had me into the 
jailer's house, where were William Kir by, a justice, and 
several others, and they called for wine to give me. I 
told them, " I would have none of their wine." Then 
they cried, " Bring out the horses." I desired them first 
to show me their order, or a copy of it, if they intended 
to remove me ; but they would show me none but their 
swords. I told them, " There was no sentence passed 
upon me, nor was I premunired that I knew of; and 
therefore I was not made the king's prisoner, but was the 
sheriffs ; for they and all the country knew that I was 
not fully heard at the last assize, nor suffered to show 
the errors that were in the indictment, which were 
sufficient to quash it, though they had kept me from one 
assize to another, to the end they might try me. But 
they all knew there was no sentence of premunire passed 
upon me ; and therefore not being the king's prisoner 
but the sheriffs, I desired to see their order." 

Instead of showing me their order they haled me out 
and lifted me upon one of the sheriffs horses. When I 
was on horseback in the street, the town's-people being 
gathered to gaze upon me, I told the officers I had 
received neither Christianity, civility, nor humanity from 
them. They hurried me away about fourteen miles to 
Bentham, though I was so very weak, I was hardly able 
to sit on horseback ; and my clothes smelt so of smoke 
that they were loathsome to myself. The wicked jailer, 
one Hunter, a young fellow, would come behind and 



S88 FOX VERY WEAK 1665 

give the hone a lash with his whip, and make him skip 
and leap; so that I, being weak, had difficulty to sit 
him; and then he would come and look me in the 
face, and say, " How do you, Mr. Fox ? " I told him, 
<< It was not civil in him to do so." The Lord cut him 
off soon after. 

On the Way to Scarbro' 

When we were come to Bentham, there met us many 
troopers and a marshal ; and many of the gentry of the 
country were come in, and abundance of people to staie 
at me. I being very weak and weary, desired them to let 
me lie down on a bed, which the soldiers permitted me ; 
for they that brought me thither, gave their order to the 
marshal, and he set a guard of his soldiers upon me. 
When they had stayed a while they pressed horses, and 
raised the bailiff of the hundred, and the constables, and 
others, and had me to Giggleswick that night; but 
exceedingly weak I was. There they raised the con- 
stables with their clog-shoes, who sat drinking all the 
night in the room by me, so that I could not get much 
rest. Next day we came to a market-town, where several 
Friends called to see me; and Robert Widders and 
divers Friends came to me on the road. The next 
night I asked the soldiers, " Whither they intended to 
carry me, and whither I was to be sent?" Some of 
them said, " beyond sea " ; others said, " to Tynemouth 
Castle." A great fear there was amongst them, lest some 
one should rescue me out of their hands ; but that fear 
was needless. 

Next night we came to York, where the marshal put 
me into a great chamber, where most part of two troops 
came to see me. One of these troopers, an envious man, 
hearing that I was premunired, asked me, << What estate 



1 66s IN SCARBRO' JAIL 389 

I had, and whether it was copyhold or free land ? " I 
took no notice of his question, but was moved to declare 
the word of life to the soldiers, and many of them were 
very loving. At night the Lord Frecheville (so called), 
who commanded these horse, came to me, and was very 
civil and loving. I gave him an account of my im- 
prisonment, and declared many things to him relating to 
truth. They kept me at York two days, and then the 
marshal and four or five soldiers were sent to convey me 
to Scarbro* Gustle. Indeed these were very civil men, 
and carried themselves civilly and lovingly to me. On 
the way we baited at Malton, and they permitted Friends 
to come and visit me. 

A Shocking Prison 

When we were come to Scarbro', they had me to an 
inn, and gave notice to the governor, who sent six 
soldiers to be my guard that night. Next day they 
conducted me into the castle, put me into a room, and 
set a sentry on me. Being very weak and subject to 
fainting, they let me go out sometimes in the air with 
the sentry. They soon removed me out of this room 
and put me into an open one where the rain came in ; 
and smoked exceedingly, which was very offensive to me. 
One day the governor. Sir John Crosland, came to see 
me, and brought with him Sir Francis Cobb. I desired 
the governor to go into my room, and see what a place I 
had. I had got a little fire made in it, and it was so filled 
with smoke, that when they were in, they could hardly 
find their way out again j and he being a Papist, I told 
him, that was his Purgatory which they had put me into. 
I was forced to lay out about fifty shillings to stop out 
the rain, and keep the room from smoking so much* 
When I bad been at that charge, and made it somewhat 



$90 A MISERABLE PRISON 1666 

tolerable, they removed me into a worse room, where I 
had neither chimney nor fire-hearth. 

This being to the sea-side and lying much open, the 
wind drove in the rain forcibly, so that the water came 
over my bed, and ran about the room, and that I was fain 
to skim it up with a platter. And when my clothes were 
wet I had no fire to dry them ; so that my body was 
benumbed with cold, and my fingers swelled, that one 
was grown as big as two. Though I was at some charge 
in this room also, I could not keep out the wind and 
rain. Besides they would suffer few Friends to come to 
me, and many times not any, no, not so much as to 
bring me a little food ; but I was forced for the first 
quarter to hire one of another society to bring me 
necessaries. Sometimes the soldiers would take it from 
her, and she would scuffle with them for it. 

Afterwards I hired a soldier to fetch me water and 
bread, and something to make a fire of, when I was in a 
room where a fire could be made. Commonly a three- 
penny loaf served me three weeks, and sometimes 
longer, and most of my drink was water with wormwood 
steeped or bruised in it. 

Conquered without a Blow 

i666. — Though many Friends came far to see me, 
yet few were suffered to come to me ; and when any 
Friend came into the castle about business, if he looked 
towards me they would rage at him. At last the 
governor came under some trouble himself; for he 
having sent out a privateer to sea, they took some ships 
that were not enemies ships but their friends' ; where- 
upon he was brought into trouble ; after which he grew 
somewhat more friendly to me. For before I had a 
marshal set over me on purpose to get money out of 



1 666 A FIGHTING PRESBYTERIAN 39 i 

me ; but I was not free to give him a farthing ; and 
when they found they could get nothing off me he was 
taken away again. The officers often threatened that I 
should be hanged over the wall. Nay, the deputy- 
governor told me once that the king, knowing I had 
great interest in the people, had sent me thither, that if 
there should be any stirring in the nation, they should 
hang me over the wall to keep the people down. 

Afterwards, the governor growing kinder, I spoke to 
him when he was going to London to the Parliament, 
and desired him to speak to Esquire Marsh, Sir Francis 
Cobb, and some others ; and let them know how long 
I had lain in prison, and for what; and he did so. 
When he came down again, he told me that Esquire 
Marsh said he would go a hundred miles barefoot for 
my liberty, he knew me so well ; and several others, he 
said, spoke well of me. From which time the governor 
was very loving to me. 

There were, amongst the prisoners, two very bad men, 
that often sat drinking with the officers and soldiers ; and 
because I would not sit and drink with them too, it made 
them the worse against me. One time when these two 
prisoners were drunk, one of them (whose name was 
William Wilkinson, a Presbyterian, who had been a 
captain), came to me and challenged me to fight with 
him. Seeing what condition he was in I got out of his 
way; and next morning, when he was more sober, 
showed him, " how unmanly a thing it was in him to 
challenge a man to fight, whose principle he knew it was 
not to strike ; but if he was stricken on one ear to turn 
the other. I told him, if he had a mind to fight, he 
should have challenged some of the soldiers, that could 
have answered him in his own way. But, however, 
seeing he bad challenged me, I was now come to answer 



$92 RELEASED BY THE KING 1666 

him with my hands in my pockets,; and (reaching. my 
head towards him) * here/ said I, « here is my hair, here 
are my cheeks, here is my back.' " With that he skipped 
away from me, and went into another room ; at which 
the soldiers fell a-laughing ; and one of the officers said, 
<<you are a happy man that can bear such things." 
Thus he was conquered without a blow. After a while 
he took the oath, gave bond, and got out of prison ; 
and not long after the Lord cut him off. 



Released by the 

After I had lain prisoner above a year in Scarbro' 
Castle, I sent a letter to the king, in which I gave him 
<'an account of my imprisonment, and the bad usage I 
had received in prison ; and also that I was informed no 
man could deliver me but he." After this, John White- 
head being at London, and being acquainted with 
Esquire Marsh, went to visit him, and spoke to him 
about me ; and he undertook, if John Whitehead would 
get the state of my case drawn up, to deliver it to the 
master of requests, Sir John Birkenhead, and endeavour 
to get a release for me. So John Whitehead and Ellis 
Hookes drew up a relation of my imprisonment and 
sufferings, and carried it to Marsh ; and he went with it 
to the master of requests, who procured an order from 
the king for my release. 

The substance of the order was, " that the king being 
certainly informed that I was a man principled against 
plotting and fighting, and had been ready at all times to 
discover plots rather than to make any, &c., therefore 
his royal pleasure was, that I should be discharged from 
my imprisonment," &c. As soon as this order was 
obtained, John Whitehead came to Scarbro' with it, and 
delivered it to the governor ; who, upon receipt thereof, 



1 666 FOX *' STIFF AS A TREE '^ 393 

gathered the officers together, and without requiring 
bonds or sureties for my peaceable living, being satisfied 
that I was a man of a peaceable life, he discharged me 
freely, and gave me the following passport : 

"Permit the bearer hereof, George Fox, late a 
prisoner here, and now discharged by His Majesty's 
order, quietly to pass about his lawful occasions without 
any molestation. Given under my hand at Scarbro' 
Castle, this first day of September, 1666. 

"Jordan Croslands, 
" Governor of Scarbro* Castle." 

After I was released I would have made the governor 
a present for the civility and kindness he had of late 
showed me ; but he would not receive anything ; saying, 
" whatever good he could do for me and my friends he 
would do it, and never do them any hurt." And after- 
wards, if at any time the mayor of the town sent to him 
for soldiers to break up Friends' meetings, if he sent any 
down he would privately give them a charge " not to 
meddle." He continued loving to his dying day. The 
officers also and the soldiers were mightily changed, and 
became very respectful to me, and when they had occa- 
sion to speak of me, they would say, " he is as stiff as a 
tree, and as pure as a bell ; for we could never bow 
him." 

The Fire of London 

The very next day after my release, the fire broke out 
in London, and the report of it came quickly down into 
the country. Then I saw the Lord God was true and 
just in his word, which he had showed me before in 
Lancaster jail, when I saw the angel of the Lord with a 



S94i GREAT FIRE OF LONDON 1666 

glittering sword drawn southward, as before expressed. 
The people of London were forewarned of this fire ; yet 
few laid it to heart, or believed it ; but rather grew more 
wicked, and higher in pride. For a Friend was moved 
to come out of Huntingdonshire a little before the fire, 
to scatter his money, and turn his horse loose on the 
streets, to untie the knees of his trowsers, let his stock- 
ings fall down, and to unbutton his doublet, and tell the 
people, " so should they run up and down, scattering 
their money and their goods, half undressed like mad 
people, as he was a sign to them " ; and so they did, 
when the city was burning. Thus hath the Lord exer- 
cised his prophets and servants by his power, showed 
them signs of his judgments, and sent them to forewarn 
the people ; but, instead of repenting, they have beaten 
and cruelly entreated some, and some they have im- 
prisoned, both in the former power's days and since. 
But the Lord is just, and happy are they that obey his 
word. 

The Fate of Fox*8 Persecutors 

I could not but take notice how the hand of the Lord 
turned against the persecutors, who had been the cause 
of my imprisonment, or had been abusive or cruel to me 
in it. The officer that fetched me to Holker-Hall wasted 
his estate, and soon after fled into Ireland. And most 
of the justices that were upon the bench at the sessions 
when I was sent to prison died in a while after ; as old 
Thomas Preston, Rawlinson, Porter and Matthew West 
of Borwick. And Justice Fleming's wife died, and left 
him thirteen or fourteen motherless children, who had 
imprisoned two Friends to death, and thereby made 
several children fatherless. Colonel KLirby never pros- 
pered after. The chief constable, Richard Dodgson, 



i666 MISFORTUNES OF PERSECUTORS 395 

died soon after, and Mount, the petty constable, and the 
wife of the other petty constable, John Ashbumham, 
who railed at me in her house, died soon after. 

William Knipe, the witness they brought against me, 
died soon after also. Hunter, the jailer of Lancaster, 
who was very wicked to me while I was his prisoner, 
was cut off in his young days : and the under-sheriff that 
carried me from Lancaster prison towards Scarbro', 
lived not long after. And Joblin, the jailer of Durham, 
who was prisoner with me in Scarbro' Castle and had 
often incensed the governor and soldiers against me, 
though he got out of prison, yet the Lord cut him off 
in his wickedness soon after. When I came into that 
country again, most of those that dwelt in Lancashire 
were dead, and others ruined in their estates ; so that, 
though I did not seek revenge upon them, for their 
actings against me contrary to the law, yet the Lord had 
executed his judgments upon many of them. 

Monthly Meetings Started 

After I had passed through many counties, visiting 
Friends, and had many large und precious meetings 
amongst them, I came to London. But I was weak 
with lying almost three years in cruel and hard im- 
prisonment; my joints and my body were so stiflf 
and benumbed, that I could hardly get on my horse 
or bend my joints ; nor could I well bear to be near the 
fire or to eat warm meat, I had been kept so long from 
it. Being come to London, I walked a little among the 
ruins, and took good notice of them. I saw the city 
lying, according as the word of the Lord came to me 
concerning it several years before. 

I was moved of the Lord to recommend the setting 
up of five monthly meetings of men and women in 



396 BREAD AND CHEESE AS COVER 1667 

the city of London (besides the women's meetings 
and the quarterly meetings), to take care of God's glory, 
and to admonish and exhort such as walked disorderly 
or carelessly, and not according to truth. For whereas 
Friends had only quarterly meetings, now truth was 
spread, and Friends were grown more numerous, I was 
moved to recommend the setting up of monthly meet- 
ings throughout the nation. And the Lord opened 
to me what I must do, and how the men's and women's 
monthly and quarterly meetings should be ordered 
and established in this and in other nations ; and that I 
should write to those where I did not come, to do the 
same. 

"Veriest Hypocritea" 
i66-j. — We passed into Herefordshire, where we had 
several blessed gatherings ; and we had a general men's 
meeting also, where all the monthly meetings were 
settled. There was about this time a prockmation 
gainst meetings; and as we came through Hereford- 
shire, we were told of a great meeting there of the 
Presbyterians, who had engaged themselves to stand 
and give up all, rather than forsake their meetings. 
When they heard of this proclamation, the people came, 
but the priest was gone, and left them at a loss. Then 
they met in Leominster privately, and provided bread, 
cheese, and drink in readiness, that if the officers should 
come, they might 'put up their Bibles and fall to eating. 
The bailiff found them out, and came in among them, 
and said, " their bread and cheese should not cover 
them, he would have their speakers." They cried, 
"what then would become of their wives and children ? " 
But he took their speakers and kept them a while. 
This the bailiff told Peter Young, and said, " they 



i667 PRESBYTERIAN DOINGS 397 

were the veriest hypocrites that ever made a profession 
of religion." 

The like contrivance they had in other pkces. For 
there was one Pocock at London, that married Abigail 
Darcy, who was called a lady ; and she being convinced 
of truth, I went to his house to see her. This Pocock had 
been one of the triers of the priests ; and, being a high 
Presbyterian, and envious against us, he used to call our 
Friends house-creepers. He being present, she said to 
me, " I have something to speak to thee against my 
husband." " Nay," said I, " thou must not speak against 
thy husband." " Yes," said she, " but I must in this 
case. Last First-day," said she, " he and his priests and 
people, the Presbyterians, met; they had candles and 
tobacco-pipes, bread, cheese, and cold meat on the 
table ; and they agreed beforehand, that if the officers 
should come in upon them, then they would leave 
their preaching and praying, and fall to their cold 
meat." 

Wise as Serpents 

" O," said I to him, " is not this a shame to you, who 
persecuted and imprisoned us, and spoiled our goods, 
because we would not join you in your religion, and 
called us house-creepers, that now ye do not stand 
to your own religion yourselves ? Did ye ever find our 
meetings stuffed with bread and cheese and tobacco- 
pipes ? Or did you ever read in the Scriptures of any 
such practice among the saints ? " " Why," said the old 
man, "we must be as wise as serpents." I replied, 
" this is the serpent's wisdom indeed. But who would 
have thought that you Presbyterians and Independents, 
who persecuted and imprisoned others, spoiled their 
goods, and whipped such as would not follow your 



398 QUAKER MARRIAGES 1667 

religion, should now flinch yourselves, and not dare to 
stand to your own religion, but cover it with tobacco- 
pipes, flj^ons of drink, cold meat, bread and cheese ! " 
But this, and such-like deceitful practices, I understood 
afterwards, were too common amongst them in times of 
persecution. 

Friends* Marriages 

As I was in bed at Bristol, the word of the Lord 
came to me, that I must go back to London. Next 
morning Alexander Parker and several others came 
to me: I asked them, "what they felt?" They in 
like manner asked me, '* what was upon me ? " I told 
them, " I felt I must return to London." They said, 
" the same was upon them." So we gave up to return 
to London; for whatever way the Lord moved and led 
us, thither we went in his power. 

After we had visited Friends in the city, I was moved 
to exhort them to bring all their marriages to the men's 
and women's meetings, that they might lay them before 
the faithful ; that care might be taken to prevent those 
disorders that had been committed by some. For many 
had married contrary to their relations' minds ; and 
some young, raw people that came amongst us, had 
mixed with the world. Widows had married without 
making provision for their children by their former 
husbands, before their second marriage. Yet I had 
given forth a paper concerning marriages about the year 
1653, when truth was but little spread over the nation ; 
advising Friends who might be concerned in that case, 
" that they might lay it before the faithful in time, 
before anything was concluded and afterwards publish it 
in the end of a meeting, or in a market, as they were 
moved thereto. And when all things were found clear, 



1 667 QUAKER MARRIAGES S99 

they being free from all others and their relations 
satisfied, they might appoint a meeting on purpose 
for the taking of each other, in the presence of at least 
twelve faithful witnesses." 

Yet these directions not being observed, and truth 
being now more spread over the nation, it was there- 
fore ordered, by the same power and Spirit of God, 
" that marriages should be laid before the men's monthly 
and quarterly meetings, or as the meetings were then 
established ; that Friends might see that the relations of 
those that proceeded to marriage were satisfied; that 
the parties were clear firom all others ; and that widows 
had made provision for their first husbands' children, 
before they married again ; and what else was needful to 
be inquired into ; that all things might be kept clean 
and pure, and be done in righteousness to the glory of 
God." Afterwards it was ordered, in the wisdom of 
God, **that if either of the parties, that intended to 
marry, came out of another nation, county, or monthly 
meeting, they should bring a certificate from the monthly 
meeting to which they belonged ; for the satisfaction 
of the monthly meeting before which they came to lay 
their intentions of marriage. 

These things, with many other services for God, 
being set in order, and settled in the churches in the 
city, I passed out of London, in the leadings of the 
Lord's power, into Hertfordshire. 

We passed into Gloucestershire, visiting Friends till 
we came into Monmouthshire, to Richard Hambery's ; 
where meeting with some from all the meetings of 
that county, the monthly meetings were settled there also 
in the Lord's power, that all might take care of God's 
glory, and admonish and exhort such as did not walk as 
became the gospel. And indeed these meetings made 



400 CHRISTENING OF CHILDREN 1668 

a great reformation amongst people, insomuch that 
the justices took notice of their usefuhiess. 

1668. — Being returned to London, I stayed some time 
there, visiting Friends' meetings in and about the city. 
While I was in London, I went one day to visit Esquire 
Marsh, who had showed much kindness both to me and to 
Friends ; I happened to go when he was at dinner. He 
no sooner heard my name, than he sent for me up, and 
would have had me sit down with him to dinner ; but I 
had not freedom to do so. Several great persons were at 
dinner with him ; and he said to one of them who was a 
great Papist, " Here is a Quaker, whom you have not 
seen before." 

Esquire Marsh 

The Papist asked me, " whether I owned the christen- 
ing of children ? " I told him, " there was no Scripture 
for any such practice." "What,** said he, "not for 
christening children ? " I said, " nay." I told him " the 
one baptism by the one Spirit into one body we owned ; 
but to throw a little water on a child's face, and say that 
was baptizing and christening it, there was no Scripture 
for that." 

After some other discourse, I went aside with Justice 
Marsh into another room, to speak with him concerning 
Friends ; for he was a justice of peace for Middlesex, and 
being a courtier, the other justices put much of the 
management of affairs upon him. He told me ** he was in 
a strait how to act between us and some other Dissenters. 
For," said he, " you cannot swear, and the Independents, 
Baptists, and Fifth-monarchy people say also they cannot 
swear ; therefore," said he, " how shall I know how to 
distinguish betwixt you and them, seeing they and you 
all say it is for conscience' sake that you cannot swear ? " 



i669 " A SERVICEABLE MAN " 401 

I answered, " I will show thee how to distinguish. 
They, or most of them, thou speakest of, can and do 
swear in some cases, but we cannot swear in any case. 
If a man should steal their cows or horses, and thou 
shouldst ask them whether they would swear they were 
theirs; many of them would readily do it. But if thou 
try our Friends, they cannot swear for their own goods. 
Therefore, when thou puttest the oath of allegiance to 
any of them, ask them, 'whether they can swear in any 
other case, as for their cow or horse ; which, if they be 
really of us, they cannot do, though they can bear witness 
to the truth.' " 

Justice Marsh was afterwards very serviceable to 
Friends in this and other cases j for he kept several, 
both Friends and others, from being premunired. When 
Friends were brought before him in time of persecution, 
he set many of them at liberty ; and when he could not 
avoid sending to prison, he sent some for a few hours, or 
for a night. At length he went to the king, and told 
him, ** he had sent some of us to prison contrary to his 
conscience, and he could not do so any more." Wherefore 
he removed his family from limehouse, where he lived, 
and took lodgings near St. James's Park. He told the 
king that *<if he would be pleased to give liberty of con- 
science, that would quiet and settle all ; for then none 
could have any pretence to be uneasy." And indeed 
he was a very serviceable man to truth and Friends in 
his day. 

Now was I moved of the Lord to go over into Ireland, 
to visit the seed of God in that nation. There went with 
me Robert Lodge, James Lancaster, Thomas Briggs, and 
John Stubbs. We waited near Liverpool for shipping 
and wind. After waiting some days, we sent James 
Lancaster to take passage, which he did, and brought 

z c 



408 FOX GOES TO IRELAND 1669 

word the ship wu ready, and would take us in at Black 
Rock. We went thither on foot; and it being some 
distance, and the weather very hot, I was much spent 
with walking. When we arrived, the ship was not there ; 
so we were obliged to go to the town, and take ship- 
ping. 

The Smell of Ireland 

When we were on board, I said to the rest of my 
company, " Come, ye will triumph in the Lord, for we 
shall have but wind and weather." Many passengers in 
the ship were sick, but not one of our company. The 
captain and many of the passengers were very loving ; 
and we being at sea on the first day of the week, I was 
moved to declare truth among them ; whereupon the 
captain said to the passengers, " Here are things that 
you never heard in your lives." When we came before 
Dublin, we took boat and went ashore ; and the earth 
and air smelt, methought, of the corruption of the 
nation, so that it yielded another smell to me than 
England did, which I imputed to the Popish massacres 
that bad been committed, and the blood that had been 
spilt in it, from which a foulness ascended. 

We passed through among the officers of the custom 
four times, yet they did not search us, for they perceived 
what we were : some of them were so envious they did 
not care to look at us. We did not soon find Friends ; 
but went to an inn, and sent out to inquire for some ; 
who when they came to us were exceedingly glad of our 
coming, and received us with great joy. We stayed 
there the weekly meeting, which was a large one, and the 
power and life of God appeared greatly in it. Afterwards 
we passed to a province meeting, which lasted two days, 
there being one about the poor, and another meeting 



1669 "THERE GOES GEORGE FOX" 408 

more general; in which a m^;hty power of the Lord 
appeared. Truth was Uvingly declared, and Friends 
were much refreshed therein. 

We travelled among Friendsi till we came to Band<Hi 
Bridge and the Land's End, having many meetings as 
we went, in which the m^hty power of the Lord was 
manifested, Friends were well refreshed, and many people 
were affected with the truth. At Bandon, the mayor's 
wife being herself convinced, desired her husband to 
come to the meeting ; but he bid her, for her life, not to 
make known that I was at a meeting there. 

Fox's Vision of the Mayor of Cork 
He that was then mayor of Cork was very envious 
against truth and Friends, and had many Friends in 
prison ; and knowing that I was in the country, he had 
issued four warrants to take me ; wherefore Friends were 
desirous that I might not ride through Cork. But being 
at Bandon, there appeared to me, in a vision, " a very 
ugly visaged man, of a black and dark look : my spirit 
struck at him in the power of God ; and it seemed to me, 
that I rode over him with my horse, and my horse set 
his foot on the side of bis face." 

When I came down in the morning, I told a friend 
thiU was with me, that the command of the Lord was to 
me to ride through Cork ; but bid him tell no man. So 
we took horse, many Friends being with me ; and when 
we came near the town, they would have showed me a 
way on the backside of the town j but I told them, my 
way was through the streets. Wherefore taking one of 
them along with me, whose name was Paul Morrice, to 
guide me through the town, I rode on ; and as we rode 
through the market-place, and by the mayor's door, he 
seeing me ride by, sfud, " there goes George Fox " ; 



404 FOX AS PRESBYTERIAN 1669 

but he bad not power to stop me. When we had 
passed tbrougb the sentinels, and weie come over the 
bridge, we went to a Friend's house and alighted. 
There the Friends told me what a rage was in the 
town, and how many warrants were granted to take 

While I was sitting there with Friends, I felt the evil 
spirit at work in the town, stirring up mischief against 
me ; and I felt the power of the Lord strilte at that evil 
spirit. B; and b; some other Friends coming in, told 
roe, that it was over the town,and amongst the magistrates, 
that I was in the town. I s^d, " let the devil do his 
worst." After a while, that Friends were refreshed one 
in another, and we travellers had re&eshed ourselves, I 
called for my horse, and having a Friend to guide me, 
we went on our way. 

A Counterfeit George Fox 
We landed at Liverpool, and went to Richard 
Johnson's. Whence departing the next day, we passed 
to William Barnes's house, and so to William Candy's, 
visiting Friends, and having many precious meetings in 
Lancashire and Cheshire. When we came into Gloucester- 
shire, we met with a report at Nailsworth, which was 
spread about that country, " that George Fox was turned 
Presbyterian ; that they had prepared a pulpit for ijim, 
and set it in a yard, and that there would be a thousand 
people there the next day to hear him." I thought it 
strange that such a report should be raised of me ; yet 
as we went further, from one Friend's house to another, 
we met with the same. We passed by the yard where 
the pulpit was, and saw it, and went on to the place 
where Friends' meeting was to be next day, and there 
we stayed that night. Next day, being First-day, we had 



1669 



TWO GEORGE FOXES 



405 



a very large meeting, and the Lord's power and presence 
were amongst us. 

The occasion of this strange report (as I was informed) 
was this. There was one John Fox, a Presbyterian 
priest, who used to go about preaching; and some 
changing his name (as was reported) from John to 
George, gave out that George Fox had changed his 
religion, and was turned from a Quaker to be a Presby- 
terian, and would preach at such a place such a day. 
This begot so great a curiosity in the people, that many 
went thither to hear this quaker turned Presbyterian, 
who would not have gone to hear John Fox himself. 
By this means, it was reported, they had got together 
above a thousand people. But when they came there, 
and perceived they had a trick put upon them, and that 
he was but a counterfeit George Fox, and understood 
that the real George Fox was hard by, several hundreds 
of them came to our meeting, and were sober and atten- 
tive. I directed them to the grace of God in themselves, 
which would teach them, and bring them salvation. 
When the meeting was over, some of the people said, 
" they liked George Fox the Quaker's preaching better 
than George Fox the Presbyterian's." Thus, by my 
providential coming into those parts at that time, was 
this false report discovered ; and shame came upon the 
contrivers of it. 

A Complaint in the Commons 

Not long after this, John Fox was complained of in 
the House of Commons, for << having a tumultuous 
meeting, in which treasonable words were spoken"; 
which (according to the best information I could get of 
it) was thus : — He had fornierly been priest of Mansfield 
in Wiltshire ; and being put of that place, was afterwards 



u 



406 FOX PROPOSES 1669 

pennitted by a Common-Prayer priest to preach some- 
times in his steeple-house. At length this Presbyterian 
priest, presuming too fiu- upon the parish priest* s former 
grant, b^an to be more bold than welcome, and attempted 
to preach there, whether the parish priest would or not. 
This caused a great bustle and contest in the steeple- 
house between the two priests, and their hearers, on each 
side; in which contest the Common-Prayer-Book was 
cut to pieces, and some treasonable words were spoken 
by some of the followers of John Fox. This was quickly 
put in the news : and malicious Presbyterians caused it 
to be worded as if it had proceeded from George Fox 
the Quaker, when I was above two hundred miles from 
the place where this bustle happened. When I heard of 
it, I soon procured certificates from some of the 
members of the House of Commons, who knew this 
John Fox, and gave it under their hands, that it was 
John Fox, who had formerly been parson of Mansfield 
in Wiltshire, that was complained of to the House of 
Commons, to be the chief ringleader in that unlawful 
assembly. 

Fox's Marriage 

After this meeting in Gloucestershire was over, we 
travelled till we came to Bristol; where I met with 
Margaret Fell, who was come to visit her daughter 
Yeomans. I had seen from the I^rd a considerable 
time before, that I should take Margaret Fell to be my 
wife. And when I first mentioned it to her, she felt the 
answer of Life from God thereunto. But though the 
Lord had opened this thing to me, yet I had not received 
a command from the Lord for the accomplishing of it 
then. Wherefore I let the thing rest, and went on in 
the work and service of the Lord as before, according as 



1669 FOX MARRIES 407 

he led me ; travelling up and down in this nation, and 
through Ireland. 

But now being at Bristol, and finding Margaret Fell 
there, it opened in me from the Lord, that the thing 
should be accomplished. After we had discoursed the 
matter together, I told her, << if she also was satisfied with 
the accomplishing of it now, she should first send for her 
children"; which she did4 When the rest of her 
daughters were come, I asked both them and her sons- 
in-law, <' if they had anything against it, or for it '' ; and 
they all severally expressed their satisfaction therein. 
Then I asked Margaret, " if she had fulfilled and per- 
formed her husband's will to her children," She replied, 
*' the children knew that." Whereupon I asked themi 
«* whether, if their mother married, they should not lose 
by it ? " And I asked Margaret, " whether she had done 
anything in lieu of it, which might answer it to the 
children ? " The children said, " she had answered it 
to them," and desired me to speak no more of it. I 
told them, << I was plain, and would have all things done 
plainly; for I sought not any outward advantage to 
myself." 

So after I had thus acquainted the children with it, 
our intention of marriage was laid before Friends, both 
privately and publicly, to their full satisfaction, many of 
whom gave testimony thereunto that it was of God. 
Afterwards, a meeting being appointed for the accom- 
plishing thereof, in the meeting* house at Broad-Mead in 
Bristol, we took each other [27th of 8th month], the Lord 
joining us together in the honourable marriage,in the ever- 
lasting covenant and immortal Seed of life. In the sense 
whereof, living and weighty testimonies were borne there- 
unto by Friends, in the movings of the heavenly power 
which united us together Then was a certificate, relating 




408 WORK "AS BEFORE '' 1669 

both the proceedings and the marriage, openly read, and 
signed by the relations, and by most of the ancient Friends 
of that city, besides many others from divers parts of the 
nation. 

We stayed about a week in Bristol* and then went 
together to Oldstone ; where taking leare of each other 
in the Lord, we parted, betaking ourselves to our sevaal 
services, Maigaret returning homewards to the north, 
and I passing on in the work of the Lord, as before. I 
travelled through Wiltshire, Berkshire, Oxfordshire, and 
Buckinghamshire, and so to London, visiting Friends ; 
in all which counties I had many large and precious 
meetings. 

Fox Suggests Apprenticeships 

Being in London, it came upon me to write to Friends 
throughout the nation, about *' putting out poor children 
to trades." Wherefore I sent the following epistle to 
the quarterly meetings of Friends in all counties : — 

«• My dear Friends, 
<* Let every quarterly meeting make inquiry through 
all the monthly and other meetings, to know all Friends 
that are widows, or others, that have children fit to put 
out to apprenticeships ; so that once a quarter you may 
set forth an apprentice from your quarterly meeting ; and 
so you may set forth four in a year in each county, or more, 
if there be occasion. This apprentice, when out of his 
time, may help his father or mother,]and support the^mily 
that is decayed ; and in so doing, all may come to live 
comfortably. This being done in your quarterly meet- 
ings, ye will have knowledge through the county in the 
monthly and particular meetings, of masters fit for them, 
and of such trades as their parents or you desire, or the 



1669 CHILDREN OF POOR FRIENDS 409 

children are most inclinable to. Thus being placed out 
with Friends, they may be trained up in truth ; and by 
this means in the wisdom of God, you may preserve 
Friends' children in the truth, and enable them to be a 
strength and help to their families, and nursers and 
preservers of their relations in their ancient days. Thus 
also things being ordered in the wisdom of God, you 
will take off a continual maintenance, and free yourselves 
from much cumber, 

" For in the country, ye know, ye may set forth an 
apprentice^ for a little to several trades, as bricklayers, 
masons, carpenters, wheelwrights, ploughwrights, tailors, 
tanners, curriers, blacksmiths, shoemakers, nailers, 
butchers, weavers of linen and woollen, stuffs and serges, 
&c. And you may do well to have a stock in your 
quarterly meetings for that purpose. All that is given 
to any Friends at their decease (except it be given to 
some particular use, person, or meeting), may be brought 
to the public stock for that purpose. This will be a way 
for the preserving of many that are poor among you, and 
it will be a way of making up poor families. In several 
counties it is practised already. Some quarterly meetings 
set forth two apprentices ; and sometimes the children 
of others that are laid on the parish. You may bind 
them for fewer or more years, according to their 
capacities. 

" In all these things the wisdom of God will teach you, 
by which ye may come to help the children of poor 
Friends, that they may come to support their £imilies, 
and preserve them in the fear of God. So no more, but 
my love in the everlasting Seed, by which ye will have 
wisdom to order all things to the glory of God. 

"G. F. 

" London, ist of nth Month, 1669.*' 




J- 



410 MRS. FOX IN PRISON 1670 

1670. — I stayed not long in London; but having 
visited Friends, and finding things there quiet and well, 
the Lord's power being over all, I passed into Essex 
and Hertfordshire, where I had many precious meetings. 
Intending to go as far as Leicestershire, I wrote a letter 
to my wife, before I left London, to acquaint her there- 
with, that if she found it convenient to her she might 
meet me there. From Hertfordshire I turned into 
Cambridgeshire, thence into Huntingdonshire, and so 
into Leicestershire ; where, instead of meeting with my 
wife, I heard that she was haled out of her house to 
Lancaster prison again, by an order obtained from the 
king and council, to fetch her back to prison upon the 
old premunire; though she had been discharged from 
that imprisonment by their order the year before. 
Wherefore, having visited Friends as far as Leicestershire, 
I returned by Derbyshire into Warwickshire, and so to 
London, having had many large and blessed meetings in 
the several counties I passed through, and been sweetly 
refreshed amongst Friends in my travels. 

Mrs* Fox Released 

As soon as I reached London, I hastened Mary Lower 
and Sarah Fell (two of my wife's daughters) to the king, 
to acquaint him how their mother was dealt with, and 
see if they could obtain a full discharge for her, that she 
might enjoy her estate and liberty without molestation. 
This was somewhat difficult, but by diligent attendance 
they at length obtained it ; the king giving command to 
Sir John Otway, to signify his pleasure therein by letter 
to the sheriff, and others concerned therein in the country. 
Which letter Sarah Fell going down with her brother and 
sister Rous, carried with her to Lancaster ; and by them 
I wrote to my wife, as follows : — 



i67o FOX TO HIS WIFE 411 

'« My dear heart in the truth and life, 

THAT CHANGETH NOT, 

<* It was upon me that Mary Lower and Sarah should 
go to the king concerning thy imprisonment, and to 
Kirby, that the power of the Lord might appear over 
them all in thy deliverance. They went, and then they 
thought to come down; but it was upon me to stay 
them a little longer, that they might follow the business 
till it was effected ; which it now is, and is here sent. 
The late declaration of mine hath been very serviceable, 
people being generally satisfied with it. So no more, 
but my love in the holy Seed. G. F." 

The Conventicle Act Renewed 

The declaration here mentioned was a printed sheet, 
written upon occasion of a new persecution stirred up. 
For by the time I was returned out of Leicestershire to 
London, a fresh storm was risen, occasioned (it was 
thought) by that tumultuous meeting in a steeple-house 
in Wiltshire or Gloucestershire, mentioned a little before ; 
from which, it was said, some members of parliament 
took advantage to get an act passed against seditious 
conventicles ; which soon after came forth and was turned 
against us, who of all people were free from sedition and 
tumult. Whereupon I wrote a declaration, showing 
from the preamble and terms of the act, that we were 
not such a people, nor our meeting such as were 
described in that act. I wrote also another short paper 
on the occasion of that act against meetings, opening 
our case to the magistrates, as follows : — 

*< O friends, consider this act, which limits us to five. 
Is this doing as ye would be done by ? Would ye be 
so served yourselves ? We own Christ Jesus as well as 




1 



1 



41« FIVE MEETING TOGETHER 1670 

you, his coming, death, and resurrection ; and if we be 
oontrary^minded to you in some things, is not this the 
apostle's exhortation, < to wait till God hath revealed it ? ' 
Doth not he say, ^ what is not of &ith, is sin ? ' Seeing 
we have not faith in things, which ye would have us to 
do, would it not be sin in us, if we should act contrary 
to our £uth ? Why should any man hare power over 
another man's faith, seeing Christ is the author of it ? 

When the apostles preached in the name of Jesus, 
and great multitudes heard them, and the rulers forbade 
them to speak any more in that name, did not they bid 
them judge whether it were better to obey God or man ? 
Would not this act have taken hold of the twelve apostles 
and seventy disciples ; for they met often together ? If 
there had been a law made then, that not above five 
should have met with Christ, would not that have been 
a hindering of him from meeting with his disciples ? Do 
ye think that He, who is the wisdom of God, or his dis- 
ciples, would have obeyed it ? 

If such a law had been made in the apostles' days, 
that not above five might meet together, who had been 
different-minded from either the Jews or the Gentiles, 
do ye think the churches of Christ at Corinth, Philippi, 
Ephesus, Thessalonica, or the rest of the gathered 
churches, would have obeyed it ? O therefore consider ! 
for we are Christians, and partake of the nature and life 
of Christ. Strive not to limit the Holy One ; for God's 
power cannot be limited, and is not to be quenched. 
Do unto all men as ye would have them do unto you ; 
for this is the law and the prophets." 

*<This is from those who wish you all well, and 
desire your everlasting good and prosperity, called 
Quakers ; who seek the peace and good of all people, 
though they afflict us, and cause us to suffer. G. F." 



1670 INFORMING AGAINST FOX 415 

On the First-day after the act came in force, I went to 
the meeting at Gracechurch-street, where I expected the 
storm was most likely to begin. When I came there, I 
found the street full of people, and a guard set to keep 
Friends out of their meeting-house. I went to the other 
passage out of Lombard Street, where also I found a 
guard j but the court was full of people, and a Friend 
was speaking amongst them ; but he did not speak long. 

Fox again Arrested 

When he had done, I stood up, and was moved to say, 
*' Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou me ? it is hard for 
thee to kick against that which pricks thee. Then I 
showed that it is Saul's nature that persecutes still, and 
that they who persecute Christ in his members now, 
where he is made manifest, kick against that which 
pricks them. That it was the birth of the flesh that 
persecuted the birth born of the Spirit ; and that it was 
the nature of dogs to tear and devour the sheep, but 
that we suffered as sheep that bite not again; for 
we were a peaceable people, and loved them that per- 
secuted us." 

After I had spoken a while to this effect, the constable 
came with an informer and soldiers ; and as they pulled 
me down I said, " Blessed are the peacemakers." The 
commander of the soldiers put me among the soldiers, 
and bid them secure me, saying to me, " You are the 
man I looked for." They took also John Burnyeat and 
another Friend, and led us away first to the Exchange, 
and afterwards towards Moorfields. As we went along 
the streets the people were very moderate; some of them 
laughed at the constable, and told him, ^* we would not 
run away." The informer went with us unknown, till 
falling into discourse with one of the company, he said» 



7^ 



^ja 



414 THE PAPIST'S BLUNDER 1670 

'< It would never be a good world till all people came to 
the good old religion that was two hundred years ago." 

A Papist Informer 

Whereupon I asked him, '* Art thou a Papist ? What! 
a Papist informer; for two hundred years ago there was 
no other religion but that of the Papists." He saw he 
had ensnared himself, and was vexed at it ; for as he 
went along the streets, I spoke often to him, and mani- 
fested what he was. When we were come to the mayor's 
house, and were in the court-yard, several of the people 
that stood about, asked me, " how and for what I was 
taken ? " I desired them to ask the informer, and also 
know what his name was; but he refused to tell his 
name. Whereupon one of the mayor's officers looking 
out at a window, told him, " he should tell his name 
before he went away ; for the lord mayor would know by 
what authority he intruded himself with soldiers into the 
execution of those laws which belonged to the civil 
magistrate to execute, and not to the military." After 
this, he was eager to be gone ; and went to the porter to 
be let out. One of the officers called to him, saying, 
'' Have you brought people here to inform against, and 
now will you go away before my lord mayor comes ? " 

Some called to the porter not to let him out, whereupon 
he forcibly pulled open the door, and slipped out. No 
sooner was he come into the street, than the people gave 
a shout, that made the street ring again, crying out, '< a 
Papist informer ! a Papist informer ! " We desired the 
constable and soldiers to go and rescue him out of the 
people's hands, fearing lest they should do him a mis- 
chief. They went, and brought him into the mayor's 
entry, where they stayed a while; but when he went out 
again, the people received him with another shout. The 



iSjo *' THE KING'S INDULGENCE'' 415 

soldiers were fain to go and rescue him once more, and 
they led him into a house in an ally, where they per- 
suaded him to change his periwig, and so he got away 
unknown. 

**Two or Three** Made Four 

When the mayor came, we were brought into the room 
where he was, and some of his officers would have taken 
off our hats, which he perceiving, called to them, and 
bid them, << let us alone, and not meddle with our hats ; 
for," said he, " they are not yet brought before me in 
judicature." So we stood by while* he examined some 
Presbyterian and Baptist teachers ; with whom he was 
somewhat sharp, and convicted them. After he had 
done with them, I was brought up to the table where he 
sat; and then the officers took off my hat; and the 
mayor said mildly to me, " Mr. Fox, you are an eminent 
man amongst those of your profession ; pray, will you 
be instrumental to dissuade them from meeting in such 
great numbers? for, seeing Christ hath promised that 
where two or three are met in his name, he will be in 
the midst of them, and the king and parliament are 
graciously pleased to allow of four to meet together to 
worship God ; why will not you be content to partake 
both of Christ's promise to two or three, and the king's 
indulgence to four ? " 

I answered to this purpose: *< Christ's promise was 
not to discourage many from meeting together in his 
name, but to encourage the few, that the fewest might 
not forbear to meet, because of their fewness. But if 
Christ hath promised to manifest his presence in the 
midst of so small an assembly, where but two or three 
were gathered together in his name, how much more 
would his presence abound where two or three hundred 



416 THE NEW ACT 1670 

are gathered in his name? I wished him to consider, 
whether this act would not have taken hold of drist, 
with his twelve apostles and seventy discijAes, if it had 
been in their time» who used to meet often together, and 
that with great numbers ? However, I told him this act 
did not concern us ; for it was made against seditious 
meetings, of such as met, under colour and pretence of 
religion, * to contrive insurrections as (the act says) late 
experience had shown ' ; but we had been sufficiently 
tried and proved, and always found peaceable, and there- 
fore he should do well to put a difference between the 
innocent and the guilty." 

He said, '< the act was made against meetings, and a 
worship not according to the liturgy." I told him, 
*' according to " was not the very same thing : and I 
asked him, *< whether the liturgy was according to the 
Scriptures ? and whether we might not read Scriptures, 
and speak Scriptures ? " He said '< Yes." After some 
more discourse, he took our names and the places where 
we lodged, and at length, as the informer was gone, set 
us at liberty. 

At Gracechurcli Street Again 

Being set at liberty, the Friends with me asked me 
<« whither I would go ? " I told them, " to Gracechurch 
Street meeting again, if it were not over." When we 
came there, the people were generally gone; only some 
few stood at the gate. We went into Gerrard Roberts's 
house; and from thence I sent out to know how the 
other meetings in the city were. I understood that at 
some of the meeting-places Friends were kept out; at 
others they were taken, but set at liberty again a few 
days after. A glorious time it was, for the Lord's power 
came over all, and his everlasting truth got renown. For 



1 670 INFORMERS FRIGHTENED 417 

as fast as some that were speaking were taken down, 
others were moved of the Lord to stand up and speak, 
to the admiration of the people ; and the more because 
many Baptists and other sectaries left their public meet- 
ings, and came to see how the Quakers would stand. 
As for the informer aforesaid, he was so frightened that 
there durst hardly any informer appear publicly again in 
London for some time after. But the mayor, whose 
name was Samuel Starling, though he carried himself 
smoothly towards us, proved afterwards a very great per- 
secutor of our Friends, many of whom he cast into prison, 
as may be seen in the trials of W. Penn, W. Mead, and 
others at the Old Bailey this year. 

After some time the heat of persecution in London 
began to abate, and meetings were quieter there. 
Being now clear of the city, I went to visit friends in 
the country, 

**A Great Weight on my Spirit** 

We went into Sussex, by Richard Baxe's, where we 
had a large, precious, quiet meeting, though the con- 
stables had given out threatenings before. I had many 
more meetings in that county ; and though there were 
some threatenings, they were peaceable; and Friends 
were refreshed and established upon the foundation of 
God, that stands sure. When I had thoroughly visited 
Sussex, I went into Kent, and had many glorious and 
precious meetings in several parts of that county. I 
went to a meeting near Deal, which was very large ; and 
returning from thence to Canterbury, visited Friends 
there. I then passed into the Isle of Sheppy, where I 
stayed two or three days ; and thither came Alexander 
Parker, George Whitehead, and John Rous to me. 

Next day, finding my service for the Lord finished 

2 P 



418 A SERIOUS ILLNESS 1670 

there, we passed towards Rochester. On the way, as I 
was walking down a hill, a great weight and oppression 
fell upon my spirit ; I got on my horse again, but the 
weight remained so that I was hardly able to ride. At 
length we came to Rochester, but I was much spent, 
being so extremely laden and burthened with the world's 
spirits that my life was oppressed under them. 

Fox becomes III 

I got with difficulty to Gravesend, and lay at an inn 
there ; but could hardly either eat or sleep. The next 
day John Rous and Alexander Parker went for London ; 
and John Stubbs being come to me, we went over the 
ferry into Essex. We came to Hornchurch, where was 
a meeting on First-day. After it I rode with great 
uneasiness to Stratford to a Friend's house, whose name 
was Williams, and who had formerly been a captain. 
Here I lay exceedingly weak, and at last lost both 
hearing and sight. Several Friends came to me from 
London ; and I told them that " I should be as a sign 
to such as would not see and such as would not hear 
the truth." In this condition I continued some time. 
Several came about me ; and though I could not see 
their persons, I felt and discerned their spirits, who 
were honest-hearted and who were not. Divers Friends 
who practised physic came to see me, and would have 
given me medicines, but I was not to meddle with any ^ 
for I was sensible I had a travail to go through ; an<i 
therefore desired none but solid, weighty Friends m%ht 
be about me. 

Under great sutTerings and travaib, sorrows an^l 
oppressions, I lay for several weeks, whereby I wsts 
brought so low and weak in body that few thought I 
could live. Some that were with me went away, sayi^x^ 






1670 FOX'S DEATH REPORTED 419 

*• they would not see me die " ; and it was reported 
both in London and in the country that I was deceased ; 
but I felt the Lord's power inwardly supporting me. 
When they that were about me had given me up to die, 
I spoke to them to get a coach to carry me to Gerrard 
Roberts's, about twelve miles off; for I found it was 
my place to go thither. I had now recovered a little 
glimmering sight, so that I could discern the people and 
fields as I went, and that was all. When I came to 
Gerrard's, he was very weak ; and I was moved to speak 
to him and encourage him. After I had stayed about 
three weeks there, it was with me to go to Enfield. 
Friends were afraid of my removing j but I told them I 
might safely go. 

Persecution Continues 

When I had taken my leave of Gerrard, and was 
come to Enfield^ I went first to visit Amor Stoddart, 
who lay very weak and almost speechless. I was moved 
to tell him " he had been faithful as a man, and faithful 
to God; and that the immortal Seed of life was his 
crown." Many more words I was moved to speak to 
him, though I was then so weak I was hardly able to 
stand ; and within a few days after Amor died. I went 
to the widow Dry's at Enfield, where I lay all that 
winter, warring in spirit with the evil spirits of the world, 
that warred against truth and Friends. 

For there were great persecutions at this time ; some 
meeting-houses were pulled down, and many were 
broken up by soldiers. Sometimes a troop of horse or 
a company of foot came ; and some broke their swords, 
carbines, muskets, and pikes with beating Friends ; and 
l^ many they wounded, so that their blood lay in the 

streets. Amongst others that were active in this cruel 



f 



A 



420 A DISTRAINER PUNISHED 1670 

persecution at London, my old adversary Colonel Kirby 

was one ; who, with a company of foot, went to break up 

several meetings ; and he would often inquire for me at 

the meetings he broke up. One time as he went over 

the water to Horsleydown, there happening some scuffle 

between some of his soldiers and some of the watermen, 

he bid his men ** fire at them." They did so, and killed 

some. 

« 
Informing against Friends 

A Friend could hardly speak a few words in a private 
family before they sat down to eat meat, but some were 
ready to inform against them. A particular instance of 
which I have heard as follows : 

At Droitwich John Cartwright came to a Friend's 
house, and being moved of the Lord to speak a few 
words before he sat down to supper, there came an 
informer, and stood hearkening under the window. 
When he had heard the Friend speak, hoping to get 
some gain to himself, he went and informed, and got a 
warrant to distrain his goods, under pretence that there 
was a meeting at his house ; whereas there were none in 
the house at that time but the Friend, the man of the 
house, his wife, and their maidservant. But this evil- 
minded man, as he came back with his warrant in 
the night, fell off his horse and broke his neck. 
So there was a wretched end of a wicked informer, 
who hoped to enrich himself by spoiling Friends ; 
but the Lord prevented him, and cut him off in his 
wickedness. 

Now, though it was a cruel, bloody, persecuting time 
yet the Lord's power went over all, and his everlasting 
Seed prevailed ; and Friends were made to stand firm 
and faithful in the Lord's power. Some sober people of 



16; I TEN YEARS A PRISONER 421 

other professions would say, ** if Friends did not stand, 
the nation would run into debauchery." 

After some time it pleased the Lord to allay the heat 
of this violent persecution ; and I felt in spirit an over- 
coming of the spirits of those men-eaters that had stirred 
it up and carried it on to that height of cruelty, though 
I was outwardly very weak. And I plainly felt, and those 
Friends that were with me, and that came to visit me, took 
notice that as the persecution ceased, I came from under 
the travails and sufferings that had lain with such weight 
upon me ; so that towards the spring I began to recover, 
and to walk up and down beyond the expectation of many, 
who did not think I could ever have gone abroad again. 

Fox's Wife Liberated 

167 1. — I mentioned before that, upon the notice I re- 
ceived of my wife's being imprisoned again, I sent two of 
her daughters to the king, and they procured his order to 
the sheriff of Lancashire for her discharge. But though 
I expected she would be set at liberty thereby, this violent 
storm of persecution coming suddenly on, the persecutors 
there found means to hold her still in prison. But now 
the persecution a litde ceasing, I was moved to speak to 
Martha Fisher and another woman Friend, to go to the 
king about her liberty. They went in faith and in the 
Lord's power, who gave them favour witli the king, so 
that he granted a discharge under the broad-seal, to clear 
both her and her estate, after she had been ten years a 
prisoner and premunired ; the like whereof was scarcely 
to be heard of in England. 

I sent down the discharge forthwith by a Friend ; by 
whom also I wrote to her, informing her how to get it 
delivered to the justices, and acquainting her that it was 
Upon me from the Lord to go beyond the seas to visit 



4 



42« POX GOES to AMERICA 1671 

America; and therefore desired her to hasten to London 
as soon as she could conveniently, after she had obtained 
her liberty, because the ship was then fitting for the 
voyage. In the meantune I got to Kingston and stayed 
at John Rous's till my wife came up, and then I began 
to prepare for the voyage. But the Yearly Meeting being 
near at hand, I stayed till that was over. Many Friends 
came up to it from all parts of the nation, and a very 
large and precious meeting it was ; for the Lord's power 
was over all, and his glorious everlastingly-renowned Seed 
of life was exalted above all. 

Fez Sails for America 

After this meeting was over, and I had finished my 
services for the Lord in England, the ship and the 
Friends that intended to go with me being ready, I went 
to Gravesend on the 12th of 6th month, my wife and 
several Friends accompanying me to the Downs. We 
went from Wapping in a barge to the ship, which lay a 
little below Gravesend, and there we found the Friends 
that were bound for the voyage with me, who had gone 
down to the ship the night before. Their names were 
Thomas Briggs, William Edmundson, John Rous, John 
Stubbs, Solomon Eccles, James Lancaster, John Cart- 
wright, Robert Widders, George Pattison, John HuU, 
Elizabeth Hooton, and Elizabeth Miers. The vessel was 
a yacht called the Industry^ the captain's name Thomas 
Forster, and the number of passengers about fifty. I lay 
that night on board, but most of the Friends at Graves- 
end. Early next morning the passengers and those 
Friends that intended to accompany us to the Downs, 
being come on board, we took our leave in great tender- 
ness of those that came with us to Gravesend only, and 
set sail about six in the morning for the Downs. 



i67t PRESS GANG ON BOARD 423 

Having a fair wind, we out-sailed all the ships that 
were outward-bound, and got thither by evening. Some 
of us went ashore that night and lodged at Deal, where, 
we understood, an officer had orders from the governor 
to take our names in writing, which he did next morning, 
though we told him they had been taken at Gravesend. 
In the afternoon, the wind serving, I took leave of my 
wife and other Friends, and went on board. Before we 
could sail, there being two of the king^s frigates riding in 
the Downs,- the captain of one of them sent his press- 
master on board us, who took three of our seamen. 
This would certainly have delayed, if not wholly prevented, 
our voyage, had not the captain of the other frigate, being 
informed of the leakiness of our vessel and the length of 
our voyage, in compassion and much civility spared us 
two of his own men. 

Before this was over, a custom-house officer came on 
board to peruse packets and get fees ; so that we were 
kept from sailing till about sunset ; during which delay 
a very considerable number of merchantmen, outward- 
bound, were got several leagues before us. Being clear 
we set sail in the evening, and next morning overtook 
part of that fleet about the height of Dover. We soon 
reached the rest, and in a little time left them all behind ; 
for our yacht was counted a very swift sailer. But she was 
very leaky, so that the seamen and some of the passengers 
did, for the most part, pump day and night. One day 
they observed that in two hours' time she sucked in sixteen 
inches of water in the well. 

An Anxious Night Aboard 

When we had been about three weeks at sea, one 
afternoon we spied a vessel about four leagues astern of 
us. Our master said it was a Saliee man-of-war that 



424 A MYSTERIOUS SHIP 1671 

seemed to give us chase. Our master said, *< Come, let 
us go to supper, and when it grows dark we shall lose 
him." This he spoke to please and pacify the passengers, 
some of whom began to be very apprehensive of the 
danger. But Friends were well satisfied in themselves, 
having faith in God and no fear upon their spirits. When 
the sun was gone down I saw the ship out of my cabin 
making towards us. When it grew dark, we altered our 
course to miss her ; but she altered also, and gained 
upon us. 

At night the master and others came into my cabin 
and asked me " what they should do ? " I told them 
<< I was no mariner " ; and I asked them " what they 
thought was best to do ? " They said, " There were but 
two ways, either to outrun him, or tack about and hold 
the same course we were going before." I told them 
" if he were a thief they might be sure he would tack 
about too; and as for outrunning him, it was to no 
purpose to talk of that, for they saw he sailed faster than 
we." They asked me again ** what they should do ? for," 
they said, ** if the mariners had taken Paul's counsel 
they had not come to the damage they did." I answered, 
" it was a trial of faith, and therefore the Lord was to be 
waited on for counsel." 

So retiring in spirit, the Lord showed me " that His 
life and power was placed between us and the ship that 
pursued us." I told this to the master and the rest, and 
that the best way was to tack about and steer our right 
course. I desired them also to put out all their candles 
but the one they steered by, and to speak to all the 
passengers to be still and quiet. About eleven at night 
the watch called and said " they were just upon us." 
That disquieted some of the passengers ; whereupon I 
sat up in my cabin, and looking through the port-hole. 



1671 FOX AS MARINER 425 

the moon being not quite down, I saw them very near 
us. I was getting up to go out of the cabin, but remem- 
bering the word of the Lord, " that his life and power 
was placed between us and them,'* I lay down again. 
The master and some of the seamen came again, and 
asked me " if they might not steer such a point ? " I 
told them "they might do as they would." By this 
time the moon was quite down, a fresh gale arose, and 
the Lord hid us from them ; and we sailed briskly on and 
saw them no more. 

Denial of Deliverance 

The next day being the first day of the week, we had 
a public meeting in the ship, as we usually had on that 
day throughout the voyage, and the Lord's presence was 
greatly among us. And I desired the people "to mind 
the mercies of the Lord, who had delivered them ; for 
they might have been all in the Turks' hands by that 
time had not the Lord's hand saved them." About a 
week after, the master and some of the seamen 
endeavoured to persuade the passengers that it was not 
a Turkish pirate that chased us, but a merchantman 
going to the Canaries. When I heard of it I asked 
them, " Why, then, did they speak so to me ? why 
did they trouble the passengers? and why did they 
tack about from him and alter their course ? '* I told 
them " they should take heed of slighting the mercies 
of God." 

Afterwards, while we were at Barbadoes, there came 
in a merchant from Sallee and told the people "that one 
of the Sallee men-of-war saw a monstrous yacht at sea, 
the greatest that ever he saw, and had her in chase, and 
was just upon her, but that there was a spirit in her that 
he could not take." This confirmed us in the belief that 



426 RESULTS OP ILL-TREATMENT 1671 

it was a Sallee-man we saw make after us, and that it was 
the Lord that delivered us out of his hands. 

Fox becomes III 

I was not sea-sick during the voyage, as many of the 
Friends and other passengers were ; but the many hurts 
and bruises I had formerly recdved, and the infirmities 
I had contracted in England by extreme cold and hard- 
ships that I had undergone in many long and sore 
imprisonments, returned upon me at sea, so that I was 
very ill in my stomach, and fuU of violent pains in my 
bones and limbs. This was after I had been at sea 
about a month ; for about three weeks after I came first 
to sea I perspired abundantly, chiefly my head, and my 
body broke out in pimples, and my l^s and feet swelled 
extremely, so that my stockings and slippers could not 
be drawn on without difficulty and great pain. Suddenly 
the sweating ceased, so that when I came into the hot 
climate, where others perspired most freely, I could not 
perspire at all ; but my flesh was hot, dry, and burning, 
and that which before broke out in pimples struck in 
again to my stomach and heart, so that I was very ill 
and weak beyond expression. Thus I continued during 
the rest of the voyage, which was about a month ; for we 
were above seven weeks at sea. 

On the third of the eighth month, early in the morning, 
we discovered the island of Barbadoes, but it was between 
nine and ten at night ere we came to anchor in Carlisle- 
Bay. We got on shore as soon as we could, and I with 
some others walked to a Friend's house, a merchant 
whose name was Richard Forstall, above a quarter of a 
g mile from the bridge. But being very ill and weak, I was 

;. so tired with that little walk that I was in a manner 

spent by the time I got thither. There I abode very ill 



1^71 POX AT BAkBADOES 42? 

for several da^s, and though they several times gave me 
things to make me perspire, they could not effect it. 
But what they gave me did rather parch and dry up my 
body, and made me probably worse than otherwise I 
might have been. 

Thus I continued about three weeks after I landed, 
having much pain in my bones, joints, and whole body, 
so that I could hardly get any rest ; yet I was pretty 
cheerful, and my spirit kept above it all. Neither did 
my illness take me off from the service of truth, but 
both while I was at sea and after I came to Barbadoes, 
before I was able to travel about, I gave forth several 
papers (having a Friend to write for me), some of 
which I sent by the first conveyance for England to be 
printed. 

After I had rested three or four days at Richard 
Forstall's, where many Friends came to visit me, John 
Rous having borrowed a coach of Colonel Chamberlain, 
came to fetch me to his father, Thomas Rous's house. 
But it was late ere we could get thither, and little or no 
rest could I take that night. A few days after, Colonel 
Chamberlain, who had so kindly lent his coach, paid me 
a visit, and was very courteous towards me. 

Fox's Advice to Friends 
Because I was not well able to travel, the Friends of 
the island concluded to have their men's and women's 
meeting for the service of the church at Thomas Rous's, 
where I lay ; by which means I was present at each of 
their meetings, and had very good service for the Lord 
in both. For they had need of information in many 
things, divers disorders having crept in for want of care 
and watchfulness. I exhorted them, more especially at 
the men's meeting, "to be watchful and careful with 



428 POX ON MARRIAGE 1671 

respect to marriages, to prevent Friends marrying in 
near kindreds, and also to prevent over-hasty prooeedii^ 
towards second marriages after the death of a former 
husband or wife ; advising that a decent r^ard might 
be had in such cases to the memory of the deceased 
husband or wife. 

As to Friends' children marrying too young, as at 
thirteen or fourteen years of age, I showed them the 
unfitness thereof, and the inconveniences and hurts that 
attend such childish marriages. I admonished them to 
purge the floor thoroughly, to sweep their houses very 
clean, that nothing might remain that would defile, and 
to take care that nothing would be spoken, out of their 
meetings, to the blemishing or defaming one of another. 
Concerning the registering of marriages, births, and 
burials, I advised them to keep exact records of each in 
distinct books for that only use ; and also to record in 
a book for that purpose the condemnations of such as 
went out from truth into disorderly practices, and the 
repentance and restoration of such of them as returned 
again. I recommended to their care the providing of 
convenient burying-places for Friends, which in some 
parts were yet wanting. 

Some directions also I gave them concerning wills, 
and the ordering of legacies left by Friends for public 
uses, and other things relating to the affairs of the 
church. Then as to their blacks or negroes, I desired 
them to endeavour to train them up in the fear of God, 
those that were bought and those born in their families, 
that all might come to the knowledge of the Lord ; that 
so, with Joshua, every master of a family might say, " As 
for me and my house, we will serve the Lord." I 
desired them also that they would cause their overseers 
to deal mildly and gently with their negroes, and not 



1 67 1 FOX AND SLAVERY 429 

use cruelty towards them, as the manner of some hath 
been and is ; and that after certain years of servitude 
they would make them free. Many sweet and precious 
things were opened in these meetings by the spirit and 
in the power of the Lord, to the edifying, confirming, 
and building up of Friends, both in the faith and holy 
order of the gospel. 

Fox to His Wife 

Having been three months or more in Barbadoes, 
and having visited Friends, thoroughly settled meetings, 
and despatched the service for which the Lord brought 
me thither, I felt my spirit clear of that island and 
found drawings to Jamaica. When I had communicated 
this to Friends, I acquainted the governor also, and 
divers of his council, that I intended shortly to leave 
the island and go to Jamaica. This I did, that as my 
coming thither was open and public, so my departure 
also might be. Before I left the island I wrote the 
following letter to my wife, that she might understand 
both how it was with me, and how I proceeded in my 
travels : 

** My dear Heart, 
** To whom is my love, and to all the children 
in the Seed of Life that changeth not, but is over all ; 
blessed be the Lord for ever. I have undergone great 
sufferings in my body and spirit beyond words ; but the 
God of heaven be praised, his truth is over all. I am 
now well ; and if the Lord permit, within a few days I 
pass from Barbadoes towards Jamaica ; and I think to 
stay but little there. I desire that ye may be all kept 
free in the Seed of Life out of all cumbrances. Friends 
are generally well. Remember me to Friends that 



450 POX IN JAMAICA 1671 

inquire after me. So no more, but my love in the Seed 
and Life that cbangeth not G. F. 

*' ftirtwidoff, 6di of nth Month, 1671.** 

Sails for Jamaica 

I set sail from Barbadoes to Jamaica on the 8th of 
the nth month, 1671; Robert Widders, William 
Edmundson, Solomon Eccles, and Elizabeth Hooton 
going with me. Thomas Briggs and John Stubbs 
remained in Barbadoes; with whom were John Rous 
and William Bailey. We had a quick and easy x>assage 
to Jamaica, where we met with our Friends James 
Lancaster, John Cartwright, and George Pattison again, 
who had been labouring there in the service of truth ; 
into which we forthwith entered with them, travelling up 
and down through the island, which is large; and a 
brave country it is, though the people are, many of 
them, debauched and wicked. We had much service. 
There was a great convincement, and many received the 
truth ; some of whom were people of account in the 
world. We had many meetings there, which were large 
and very quiet. The people were civil to us, so that 
not a mouth was opened against us. I was twice with 
the governor and some other magistrates, who all carried 
themselves kindly towards me. 

About a week after we landed in Jamaica, Elizabeth 
Hooton, a woman of great age, who had travelled much 
in truth's service, and suffered much for it, departed 
this life. She was well the day before she died ; and 
departed in peace, like a lamb, bearing testimony to 
truth at her departure. 

When we had been about seven weeks in Jamaica, 
had brought Friends into pretty good order, and 
settled several meetings amongst them, we left 



1672 SAILS FOR MARYLAND 431 

Solomon Eccles there; the rest of us embarked for 
Maryland. 

1672. — ^We went on board on the 8th of ist Month, 
1671-2. We were between six and seven weeks in this 
passage from Jamaica to Maryland. 

Fox in America 

Here we found John Burnyeat intending shortly to 
sail for England; but on our arrival he altered his 
purpose, and joined us in the Lord's service. He had 
appointed a general meeting for all the Friends in the 
province of Maryland, that he might see them together 
and take his leave of them before he departed out of the 
country ; and it was so ordered by the good providence 
of God that we landed just in time to reach that 
meeting; by which means we had a very seasonable 
opportunity of taking the Friends of the province 
together. A very large meeting this was, and held four 
days; to which, besides Friends, came many other 
people, many of whom were of considerable quality in 
the world's account ; for there were amongst them five 
or six justices of the peace, a speaker of their parliament 
or assembly, one of the council, and divers others of 
note ; who seemed well satisfied with the meeting. 
After the public meetings were over, the men's and 
women's meetings began ; wherein I opened to Friends 
the service thereof to their great satisfaction. 

We began our journey by land to New England ; a 
tedious journey through the woods and wilderness, over 
bogs and great rivers. We took horse at the head of 
Tredhaven Creek, and travelled through the woods till 
we came a little above the head of Miles River; by 
which we passed, and rode to the head of Wye River, 
and so to the head of Chester River ; where, making a 



452 



FOX WITH THE INDIANS 



1672 



fire, we took up our lodging in the woods. Next morn- 
ing we travelled through the woods till we came to 
Sazifrax River, which we went over in canoes (or Indian 
boats), causing our horses to swim by. Then we rode 
to Bohemia River; where in like manner swimming 
our horses, we ourselves went over in canoes. We 
rested a little while at a plantation by the way, but not 
long, for we had thirty miles to ride that afternoon, 
if we would reach a town; which we were desirous 
to do, and therefore rode hard for it. I with some 
others, whose horses were strong, got to' the town 
that night, exceedingly tired and wet to the skin; 
but George Pattison and Robert Widders being 
weaker-horsed, were obliged to lie in the woods that 
night also. 

The town we went to was a Dutch town, called New- 
castle, whither Robert Widders and George Pattison 
came to us next morning. We departed thence, and 
got over the river Delaware, not without great danger of 
some of our lives. When we were over, we were troubled 
to procure guides, who were hard to get and very charge- 
able. Then had we that wilderness country to pass 
through, since called West Jersey, not then inhabited by 
English ; so that we have travelled a whole day together 
without seeing man or woman, house or dwelling-place. 
Sometimes we lay in the woods by a fire, and sometimes 
in the Indians' wigwams or houses. We came one night 
to an Indian town, and lay at the king's house, who was 
a very worthy man. Both he and his wife received us 
very lovingly, and his attendants (such as they were) 
were very respectful to us. They laid us mats to lie on ; 
but provision was very short with them, liaving caught 
but little that day. At another Indian town where we 
stayed the king came to us, and he could speak some 



r 1 



V- 



i 



4< 



i67i ON LONG ISLAND 43S 

English. I spoke to him much, and also to his people, 
and they were very loving to us. 

At Oyster-'Bay 

At length we came to Middletown, an English plan- 
tation in East Jersey, where there were some Friends, jj 
but we could not stay to have a meeting there at that \ 
time, being earnestly pressed in our spirits to get to the ; 
half-year's meeting of Friends at Oyster-Bay in Long 
Island, which was very near at hand. We went with a 
Friend, Richard Hartshorn, brother to Hugh Hartshorn 
the upholsterer, in London, who received us gladly at 
his house, where we refreshed ourselves, and then he 
carried us and our horses in his own boat over a great 
water, which occupied most part of the day getting over, 
and set us upon Long Island. We got that evening to 
Friends at Gravesand, with whom we tarried that night, 
and next day got to Flushing, and the day following 
reached Oyster-Bay ; several Friends of Gravesand and 
Flushing accompanying us. The half-year's meeting 
began next day, which was the first day of the week, and 
lasted four days. 

After Friends were gone to their several habitations, 
we stayed some days upon the island ; had meetings 
m several parts thereof, and good service for the Lord. 
When we were clear of the island, we returned to Oyster- 
Bay, waiting for a wind to carry us to Rhode Island, 
which was computed to be about two hundred miles. 
As soon as the wind served we set sail, and arrived there 
on the thirtieth day of the third month, and were gladly 
received by Friends. We went to Nicholas Easton's 
house, who at that time was governor of the island, where 
we rested, being very weary with travelling. On First- 
day following, we had a large meeting, to which the 

2 K 




4S4 AMERICAN MAGISTRATES ANt) FOX 1671 

deputy-goveraor and several justices came, who were 
mightily affected with the truth. 

After this we went to Narraganset, about twenty miles 
from Rhode Island, and the governor went with us. We 
had a meeting at a justice's house, where Friends had 
never had any before. It was very large, for the country 
generally came in ; and people came also from Connec- 
ticut and other parts round about, amongst whom were 
four justices of the peace. Most of these people had 
never heard Friends before, but they were mightily 
a£fected with the meeting, and a great desire there is 
after the truth amongst them ; so that our meeting was 
of very good service, blessed be the Lord for ever ! The 
justice at whose house the meeting was, and another 
justice, invited me to come again ; but I was then clear 
of those parts, and going towards Shelter Island. 

Hiring Ministers 

But John Burnyeat and John Cartwright, being come 
out of New England into Rhode Island, before I was 
gone, I laid this place before them ; and they *felt 
drawings thither and went to visit them. At another 
place, I heard some of the magistrates said among them- 
selves, " if they had money enough, they would hire me 
to be their minister." This was where they did not well 
understand us and our principles ; but when I heard of 
it, I said, "it was time for me to be gone; for if their 
eye was so much to me, or any of us, they would not 
come to their own teacher." For this thing (hiring 
ministers) had spoiled many by hindering them from 
improving their own talents ; whereas our labour is to 
bring every one to his own teacher in himself. 

Shelter Island, though it was but about twenty-seven 
leagues from Rhode Island, yet through the difficulty of 



1672 AN INDIAN MEETING 435 

passage, we were three days in reaching. The day after 
being First-day, we had a meeting there. In the same 
week, I had another among the Indians ; at which were 
their king, his council, and about a hundred Indians 
more. We stayed not long in Shelter Island, but 
entering our sloop again, put to sea for Long Island. 
We had a very rough passage, for the tide ran so strong 
for several hours that I have not seen the like; and 
being against us, we could hardly get forwards, though 
we had a gale. 

We got safe to Oyster-Bay in Long Island, on the 
seventh of sixth month, very early in the morning, which 
is about two hundred miles from Rhode Island. At 
Oyster-Bay we had a very large meeting. The same day 
James Lancaster and Christopher Holder went over the 
bay to Rye on the continent, in Governor Winthrop's 
government, and had a meeting there. From Oyster- 
Bay we passed about thirty miles to Flushing, where we 
had a very large meeting ; many hundreds of people being 
there, some of whom came about thirty miles to it. 

Night in the Woods 

On the 1 6th of the 7th month we travelled, as near 
as we could compute, about fifty miles, through woods 
and over bogs, heading Bohemia and Saxifrax Rivers. 
At night we made a fire in the woods, and lay there all 
night j and it being rainy weather, we got under some 
thick trees for shelter, and afterwards dried ourselves 
again by the fire. Next day we waded through Chester 
River, a very broad water, and after passing through 
many bad bogs, lay that night also in the woods by a 
fire ; not having gone above thirty miles that day. The 
day following we travelled hard; and though we had 
some troublesome bogs in out way, we rode about fifty 



436 IN MARYLAND AND VIRGINIA 1671 

miles, and got safe that night, but very weary, to Robert 
Harwood's, at Miles River in Maryland. Having finished 
our service in Maryland, and intending for Virginia, we 
bad B meeting at Fatuxent on the 4tb of the 9th month, 
to take our leave of Friends. Many people of all sorts 
were at it, and a powerful meeting it was. 

On the 5th we set sail for Virginia, and in three days 
came to a place called Naiicemum, about two hundred 
miles from Maryland. In this voyage we met with foul 
weather, storms, and rain, and lay in the woods by a fire 
in the night. At Nancemum lived a Friend called the 
Widow Wright. Next day we had a great meeting there, 
of Friends and others. There came to it Colonel Dewes, 
with several other officers and magistrates, who were 
mudi taken with the truth declared. After this, we 
hastened towards Carolina; yet had several meetings by 
the way, wherein we had good service for the Lord ; one 
about four miles from Nancemum Water, which was 
very precious; and there was a men's and women's 
meeting settled, for taking care of the aff^rs of the 
church. 

The 3iBt of the 9th month, having travelled hard 
through the woods, and over many bc^s and swamps, 
we reached Bonner's Creek ; and there we lay that night 
by the fireside, the woman lending us a mat to lie on. 
This was the first house we came to in Carolina. 

Having visited the north part of Carolina, and made 
a little entrance for truth upon the people there, we 
began to return towards Virginia. We came among 
Friends, after we had travelled about a hundred miles 
from Carolina into Virginia ; in which time we observed 
a great variety of climates, having passed in a few days 
from a very cold, to a warm and spring-like country. 
But the power of the Lord is the same in all, is over all, 



1 573 MARYLAND GENERAL MEETING 437 

and doth reach the good in all ; praised be the Lord for 
ever ! 

We spijnt about three weeks in travelling through 
Virginia, mostly among Friends, having many large and 
precious meetings in several parts of the country ; as at 
the Widow Wright's, where a great many magistrates, 
officers, and other high people came. 

Having finished what service lay upon us in Virginia, 
we set sail in an open sloop for Maryland. 

The Retuf n Voyage 

1673- — Having sounded the alarm to all people where 
we came, and proclaimed the day of God's salvation 
amongst them, we found our spirits began to be clear of 
these parts of the world, and draw towards Old England 
again. Yet we were desirous, and felt freedom from the 
Lord, to stay over the general meeting for the province 
of Maryland (which drew nigh) that we might see Friends 
generally together before we departed. Wherefore spend- 
ing our time, in the interim, in visiting Friends and 
friendly people, in attending meetings about the Cliffs 
and Patuxent, and in writing answers to cavilling objec- 
tions, which some of truth's adversaries had raised and 
spread abroad, to hinder people from receiving the truth, 
we were not idle, but laboured in the work of the Lord, 
until that general provincial meeting came on, which 
began on the 1 7th of the 3rd month, and lasted four 
days. 

After this meeting we took our leave of Friends, part- 
ing in great tenderness, in the sense of the heavenly life 
and virtuous power of the Lord, that was livingly felt 
amongst us ; and went by water to the place where we 
were to take shipping, many Friends accompanying us 
thither and tarrying with us that night. Next day, the 



*38 A ROUGH VOYAGE 167; 

aist of the 3rd month, 1673, we set sail for England. 
We had foul weather and contrary winds, which caused 
us to cast anchor often, so that we were till the 31st ere 
we could get past the capes of Vi^nia and come out 
into the main sea. But after this we made good speed, 
and on the 38th of the 4th month cast anchor at King's 
Road, which is the harbour for Bristol. We had on our 
passage very high winds and tempestuous weather, which 
made the sea exceedingly rough, the waves rising like 
mountains ; so that the masters and sailors wondered at 
it, and said they never saw the like before. But though 
the wind was strong, it set for the most part with us, so 
that we sailed before it ; and the great God who com- 
mands the winds, who is Lord of heaven, of earth, and 
the seas, and whose wonders are seen in the deep, 
steered our course and preserved us from many imminent 
dangers. The same good hand of Pro^dence that went 
with us, and carried us safely over, watched over us in 
our return, and brought us safely back again ; thanks- 
giving and praises be to his holy name for ever ! Many 
sweet and precious meetings we had on board the 
ship during this voyage (commonly two a week), 
wherein the blessed presence of the Lord did greatly 
refresh us, and often break in upon and tender the 
company. 

Press Master Aboard 
When we came into Bristol Harbour, there lay a man- 
of-war, and the press-master came on board us to press 
our men. We had a meeting at that time in the ship 
with the seamen before we went to shore, and the press- 
master sat down with us and stayed the meeting, and 
was very well satisfied with it. I spoke to him to leave 
two of the men he had pressed in our ship (for he had 



1 673 BRISTOL FAIR MEETINGS 439 

pressed four), one of whom was a lame man ; and he 
said, " at my request, he would." 

We went on shore that afternoon, and got to Shire- 
hampton, where we obtained horses, and rode to Bristol 
that night, where Friends received us with great joy. In 
the evening I wrote a letter to my wife, to give her 
notice of my landing, as follows : 

" Dear Heart, 
" This day we came into Bristol near night, from the 
sea ; glory to the Lord God over all for ever, who was 
our convoy, and steered our course! the God of the 
whole earth, of the seas and winds, who made the clouds 
his chariot, beyond all words, blessed be his name for 
ever I He is over all in his great power and wisdom, 
Amen. Robert Widders and James Lancaster are with 
me, and we are well ; glory to the Lord for ever, who 
hath carried us through many perils, perils by water, and 
in storms, perils by pirates and robbers, perils in the 
wilderness and amongst false professors ! praises to him 
whose glory is over all for ever. Amen 1 Therefore mind 
the fresh life, and live all to God in it. I intend (if the 
Lord will) to stay a while this away ; it may be till the 
fair. So no more, but my love to all Friends. G. F. 

" Bristol, 28th of 4th Month, 1673." 

Between this and the fair, my wife came out of the 
North to Bristol to me, and her son-in-law Thomas 
Lower, with two of her daughters came with her. Her 
other son-in-law John Rous, W. Penn and his wife, and 
Gerrard Roberts, came from London, and many Friends 
from several parts of the nation, to the fair ; and glorious, 
powerful meetings we had at that time, for the Lord's 
infinite power and life was over all. 



iAk 



%s* 



440 OPPOSITION TO WOMEN'S MEETING 1673 



Fox anij 'Women's Work 
Many deep and precious things were opened in those 
meetings by the Eternal Spirit, which searcheth and 
revealeth the deep things of God. At Slattenford, in 
Wiltshire, we had a very good meeting, though we met 
there with much opposition from some who had set 
themselves against Women's Meetings; which I was 
moved of the Lord to recommend to Friends, for the 
benefit and advantage of the church of Christ. " That 
faithful women, who were called to the belief of the truth, 
being made partakers of the same precious faith, and 
heirs of the same everlasting gospel of life and salvation 
that men are, might in like manner come into the 
possession and practice of the gospel order, and therein 
be meet-helps unto the men in the restoration, in the 
service of truth, in the affairs of the church, as they are 
outwardly in civil or temporal things. That so all the 
fiimily of God, women as well as men, might know, possess, 
perform, and discharge their offices and services in the 
house of God, whereby the poor might be better taken 
care of, the younger instructed, informed, and taught in 
the way of God ; the loose and disorderly reproved and 
admonished in the fear of the Lord ; the clearness of 
persons proposing marriage more closely and strictly 
inquired into in the wisdom of God; and all the 
membeis of the spiritual body, the church, might watch 
over and be helpful to each other in love." 

Friends and Fast Days 

I returned by Kingston to London, whither I felt my 

spirit drawn ; having heard that many Friends were 

taken before the m^strates, and divers imprisoned 

in London and other towns, for opening their shop- 



1 6/3 TO WILLIAM PENN'S 441 

windows on holidays and fast-days (as they were called), 
and for bearing testimony against all such observations 
of days. Which Friends could not but do, knowing 
that the true Christians did not observe the Jews' holi- 
days in the apostles' times, neither could we observe the 
Heathens' and Papists' holidays (so called) which have 
been set up amongst those called Christians, since the 
apostles' days. For we were redeemed out of days by 
Christ Jesus and brought into the day which hath sprung 
from on high, and are come into Him who is Lord of the 
Jewish Sabbath, and the substance of the Jews' signs. 

After I had stayed some time in London, labouring 
for some relief and ease to Friends in this case, I took 
leave of Friends there, and went into the country with 
my wife, and her daughter Rachel, to Hendon, in 
Middlesex, and thence to William Penn's at Rickmans- 
worth, in Hertfordshire. 

Premonitions of Imprisonment 

One night, as I was sitting at supper, I felt I was 
taken ; yet I said nothing then to any one of it. But 
getting out next morning, we travelled into Worcester- 
shire, and went to John Halford's, at Armscott, where 
we had a very large and precious meeting in his barn, 
the Lord's powerful presence being eminently with and 
amongst us, After the meeting. Friends being most of 
them gone, as I was sitting in the parlour, discoursing 
with some Friends, Henry Parker, a justice, came to the 
house, and with him one Rowland Hains, a priest of 
Hunniton, in Warwickshire. This justice heard of the 
meeting by means of a woman Friend, who being nurse 
to a child of his, asked leave of her mistress to go to the 
meeting to see me ; and she speaking of it to her hus- 
band, he and the priest plotted together to come and 



.^Iv^r 




442 MRS. FOX «A LITTLE GRIEVED »• 1673 

break it up and apprehend me. But from their sitting 
long at dinner, it being the day on which his child was 
sprinkled, they did not come till the meeting was over, 
and Friends mostly gone. But though there was no 
meeting when they came, yet I being in the house, who 
was the person they aimed at, Henry Parker took me, 
and Thomas Lower for company with me ; and though 
he had nothing to lay to our charge, sent us both to 
Worcester jail, by a strange sort of mittimus. 

Being thus made prisoners, without any probable 
appearance of being released before the quarter sessions 
at soonest, we got some Friends to accompany my wife 
and her daughter into the North, and we were conveyed 
to Worcester jail. From whence, by that time I thought 
my wife could be got home, I wrote her the following 
letter : 

" Dbar Heart, 
•* Thou seemedst to be a little grieved when I was 
speaking of prisons, and when I was taken ; be content 
with the will of the Lord God. For when I was at 
John Rous's at Kingston, I had a sight of my being 
taken prisoner, and when I was at Bray Doily's in 
Oxfordshire, as I sat at supper, I saw I was taken ; and 
I saw I had a suffering to undergo. But the Lord's 
power is over all ; blessed be his holy name for ever ! 

« G. F. " 

In Worcester Jail 

We were continued prisoners till the next geneial 
quarter sessions; at which time divers Friends from several 
places being in town, spoke to the justices concerning 
us, who answered fair, and said we should be discharged. 
For many of the justices seemed to dislike the severity 



1 6; 3 "I PUT IN A WORD" 443 

of Parker's proceedings against us, and declared an 
averseness to ensnare us by the tender of the oaths. 

We were not called till the last day of the sessions, 
which was the 21st of the nth month, 1673. When 
we came in, they were stricken with paleness in their 
faces, and it was some time before anything was spoken; 
insomuch that a butcher in the hall said, "What, are 
they afraid? Dare not the justices speak to them?" 
At length, before they spoke to us. Justice Parker made 
a long speech on the bench, much to the same effect as 
was contained in the mittimus; often mentioning the 
common laws, but not instancing any that we had broken; 
adding, " that he thought it a milder course to send us 
two to jail, than to put his neighbours to the loss of two 
hundred pounds, which they must have suffered, had he 
put the law in execution against conventicles." But in 
this he was either very ignorant or very deceitful, for 
there being no meeting when he came, nor any to inform, 
he had no evidence to convict us or his neighbours by. 

Trying to Snare Fox 

When Parker had ended his speech the justices spoke 
to us, and began with Thomas Lower, whom they 
examined as to the cause of his coming into that country; 
of which he gave them a full and plain account. Some- 
times I put in a word while they were examining him, 
and then they told me, " they were upon his examination, 
but that when it came to my turn, I should have free 
liberty to speak, for they would not hinder me; but I 
should have full time, and they would not ensnare us." 
When they had done with him, they asked me an account 
of my travel, which I gave them, as is mentioned before, 
but more largely. 

When I had spoken, the chairman, whose name was 



444 FOX IN LONDON 1673 

Simpson, an old Presbyterians said, ** Your relation or 
account is very innocent." Then he and Parker whis- 
pered a while together, and after that the chairman stood 
up and said, '* You, Mr. Fox, are a famous man, and all 
this may be true which you have said ; but, that we may 
be the better satisfied, will you take the oaths of allegi- 
ance and supremacy ? " I told them, '< they had said 
they would not ensnare us ; but this was a plain snare ; 
for they knew we could not take any oath." However, 
they caused the oath to be read. While I was speaking, 
they cried, " give him the book " ; and I said, " the book 
saith, ' Swear not at all.' " Then they cried, ** take him 
away, jailer " ; and I still speaking on, they were urgent 
upon the jailer, crying, " take him away, we shall have a 
meeting here; why do you not take him away? that 
fellow (meaning the jailer) loves to hear him preach." 
Then the jailer drew me away, and as I was turning 
from them, I stretched out my arm and said, *' the Lord 
forgive you, who cast me into prison for obeying the 
doctrine of Christ." 

Taken to London 

Soon after the sessions, the term coming on, an habeas 
corpus was sent down to Worcester for the sheriff to 
bring me up to the King's Bench bar. Whereupon, the 
under-sheriff, having made Thomas Lower his deputy to 
convey me to London, we set out the 29th of the nth 
month, 1673, ^^^ came to London the 2nd of the 12th ; 
the ways being very deep, and the waters out. Next 
day, notice being given that I was brought up, the sheriff 
was ordered to bring me into court. I went accordingly 
and appeared before Judge Wild ; and both he and the 
lawyers were pretty fair, so that I had time to speak, to 
clear my innocency, and show my wrong imprisonment. 



1 673 ATTORNEY JONES SPEAKS WELL 445 

After the return of the writ was entered, I was ordered 
to be brought mto court again next day, the order of 
court being as follows : 

••Worcester^ Thursday, next after the morrow of the 
The King I Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary, in 
GeofgfFox. r^^ 2^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ Charles the Second. 
The defendant being brought here into court, upon a 
writ of habeas corpus ad subjiciend, &c., under the 
custody of the sheriff of the county aforesaid; it is 
ordered. That the Return unto the habeas corpus be 
filed, and the defendant is committed unto the marshal 
of this court, to be safely kept until, &c. 

" By motion of Mr. G. Stroxjde. 
" By the Court." 

At Court of King^s Bench 

In the morning I walked in the hall till the sheriff 
came to me (for be trusted me to go whither I would), 
and it being early, we went into the court of the King's 
Bench, and sat there among the lawyers almost an hour, 
till the judges came in. When they came in, the sheriff 
took off my hat ; and after a while I was called. The 
Lord's presence was with me, and his power I felt was 
over all. I stood and heard the king's attorney, whose 
name was Jones, who indeed spoke notably on my be- 
half, as did also another counsellor after him ; and the 
judges, who were three, were all very moderate, not 
casting any reflecting words at me. I stood still in the 
power and Spirit of the Lord, seeing how he was at 
work. When they had done, I applied to the chief 
justice to speak ; and he said I might. 

Then I related the cause of our journey, the manner 
of our being taken and committed, and the time of our 




*46 SENT BACK TO WORCESTER 

imprisonment until the Kssions ; with a brief account of 
our trial there, and what I had offered to the justices 
then, as a declaration that I could make or sign, Instead 
of the oaths of all^iance and supremacy. When I bad 
done, the chief justice said, " I was to be turned over to 
the King's Bench, and the sheriff of Worcester to be 
discharged of me." He said also " they would consider 
further of it ; and if they found any error in the record, 
or in the justice's proceedings, I should be set at liberty." 
So a dpstaff was called to take me into custody, and he 
delivered me to the keeper of the King's Bench, who 
let me go to a Friend's house, where I lodged, and 
appointed to meet me at Edward Man's in Eishopsgate 
Street, next day. 

But after this, Justice Parker, or some other of my 
adversaries, moved the court that I might be sent back 
to Worcester. Whereupon another day was appointed 
for another hearing, and they had four counsellors that 
pleaded agunst me. George Strciude, a counsellor, 
pleaded for me, and was pleading before I was brought 
into court; but they bore him down, and prevailed with 
the judges to give judgment, that " I should be sent 
down to Worcester sessions." 

Foz a Prisonef at Large 

1674. — The ju^es would not alter their last sentence, 
but remanded me to Worcester jail; only this favour 
was granted, that I m^ht go down my own way, and at 
my own leisure ; provided I would be without fail there 
by the assize, which was to begin on the and of the 
and month following. 

I stayed in and about London till toward the latter 
end of the ist month, T674, and then went down 
leisurely (for I was not able to bear hasty and hard 



J 



1674 A JUVENILE JAILER 447 

travelling), and came into Worcester on the last day of 
ttie ist month, 1674, being the day before the judges 
came to town. On the 2nd of the 2nd month, I was 
brought from the jail to an inn near the hall, that I 
might be in readiness if I should be called. Bui not 
being called that day, the jailer came to me at night, and 
told me, " I might go home " (meaning to the jail). 
Whereupon Gerrard Roberts of London being with me, 
he and I walked down together to the jail without any 
keeper. Next day being brought up again, they set a 
little boy of about eleven years old to be my keeper. I 
came to understand that Justice Parker and the clerk of 
the peace had given order that I should not be put into 
the cillendar, that so I might not be brought before the 
judge ; wherefore I got the judge's son to move in court 
that, " I might be called ; " and thereupon I was called, 
and brought up to the bar before Judge Turner, ray old 
adversary at Lancaster. 

^ Fox's Worst Eoemy in the Court 

However, the judge, willing to ease himself, referred 

me and my case to the sessions again, bidding the justices 

make an end of it there, and not trouble the assizes any 

I more with me. So I was continued prisoner chiefly (as 

' it seemed) through the means of Justice Parker, who, in 

f this case, was as false as envious ; for he had promised 

t Kichard Cannon, of London, who had acquaintance with 

him, that he would endeavour to have me set at liberty ; 

' yet he was the worst enemy I had in court, as some of 

[the court observed and reported. Other justices were 
very loving, and promised that I should have the liberty 
* of the town, and to lodge at a Friend's house till the 

sessions j which accordingly I had, and the people were 
' very civil and respectful to me. 

t 



Ug THE JUDGE'S TAUNT 

The next qiurter tessions b^an the 39th of the 
month, and I was called before the justices. 

chairman's name was Street, who was a judge in the 

Welsh circuit; and he misrepresented me and my case 
to the country, telling them, " That we hada meeting at 
Tredington, from all parts of the nation, to the terrifying 
of the king's subjects, for which we had been committed 
to prison ; that for the trial of my fidelity the oaths were 
put to me; and having had time to consider of it, he 
asked me, ' if t would now take the oaths ? '" I desired 
liberty to speak for myself; and having obtained that, 
began first to clear myself from those falsehoods he had 
chatted on me and Friends. 

"This is Canting" 
The ju(^e asked me, "if I was guilty?" I said, 
" Nay, for it was a great bundle of lies, which I showed 
and proved to the judge in several particulars, which I 
instanced ; askir^ him, if he did not know in his con- 
science that they were lies ? " He said, " it was their 
form." I said, " it was not a true form." He asked me 
again, "whether I was guilty?" I told him, "Nay, 
I was not guilty of the matter, nor of the form ; for [ 
was against the Pope and Popery, and did acknowledge 
and should set my hand to that," Then the judge told 
the jury what they should say, and what they should do, 
and what they should write on the backside of the 
indictment ; and as he said, they did. But before they 
gave in their verdict I told them, "That it was for 
Christ's sake, and in obedience to his and the apostle's 
command that I could not swear ; and therefore, said I, 
take heed what ye do, for before his judgment- seat ye 
shall all be brought." The judge said, " this is canting." 
I said, " If to confess our Lord and Saviour, and to 



1674 I 

and j 

The \ 



1 674 FOX IN LONDON 449 

obey his command, be called ' canting ' by a judge of a 
court, it is to little purpose for me to say more among 
you : yet ye shall see that I am a Christian, and shall 
show forth Christianity, and my innocency shall be 
manifest." 

On Pafole 

So the jailer led me out of the court ; and the people 
were generally tender, as if they had been in a meeting. 
Soon after I was brought in again, and the jury found 
the bill against me, which I traversed ; and then I was 
asked to put in bail till the next sessions, and the jailer's 
son offered to be bound for me. But I stopped him, 
and warned Friends not to meddle j for I told them, 
" there was a snare in that " : yet I told the justices that 
I could promise to appear if the Lord gave health and 
strength, and I were at liberty. Some of the justices 
were loving, and would have hindered the rest from 
indicting me, or putting the oath to me; but Justice 
Street, who was the chairman, said, "he must go accord- 
ing to law." So I was sent to prison again ; yet within 
two hours after, through the moderation of some of the 
justices, I had liberty given me to go at large till next 
quarter-sessions. These moderate justices, it was said, 
desired Justice Parker to write to the king for my liberty, 
or for a Noli prosequi, because they were satisfied I was 
not such a dangerous person as I had been represented. 
This, it was said, he promised them to do ; but he did it 
not. After I had got a copy of the indictment I went 
to London, visiting Friends as I went. 

Meanwhile the Yearly Meeting of Friends came on, at 
which (through the liberty granted me till the sessions) 
I was present, and exceedingly glorious the meetings were 
beyond expression ; blessed be the Lord. 

2 F 



*50 MISTAKES IN INDICTMENT 167+ 

After the Yearly Meeting I set forward for Worcester, 
the sessions drawing on, which were held in the 5th 
month. When I was called to the bar, and the 
indictment read, some scruple arising among the jury 
concerning it, the judge of the court, Justice Street, 
caused the oaths to be read and tendered to me again. 
I told him, "I came now to try the traverse of my 
indictment, and that his tendering me the oaths anew 
was a new snare." I desired him to answer me a 
question or two ; and asked him, " Whether the oatbs 
were to be tendered to the king's subjects, or to the 
subjects of fore^n princes ? " He said, " To the 
subjects of this realm." " Then," said I, " you have not 
named me a subject in the indictment, and therefore 
have not brought me within the statute." The judge 
cried, " Read the oath to him " : I said, " I require 
justice." 

An Inaccurate Indictment 
Again I asked him, " Whether the sessions ought not 
to have been held for the king and the body of the 
county ? " He said, " Yes," " Then," said I, " you 
have there left the king out of the indictment ; how then 
can you proceed upon this indictment to a trial between 
the king and me, seeing the king is left out ? " He said, 
" The king was in before." But I told him, "The king's 
name being left out, here was a great error in the indict- 
ment, and sufficient, as I was informed, to quash it. 
Besides," I told him, "that I was committed by the name 
of George Fox, of London ; but now I was indicted by 
the name of George Fox, of Tredington, in the county of 
Worcester : and I wished the jury to consider how they 
could find me guilty upon that indictment, seeing I was 
not of the place the indictment mentioned ? " 



1 674 ** GUILTY" 451 

The judge did not deny that there were errors in the 
indictment ; but said, " I might take my remedy in the 
proper place." I answered, " Ye know we are a people 
that suffer all things, and bear all things ; and therefore 
ye thus use us, because we cannot revenge ourselves; but 
we leave our cause to the Lord." The judge said, " The 
oath has been tendered to you several times, and we will 
have some satisfaction from you concerning the oath." I 
offered them the same declaration instead of the oath, 
which I had offered to the judges above ; but it would 
not be accepted. Then I desired to know, seeing they 
put the oath anew to me, whether the indictment was 
quashed or not ? 

A Judas in Court 

Instead of answering me, the judge told the jury, 
" They might go out." Some of the jury were not 
satisfied; whereupon the judge told them, "They had 
heard a man swear that the oath was tendered to me 
the last sessions : " and then he told them what they 
should do. I told him, " He should leave the jury to 
their own consciences." However, the jury, being put 
on by him, went forth, and soon came in again, and 
found me guilty. I asked the jury «*how they could 
satisfy themselves to find me guilty upon that indict- 
ment, which was laid so false, and had so many errors 
in it ? " They could make but little answer ; yet one, 
who seemed to be the worst of them, would have 
taken me by the hand; but I put him by saying, 
"How now, Judas, hast thou betrayed me, and dost 
thou now come with a kiss ? " So I bid him and them 
repent. 

Then the judge began to tell me " how favourable the 
court had been to me." I asked him " how he could 






452 THE SENTENCE 167+ 

say so 7 Was ever any man worse dealt by than I had 
been in this case, who was stopped in my journey, when 
travelling upon my lawful occasions, and imprisoned 
without cause ; and now had the oaths put] to me only 
for a snare ? " 

Fox and the Judge 

I desired him to " answer me in the presence of 
the Lord, in whose presence we all were, whether 
this oath was not tendered me in envy ? " He would 
not answer that, but said, "Would you had never come 
here to trouble us and the country." I told him, 
" I came not thither of myself, but was brought, being 
stopped in my journey. I did not trouble them, but 
they had brought trouble upon themselves." Then the 
judge told me " what a sad sentence he had to tell me." 
I asked him " Whether what he was going to speak was 
by way of passing sentence, or of information ? For," 
I told him, " I had many things to say, and more errors 
to assign in the indictment, besides those I had already 
mentioned, to stop him from giving sentence against me 
upon that indictment." He said, " He was going to 
show me the danger of a premunire, which was the loss 
of my liberty, and of all my goods and chattels, and to 
endure imprisonment during life." But he said " he did 
not deliver this as the sentence of the court upon me, 
but as an 'admonition to me." Then he bid the jailer 
take me away. 

I eicpected to be called again to hear the sentence ; 
but when I was gone, the clerk of the peace (whose 
name was Twittey) asked him, as I was informed 
" whether that which he had spoken to me should stani 
for sentence?" And he, consulting with some of tht 
justices, told him, "Yes, that was the sentence, anc 



/ 



1674 JUDGES' TROUBLES 458 

should stand." This was done behind my back, to save 
himself from shame in the face of the country. Many 
of the justices, and the generality of the people, were 
moderate and civil ; and John Ashley, a lawyer, was very 
friendly, both the time before and now, speaking on my 
behalf, and pleading the errors of the indictment for 
me ; but Justice Street, who was the judge of the court, 
would not regard, but overruled all. This Justice 
Street said to some Friends in the morning before my 
trial, " that if he had been upon the bench the first 
sessions, he would not have tendered me the oath ; but 
if I had been convicted of being at a conventicle, he 
would have proceeded against me according to that law ; 
and^that he was sorry that ever I came before him '* ; 
and yet he maliciously tendered the oath to me in the 
court again, when I was to have tried my traverse upon 
the indictment. 

The Judges' Tragedies 

But the Lord pleaded my cause, and met with both 
him and Justice Simpson, who first ensnared me with 
the oath at the first sessions ; for Simpson's son was 
arraigned not long after, at the same bar, for murder. 
And Street, who, as he came down from London, after 
the judges had returned me back from the King's Bench 
to Worcester, said, ** Now I was returned to them, I 
should lie in prison and rot," had his daughter, whom 
he so doted on that she was called his idol, brought 
dead from London in a hearse, to the same inn where 
he spake those words, and brought to Worcester to be 
buried within a few days after. People took notice of 
the hand of God, how sudden it was upon him ; but it 
rather hardened than tendered him, as his conduct 
afterwards showed. 






'f 



454 LETTER TO THE JAILER 1674 

About this dine I had a fit of sickness, which brought 
me very low and weak in my body ; and I continued 
so a pretty while, insomuch that some Friends began to 
doubt of my recovery, I seemed to myself to be 
amongst the graves and dead corpses ; yet the invisible 
power did secietly support me, and conveyed refreshing 
strcDgth into me, even when I was so weak, that I was 
almost speechless. One night, as I was lying awake 
upon my bed in the glory of the Lord, which was over 
all, it was said unto me, "that the Lord had a great deal 
more work for me to do for him, before he took me to 
himself." 

Fox Refuses a Pardon 
Endeavours were used to get me released, at least for 
a time, till I was grown stronger ; but the way of effect- 
ing it proved difficult and tedious ; for the king was not 
willing to release me by any other way than a pardon, 
being told he could not legally do it ; and I was not 
willing to be released by a pardon, which he would 
readily have given me, because I did not look upon that 
way as agreeable with the innocency of my cause. Ed- 
ward Pitway, a Friend, having occasion to speak with 
Justice Parker upon some other business, desired him 
to give order to the jailer that, in regard of my weakness, 
I might have liberty to go out of the jail into the city, 
Whereupon Justice Parker wrote the following letter to 
the jailer, and sent it to the Friend to deliver : 

" Mr. Harris, 
" I have been much importuned by some friends to 
George Fox to write to you. I am informed by them, 
that he is in a very weak condition, and very much in- 
disposed ; what lawful favour you can do for the benefit 



i674 AN APPEAL TO THE KING 4.55 

of the air for his health, pray show him. I suppose the 
next term they will make application to the king. 
" I am, Sir, your loving friend, 

" Henry Parker." 

" Evesham, the Gth of October, 1674.'' 

Mrs. Foz Sees the King 
After this, my wife went to London and spoke to the 
king, laying before him my long and unjust imprison- 
ment, with the manner of my being taken, and the 
justices' proceedings against me, in tendering me the 
oalh as a snare, whereby they had premunired me ; so 
that I being now his prisoner, it was in his power, and 
at his pleasure, to release me, which she desired. The 
king spoke kindly to her, and referred her to the lord- 
keeper ; to whom she went, but could not obtain what 
she desired; for he said, "the king could not release 
me otherwise than by a pardon " ; and I was not free to 
receive a pardon, knowing I had not done evil. If I 
would have been freed by a pardon, I need not have 
lain so long, for the king was willing to give me pardon 
long before, and told Thomas Moore, " that I need not 
scruple being released by a pardon, for many a man, 
that was as innocent as a child, had had a pardon 
granted him ; yet I could not consent to have one. For 
I had rather have lain in prison all my days, than have 
come out in any way dishonourable to truth; wherefore 
I chose to have the validity of my indictment tried before 
the judges. And thereupon, having first had the opinion 
ofa counsellor upon it (Thomas Corbet of London, whom 
Richard Davis of Welchpool was well acquainted with, 
recommended to me), an habeas corpus was sent down 
to Worcester to bring me up once more to the King's 
Bench bar, for the trial of the errors in my indictment. 



4 



■t 

*S6 DISCUSSION IN THE COAClH 1^74 j 

t < 

The under-sheriff set for?rard with me the 4th of the 

■E 

1 2th month, there being with us in the coach the derk of 
the peace and some others. The clerk had been my 
enemy all along, and now sought to ensnare me in dis- 
course ; but I saw, and shunned him« He asked me, 
** what I would do with the errors in the indictment ? " 
I told him, ** they should be tried, and every action ^ 
should crown itself." He quarrelled with me for calling •: 
their ministers priests. I asked him, '< if the law did 
not call them so?" Then he asked me, <*what I 
thought of the church of England? were there no 
Christians among them ? " I said, << they are called so, 
and there are many tender people amongst them." 

Foz^s Clever Counsel 

We came to London on the 8th, and on the nth I 
was brought before the four judges at the King's Bench, 
where Counsellor Corbet pleaded my cause. He started 
a new plea ; for he told the judges, ** that they could not 
imprison any man upon a premunire." Whereupon 
Chief Justice Hale said, " Mr. Corbet, you should have 
come sooner, at the beginning of the term, with this 
plea." He answered, " We could not get a copy of the 
return and the indictment." The judge replied, " You 
should have told us, and we would have forced them to 
make a return sooner.'* Then said Judge Wild, " Mr. 
Corbet, you go upon general terms ; and if it be as you 
say, we have committed many errors at the Old Bailey, 
and in other courts." Corbet was positive' that by law 
they could not imprison upon a premunire. The judge 
said, "There is summons in the statute." **Yes," 
said Corbet, "but summons is not imprisonment; fo] 
summons is in order to a trial." ** Well," said the judge, 
" we must have time to look in our books and consult 



1(^74 PREED by proclamation 457 

the statutes." So the hearing was put off till the niext 
day. 

A Reputation Made 

The next day they chose rather to let this plea fell, 
and begin with the errors of the indictment ; and when 
they came to be opened, they were so many and gross, 
that the judges were all of opinion that " the indictment 
was quashed and void, and that I ought to have my 
liberty." There were that day several great men, lords 
and others, who had the oaths of allegiance and 
supremacy tendered to them in open court, just before 
my trial came on ; and some of my adversaries moved 
the judges, that the oaths might be tendered again to 
me, telling them, " I was a dangerous man to be at 
liberty." But Judge Hale said, *' He had indeed heard 
some such reports, but he had also heard many more 
good reports of me " ; and so he and the rest of the 
judges ordered me to be freed by proclamation. Thus 
after I had suffered imprisonment a year and almost two 
months for nothing, I was feirly set at liberty upon a 
trial of the errors in my indictment, without receiving 
any pardon, or coming under any obligation or engage- 
ment at all ; and the Lord's everlasting power went over 
all, to his glory and praise. Counsellor Corbet, who 
pleaded for me, obtained great fame by it, for many of 
the lawyers came to him, and told him he had brought 
that to light which had not been known before, as to the 
not imprisoning upon a premunire ; and after the trial 
a judge said to him, " You have attained a great deal of 
honour by pleading George Fox's cause so in court." 

Foa:*s Writings 
During the time of my imprisonment in Worcester, 



•r 










458 POX AS AUTHOR 167s 

notvithiUnding my illness and want of health, and ray 
bdnfi so often hurried to and fro to London and back 
agun, I wrote several books foi the press ; one of which 
was called, " A Warning to England." Another was, 
"To the Jews, proving, by the Prophets, that the 
Messiah is come." Another, " Concerning Inspira- 
don, Revelation, and Prophecy." Another, " Against 
all Vain Disputes." Another, " For all Bishops 
and Ministers to try themselves by the Scriptures," 
Another, " To luch as say, ' We love none but our- 
selves.' " Another entitled, " Our Testimony concern- 
ing Christ." And another little book, " Concerning 
Swearing " ; being the first of those two that were given 
to the parliament. 

1675. — The illness I got in my imprisonment at 
Worcester had so much weakened me, that it was long 
before I recovered my natural strength again. For 
which reason, and as many things lay upon me to write, 
both for public and private service, I did not stir much 
abroad during the time that I now stayed in the North ; 
but when Friends were not with me, spent much time in 
writing for truth's service. While I was at Swarthmore, 
I gave several books to be printed. One, " Concem- 
ii^ Swearing," Another, showing, " that none are 
successors to the Prophets and Apostles, but who succeed 
them in the same power and Holy Ghost that they were 
in," Another, "that Possession is above Profession, 
and how the professors now do persecute Christ in 
Spirit, as the professing Jews did persecute him out- 
wardly in the days of his flesh," Also the eight follow- 
ing books, viz. : " To the M^strates of Dantzic " ; 
"Cain E^iainst Abel; or, an Answer to the New Eng- 
landmen's Laws"; "To Friends at Nevis, concern- 
ing Watching " ; "A General Epistle to all Friends in 



fl 



1676 JFOX tN RETIREMENT 4^9 

America " ; " Concerning Caesar's due, and God's due," 
&c. ; ** Concerning the Ordering of Families " ; " The 
Spiritual Man judgeth all things " ; " Concerning the 
Higher Power." 

Fox Collects his Papers 

1676. — During this time I collected together as 
many as I could of the epistles I had written in former 
years to Friends. I made a collection of the several 
papers that I had written to O. Cromwell and his son 
Richard, in the time of their protectorships ; and to the 
parliaments and magistrates that were in their times. 
I collected also the papers I had written to King 
Charles II. since his return, and to his council and 
parliaments, and the justices, or other magistrates 
under him. I made another collection of certificates, 
which I had received from divers governors of places, 
judges, justices, parliament-men, and others, for the 
clearing of me from many slanders, which the envious 
priests and professors, both here and beyond the seas, 
had cast upon me. This I did for the truth's sake, 
as knowing that their design in slandering me was 
to defame the truth published by me, and hinder 
the spreading thereof amongst the people. Besides 
these, I made two books of collections ; one was, a list 
or catalogue of the names of those Friends who went 
out of the North of England, when truth first broke 
forth there, to proclaim the day of the Ix)rd through 
this nation. The other was of the names of those 
Friends that went first to preach the gospel in other 
nations, countries, and places, in what "years, and to 
what part they went. 

I made another collection, in two books; one of 
the epistles and letters from Friends and others, on 



>"• 



■-:i' 









460 FOX IN LONDON AGAIN 

several occasions, to me ; the otb» of letters of mine to 
Friends and others. 

I wrote also a book of the types and figures of 
Christ, with their significations ; and many other things, 
which will be of service to truth and Friends in time to 



RidiiiS ia the Raia 

1677. — It pleased the Lord to bring me safe to 
London, though much wearied, for though I rode 
not very ^ in a day, yet through weakness of body, 
continual travelling was hard to me. Besides, I had 
not much rest at night to refresh nature ; for I often sat 
up late with Friends, where I lodged^ to inform and 
advise them in things wherein they were wanting ; and 
when in bed, I was often hindered of sleep by great 
pains in my head and teeth, occasioned, as I thought, 
from cold taken hy riding often in the rain. But 
the Lord's power was over all, and carried me through 
all, to his praise. 

I came to London on the a 3rd of the 3rd month, ten 
or twelve days before the Yearly Meeting, in which time 
I fell in with Friends there in the service of truth, 
visiting them at the meetings. The parliament then 
sitting, we prepared something to lay before them, con- 
cerning the seizing of the third part of Friends' estates, 
as Popish recusants, which was a great suffering, and 
a grievance we complained of; but we obtained no 
redress. 

Fox Goes to Holland 

It was upon me from the Lord to go into Holland, ti 

visit Friends and to preach the gospel there, and ii 

some parts of Germany. Wherefore setting thing. 



•1 



1677 AT COLCHESTER 461 

in order for my journey as &st as I could, I took leave 
of Friends at London. 
1 [This journey commenced on 3$ih of jth month and 

^ ended on 28th of 3rd month, 1677. George Fox was 

F accompanied by William Penn and others.] 

Flndii^ our spirits clear of the service which the Lord 
' had given us to do in Holland, we took leave of Friends 
of Rotterdam, and passed by boat to the Briel, in order 
I to take passage that day for England. 

We were in all about sixty passengers, and had a long 
and hazardous passage; for the winds were contrary and 
the weather stonny ; the boat also was very leaky, inso- 
much that we had to have two pumps continually going, 
day and night ; so that, it was thought, there was quite as 
much water pumped out as the vessel would have held. 
But the Lord, who is able to make the stormy winds to 
cease, and the raging waves of the sea calm, yea, to raise 
them and stop them at his pleasure, He alone did 
preserve us : prised be his name for ever ! 

By Waggon to Colchester 
Our pass^e was hard, yet we had a fine time, and good 
service for truth on board among the passengers, some of 
whom were great folks, and were very kind and loving. 
We arrived at Harwich on the 23rd, at night, having 
been two nights and almost three days at sea. Next 
morning William Penn and George Keith took horse for 
Colchester ; but I stayed, and had a meeting at Harwich; 
and there being no Colchester coach there, and the post- 
master's wife being unreasonable in her demands for a 
coach, and deceiving us of it also after we had hired it, we 
went to a Friend's house about a mile and a half in the 
country, and hired his waggon, which we bedded well 
with straw, and rode in it to Colchester. 



462 FOX IN BUCKINGHAMSHIRE 1679 

Afterwards I went down to Kingston, and visited 
Friends there and thereaway. Having stayed a little 
among Friends there, looking over a book I had then 
ready to go to press, I went into Buckinghamshire, visit- 
ng Friends, and having several meetings amongst them, 
as at Amersham, Hunger-Hill, Jordans, Hedgeley, 
Wickham, and Turville-Heath. 

Fox at Thomas Ellwood's 

In some of which, they that were gone out from 
the unity of Friends were very unruly and trouble- 
some; particularly at the men's meeting at Thomas 
Ellwood's [Milton's reader] at Hunger-HiU, where the 
chief of them came from Wickham, endeavouring to 
make disturbance, and to hinder Friends from pro- 
ceeding in the business of the meeting. When I saw 
their design I admonished them to be sober and quiet, 
and not trouble the meeting by interrupting its service ; 
but rather, if they were dissatisfied with Friends' pro- 
ceedings, and had anything to object, let a meeting be 
appointed on purpose some other day. So Friends 
offered them to give them a meeting another day : and 
at length it was agreed to be at Thomas Ellwood's the 
week following. Accordingly Friends met them there, 
and the meeting was in the bam; for there came so 
many that the house could not receive them. After we 
had sat a while they began their jangling. Most of their 
arrows were shot at me ; but the Lord was with me, and 
gave me strength in his power to cast back their darts of 
envy and falsehood upon themselves. 

1679. — I abode in the North at this time above a 
year, having service for the Lord amongst Friends 
there, and being much taken up in writing in answer to 
books published by adversaries; and for opening the 



i68o THE POPISH PLOT 463 

principles and doctrines of truth to the world, that they 
m^ht come to have a right understandii^ thereof, and 
be gathered thereunto. Several epistles also to Friends 
I wrote in this time, on divers occasions ; one was to 
the Yearly Meeting of Friends held in London this 
year, 1679. 

A Paper for Parliament 
1680. — I abode at London most part of this winter, 
having much service for the Lord there, both in and out 
of meetings : for as it was a time of great suffering among 
Friends, I was drawn in spirit to visit Friends' meetings 
more frequently; to encourage and strengthen them 
both by exhortation and example. The parliament, 
also, was sitting, and Friends were diligent in waiting 
upon them, to lay their grievances before them. We 
received fresh accounts almost every day of the sad 
sufferings Friends underwent in many parts of the 
nation. In seeking relief for my suffering brethren I 
spent much time; tc^ether with other Friends, who 
were freely given up to that service, attending at the 
parliament-house for many days together, and watching 
all opportunities to speak with such members of either 
house as would hear our just complaints. And, indeed, 
some of these were very courteous to us, and appeared 
willing to help us if they could ; but the parliament 
bdng then earnest in examining the Popish plot, and con- 
triving ways to discover such as were popishly affected, 
our adversaries took advant^es against us (because they 
knew we could not swear nor fight) to expose us to those 
penalties that were made against Papists ; though they 
knew in their consciences that we were no Papists, and 
had had experience of us, that we were no plotters. 
Wherefore, to clear our innocency, and to stop the 



464 QUAKERS NOT PLOTTERS 1681 

mouths of our adversaries, I drew up a short pap^, to 
be delivered to the parliament, as follows : 

'*It is our principle and testimony, to deny and 
renounce all plots and plotters against the king, or any 
of his subjects ; for we have the Spirit of Christ, by 
which we have the mind of Christ, who came to save 
men's lives, and not to destroy them. We desire the 
safety of the king and of all his subjects. Wherefore we 
declare, that we will endeavour, to our power, to save 
and defend him and them, by discovering all plots and 
plotters (which shall come to our knowledge) that would 
destroy the king or his subjects. This we do sincerely 
offer unto you. But as to swearing and fighting, which 
in tenderness of conscience we caqnot do, ye know that 
we have suffered these many years for our conscientious 
refusal thereof. And now that the Lord hath brought 
you together, we desire you to relieve us, and free us 
from these sufferings; and that ye will not put upon 
us to do those things, which we have suffered so 
much and so long already for not doing; for if you 
do, you will make our sufferings and bonds stronger, 
instead of relieving us. G. F." 

Fox*s Tithes 

1 68 1. — About this time I had occasion to go to 
several of the judges' chambers upon a suit about tithes. 
For my wife and I and several other Friends, were sued 
in Cartmel- Wapentake Court in Lancashire, for small 
tithes, and we had demurred to the jurisdiction of 
that court. Whereupon the plaintiff prosecuted us ii 
the Exchequer Court at Westminster, where they run us 
u^ to a writ of rebellion, for not answering the bill lipor 
oath ; and got an order of court to the sergeant to take 



i68t l^RS. Po)C*S TITHES 465 

me and my wife into custody. This was a little before 
the Yearly Meeting, at which time it was thought they 
would have taken me up; and according to outward 
appearance, it was likely and very easy for him to have 
done it, lodging at the places where I used to do, and 
being very public in meetings. But the Lord's power 
was over them and restrained them; so that they did 
not take me. 

• Yet understanding there was a warrant out against 
me, as soon as the Yearly Meeting was over I took 
William Mead with me, and went to several of the 
judges' chambers to speak with them about it ; and to 
let them understand both the state of the case and the 
ground and reason of our refusing to pay tithes. The 
first I went to was Judge Gregory, to whom I tendered 
mine and my wife's answer to the plaintiff's bill ; in 
which was set forth that she had lived three and forty 
years at Swarthmore, and in all that time there had 
been no tithe paid or demanded : and an old man, who 
had long been a tithe-gatherer, had made affidavit that 
he never gathered tithe at Swarthmore-Hall in Judge 
Fell's time or since. There were many particulars in 
our answer, but it would not be accepted without an 
oath. I told the judge that both tithe and swearing 
among Christians came from the Pope, and it was 
matter of conscience to us not to pay tithes nor 
to swear; for Christ bid his disciples, who had freely 
received, give freely ; and he commanded them " not 
to swear at all." The judge said there was tithe paid 
in England before Popery was ; I asked him by 
what law or statute they were paid then: but he was 
silent. 

Then I told him there were eight poor men brought 
up to London out of the North about two hundred 

2 a 



466 EIGHT POOR FRIENDS 1681 



'..! 



miles for small titheis, and one of them had no 
fiimily but himself and his wife, and kept no living 
creature but a cat. I asked him also whether they 
could take a man and his wife, and imprison them 1 

both for small tithes, and so destroy a family; and 
if they could, I desired to know by what law: he 
did not answer me, but only said " that was a hard 



case." 



When I found there was no help to be had there, we 
left him, and went to Judge Montague^s chamber ; and 
with him I had much discourse concerning tithes. 
Whereupon he sent for our adversary's attorney; and 
when he came I offered him our answer. He said ^ 

if we would pay the charges of the court, and be bound 
to stand trial, and abide the judgment of the court, we 
should not have the oath tendered to us. I told him 
that they had brought those charges upon us by 
requiring us to put in our answer upon oath; which 
they knew before we could not do for conscience' sake ; 
and as we could not pay any tithe nor swear, so neither 
should we pay any of their charges. Upon this he 
would not receive our answer. 

So we went from thence to Judge Atkyns's chamber, 
and he being busy, we gave our answers and our 
reasons against tithes and swearing to his clerk; but 
neither could we find any encouragement from him 
to expect redress there. Wherefore leaving him we went 
to one of the most noted counsellors, and showed him 
the state of our case and our answers : he was very 
civil to us, and said " this way of proceeding against us 
was somewhat like an inquisition." A few days after, 
those eight poor Friends that were brought up so fer 
out of the North appeared before the judges ; and the 
Lord was with them, and his power was over the 



1 68 2 A BITTER JUDGE 467 

court, so that the Friends were not committed to the 
Fleet. 

His Wife's Estate 

Our cause was put off till next term (called 
Michaemas), and then it was brought before the four 
judges again. Then William Mead told the judges that 
I had engaged not to meddle with my wife's estate* 
The judges could hardly believe that any man would do 
so : whereupon he showed them the writing under my 
hand and seal, at which they wondered. Then two of 
the judges and some of the lawyers stood up, and 
pleaded for me that I was not liable to the tithes : 
but the other two judges and divers lawyers pressed 
earnestly to have me sequestered, alleging that I was a 
public man. At length they prevailed with one of the 
other two judges to join with them ; and then they granted 
a sequestration against me and my wife together. 
Thereupon, by advice of counsel, we moved for a limita- 
tion, which was granted, and that much defeated 
our adversary's design in suing out the sequestration ; 
for this limited the plaintiff to take no more than was 
. proved. One of the judges. Baron Weston, was very 
bitter, and broke forth in a great rage against me in the 
open court ; but shortly. after he died. 

Seizing Friends' Goods 

1682.— Sufferings continuing severe upon Friends at 
London, I found my service lay mostly there ; wherefore 
I went but little out of town, and not far ; being frequent 
at the most public meetings to encourage Friends, both 
by word and example, to stand fast in the testimony to 
which God had called them. At other times I went 
about from house to house visiting Friends that had 



468 WICKEDNESS OP INFORMERS i6Si 

their goodi taken away for their tcistimony to truth. 
And because the wicked informers were grown very 
audacious by reason that they had too much countenance 
and encouragement from some justices, who, trusting 
wholly to their information, proceeded against Friends 
without hearbg them; whereby many were made to 
suffer, not only contrary to right, but even contrary to 
law also ; I advised with some Friends about it, and we 
drew up a paper, which was delivered to most of the 
nu^istnttes in and about the city, which was as 
follows : 

*• Whereas informers have obtained warrants of some 
justices of peace, who have convicted many of us with- 
out a hearii^ or once summoning us Co appear before 
them ; by which proceedings many have had their goods 
seized and taken away, being generally fined ten pounds 
each for an unknown speaker : and some of those per- 
sons so fined have not been at the meetings they were 
fined for ; and the speaker notwithstanding has himself 
been fined for the same meeting the same day the others 
were fined for the unknown speaker. By this the jus- 
tices may see the wickedness of these informers, by 
whose false oatbs we have been convicted for an un- 
knovm preacher when the preacher has been both 
known and fined. . . ." 

This somewhat moderated the justices ; and after this 
several Friends that had been illegally prosecuted and 
fined entered their appeals; and upon trial were ac- 
quitted and the informers cast : which was a great 
discouragement to the informers and some relief to 
Friends. 



i682 FOX AND PENN AT MEETING *69 

Pena ia GracechuKh Street 
Now I had some inclination to go into the country to 
a meeting, but hearing that there would be a bustle at 
our meetings, and feeling a great disquietness in people's 
spirits in the dty about choosing sheriffs, it was upon me 
to stay in the city, and go to the meeting in Gracechurch 
Street upon the First-day of the week. William Penn 
went with me and spoke ; and while he was declaring 
the truth to the people a cons^ble came in with his great 
staff and bid him give over and come down ; but he con- 
tinued declaring truth in the power of God. After a 
while the constable drew back, and when William Penn 
had done I stood up, and declared to the people the 
everlasting gospel. 

As I was thus speaking two constables came in with 
their great staves and bid me give over speaking and 
come down ; but, feeling the power of the Lord with 
me, I spoke on therein, both to the constables and to 
the people. To the constables I declared " that we 
were a peaceable people, who meet to wait upon God 
and worship him in Spirit and in truth; and therefore 
they needed not to come with their staves amongst us, 
who were met in a peaceable manner, desiring and 
seeking the good and salvation of all people." Then 
turning my speech to the people again, I declared what 
further was upon me to them ; and while I was speaking 
the constables drew out towards the door, and the 
soldiers stood with their muskets in the yard. 

When I had done speaking I kneeled down and 
prayed, desiring the Lord to open the eyes and hearts 
of all people, both high and low, that their minds might 
be turned to God by his Holy Spirit ; that he might be 
glorified in all and over all. After prayer the meeting 



r 

I 



470 CONSTABLE IN A STRAIT 1682 



^ 

i! 



rose, and Friends passed away ; the constables being come 
in again, but without the soldiers, and indeed both they 
and the soldiers carried themselves civilly. William Penn 
and I went into a room hard by, as we used to do, and .J 

many Friends went with us; and lest the constables should 
think we would shun them, a Friend went down and told 
them that if they would have anything with us they might 
come where we were if they pleased. One of them came 
to us soon after, but without his staff; which he chose to 
do that he might not be observed ; for he said the people 
told him he busied himself more than he needed. 

A Fruitless Warrant 

We desired to see his warrant ; and therein we found 
that the informer was one Hilton, a North-countryman, 
who was reputed to be a Baptist. The constable was 
asked whether he would arrest us by his warrant on that 
day ; it being the First-day of the week, which in their 
law was called the Lord's-day ; he said he thought he 
could not. He told us also that he had charged the 
informer to come along with him to the meeting, but he 
had run away from him. We showed the constable that 
both he and we were clear ; yet, to free him from all fear 
of danger, we were free to go to the alderman that 
granted the warrant. Then a Friend that was present 
said he would go with the constable to speak with the 
alderman; which they did, and came presently back 
again, the alderman being gone from home. Seeing 
the constable in a strait, and finding him to be a tender 
man, we bid him fix an hour to come to us again, or 
send for us, and we would come to him. So he appointed 
five in the afternoon ; but neither came nor sent for us ; 
and a Friend meeting him afterwards in the evening, the 
constable told him he thought it would come to nothing, 



i682 MEETINGS IN LONDON 471 

and therefore did not look after us. So the Lord'^ 
power was over all ; to him be the glory ! 

TKe Heat of Persecution 
The beat of persecution stiU continuing, I felt my 
service to be chi^y at London, where our meetings were 
for the most part disturbed or broken up, or Friends 
were forced to meet without doors, being kept out of their 
meeting-houses by the officers. Yet sometimes, beyond 
expectation, we got a quiet and peaceable meeting in 
the houses. One time I intended to go a mile or two 
out of town to visit a Friend that was not well ; but 
hearing that the king had sent to the mayor to put the 
laws in execution against Dissenters, and that the magis- 
trates thereupon intended to nail up the meeting-house 
doors, I had not freedom to go out of town, but was 
moved to go to the meeting in Gracechurch Street ; 
and notwithstanding all the threats, a great meeting it 
was, and very quiet; the glory of the Lord shone 
overaU. 

At the Peel 

The same week I went to the meeting at the Peel in 
John's Street ; and the sessions were holden the samu 
day at Hicks's-Hall. I went to the Peel in the morning ; 
and William Mead being to appear at the sessions-house 
for not going to the steeple-house worship, came once or 
twice from Hicks's-Hall to me at the Peel ; which some 
ill-minded people observing, went and informed the 
justices at the bench that he was gone to a meeting at 
the Peel. Whereupon the justices sent a messenger to 
see if there was a meeting ; but, this being in the fore- 
noon, there was none ; so the messenger, when he had 
loqked about, went back and told them. 



478 MAGISTRATES FORGET 1681 

Then otben informed the justices that there would be 
one there in the aAernoon ; whereupon they sent for the 
chief constable and asked him "why he suffered a meeting 
to be at the Peel, so near him ? " He told them " he did 
not know of any meeting there." They asked him 
" how he could not know, and live so near it ? " He 
said "he was nevei there in his life, and did not know that 
there was a meeting there," They would have persuaded 
him that he must needs know of it ; but he standing 
stead&st in the denial of it, they stud " they should take 
order to have it looked a^r in the afternoon." 

Buta multitude of business coming before them at the 
sessions, when dinner time came they hastened to it with- 
out giving order, and when they came to the bench again 
after dinner, the Lord put it out of their minds, so that 
they sent no officer. The meeting was quiet, beginning and 
ending in peace ; and a blessed one we had, the Lord's 
presence being preciously amongst us. Many Friends 
had a concern upon their minds, when they saw me come 
into the meeting, lest I should be taken ; but I was 
freely given up to suffer, if it was the Lord's will, before I 
went to the meeting ; and had nothing in my mind con- 
cerning it but the Lord's glory. I do believe the Lord 
put it out of their minds that they should not send to break 
up our meeting that day. Yet the First-day after three 
or four justices (as I heard) came to the Peel and put 
Friends out of their meeting there, and kept them out ; 
and inquired for William Mead, but he was not there. 

Deronsliire House Closed 

Now because the magistrates were many of then:. 

unwilling to have fines laid upon meeting-houses, they 

kept Friends out in many places, setting officers am 

guards of soldiers at the doors and passages ; yet aom< 



i682 CLOSING MEETING HOUSES 473 

times Friends were lined for speaking or praying, though 
it was abroad. One First-day it was upon me to go to 
Devonshire-House meeting in the afternoon; and 
because I had heard Friends were kept out there that 
morning (as they were that day at most meetings about 
the city), I went sooner, and got into the yard before 
the soldiers came to guard the passages ; but the con- 
stables were there before me, and stood in the door-way 
with their staves. I asked them to let me go in ; they 
said "they could not, nor durst not; for they were 
commanded the contrary, and were sorry for it." I told 
them I would not press upon them ; so I stood by, and 
they were very dvil. 

An Exciting Meeting 
I stood till I was weary, and then one gave me a stool 
to sit down on ; and after a while the power of the Lord 
b^an to spring up among Friends, and one b^;an to 
speak. The constables soon forbade him, and said he 
should not speak ; and he not stopping they began to be 
wroth. But I gently Idd my hand upon one of the 
constables, and wished him to let him alone ; the con- 
stable did so, and was quiet; and the man did not speak 
long. After he had done I was moved to stand up and 
speak; and in my declaration I said, "They need not 
come gainst us with swords and staves, for we were a 
peaceable people; and had nothing in our hearts but 
good-will to the king and magistrates and to all people 
upon the earth. We did not meet under pretence of 
rehgion to plot and contrive agEunst the government, or 
to raise insurrections ; but to worship God in Spirit and 
in truth." I then sat down ; and after a while 1 was 
moved to pray, and the power of the Lord was over all ; 
apd the people, the constables^ and soldiers put off 



"1 

1 68 J I 



474 DISTRAINING GOODS 

their hats. When the meeting was done, and Friends 
began to pass away, the constable put off his hat and 
desired the Lord to bless us ; foe the power of the Lord 
was over him and the people, and kept them under. 

The Seiztire of Frieodt' Goods 

After this I went up and down, visiting Friends at 
their bouses, who had their goods taken from them for 
worshipping God. We took an account of what had 
been taken from them ; and some Friends met together 
about it, and drew up the case of the sufferings of our 
Friends in wndng, and gave it to the justices at their 
petty sessions. Whereupon they made an order " that 
the officers should not sell the goods of Friends which 
they had in their hands, but keep them uniil the next 
sessions " ; which gave some discouragement to the in- 
formers, and put a little stop to their proceedings. 

1683, — On the First-day I was moved to go to the 
meeting at Gracechurch Street. When I came there I 
found a guard set at the entrance in Lombard Street, 
and another at the gate in Gracechurch Street, to keep 
Friends out of the meeting-place ; so we had to meet in 
the street. After some dme I got a chair, stood up on 
it, and spoke largely to the people, "opening the prin- 
ciples of truth to them, and declaring many weighty 
truths concerning magistracy and concerning the Lord's 
prayer." There were, besides Friends, a great multi- 
tude of people, and amongst them many professors ; all 
was very quiet ; for the Lord's power was over all, and 
in his time we broke up our meeting and departed in 
peace. 

The next day I went to Guildford in Surrey ; and 
having visited Friends there, passed to Worminghurst in 
Sussex, where I had a very blessed meeting among 



J 



i683 FOX AND FAITH HEALING 475 

Friends, free from disturbance. While I was there, 
James Claypole of London (who was there with his wife 
also), was suddenly taken ill with so violent a fit that he 
could neither stand nor lie ; but, through the extremity 
of pain, cried out. When I heard it I was much 
exercised in spirit for him, and went to him. After 
I had spoken a few words -to him, to turn his 
mind inward, I was moved to lay my hand upon him, 
and prayed the Lord to rebuke his infirmity. As I 
laid my hand on him, the Lord's power went through 
him ; and through faith in that power he had speedy 
ease, so that he quicky fell into a sleep. When he 
awoke he was so well that next day he went with me 
five-and-twenty miles in a coach ; though he used 
formerly (as he said) to lie sometimes two weeks, some- 
times a month, in one of those fits. But the Lord was 
entreated for him, and by his power soon gave him ease 
at this time ; blessed and praised be his holy name 
therefore ! 

A Time of Great Sufferings 

After I had had some meetings in Sussex and Surrey, 
and had visited Friends thereaway, I returned to London 
by Kingston, where I had a meeting on the ist of tlie 
ad month, being First-day. We were kept out of the 
meeting-house by a constable and watchmen as before, 
and so were obliged to meet in the highway. But it 
being the monthly meeting day, and many people being 
there, the meeting was pretty large, and very quiet ; and 
the Lord's blessed presence was amongst us ; blessed be 
his name for ever ! 

Being come to London, I went to the meeting at 
Wheeler Street, near Spitalfields, which that day proved 
very large ; and a glorious, blessed time it was, for the 



i 



476 



AT GRACECHURCH STREET 



1683 



Lord's power and truth were over all, and many deep 
and weighty things were opened to the people, to their 
great satisfaction. 

I tarried in and near London, visiting Friend's meet- 
ings, and labouring in the service of the gospel, till the 
Yearly Meeting came on, which began on the 98th of 
the 3d month. It was a time of great sufferings ; and 
much concerned I was lest Friends that came up out of 
the country on the church's service should be taken and 
imprisoned at London. But the Lord was with us ; his 
power preserved us, and gave us a sweet and blessed 
opportunity to wait upon him, to be refreshed together 
in him, and to perform his services for his truth and 
people for which we met. As it was a time of great 
persecution, and we understood that in most counties 
Friends were under great sufferings, either by imprison- 
ments or spoiling of goods, or both, a concern was 
weightily upon me lest any Friends that were sufferers, 
especially such as were traders and dealers in the 
world, should hazard the losing of other men's goods or 
estates through their sufferings. Wherefore, as the thing 
opened in me, I drew up an epistle of caution to Friends 
in that case, which I communicated to the Yearly 
Meeting; and from thence it was sent forth among 
Friends throughout the nation. 

Gracechurch Meeting House Closed 

On the First-day I went to the meeting at Gracechurch 
Street. When I came there I found three constables 
in the meeting-house, who kept Friends out ; so we met 
in the court. After I had been some time there, I stoc 
up and spoke to the people, and continued speaking son 
time. Then one of the constables came, and took hoi 
of my hand, and said " I must come down." I desin 



i6ii WEARY CONSTABLES 4^1 f 

him to be patient, and went on speaking to the people ; 
but after a little time he pulled me down, and had me 
into the meeting-house. I asked them if they were not 
weary of this work. One of them said, "indeed they 
were." They let me go into the widow Foster's house, 
which joined to the meeting-house, where I stayed, being 
hot. 

Fox Arrested at the Savoy 

When the meeting was ended, for one prayed after I 
was taken away, the constables asked some Friends 
" which of them would pass their words that I should 
appear, if they should be questioned about me ; but the 
Friends telling them they need not require that, for I 
was a man well known in the city to be one that would 
neither fly nor shrink, they went away, and I heard no 
further of it. The same week I was at the meeting at 
the Savoy, which used to be kept out and disturbed ; but 
that day it was within doors and peaceable; and a 
precious time it was. The First-day after, it was upon 
me to go to the meeting at Westminster, where there 
used to be great disturbances ; but there also the meet- 
ing was within doors that day, and very large. The 
Lord's power was over all, and kept all quiet and still ; 
for though many loose spirits were there, yet they were 
bound down by the power and Spirit of the Lord, that 
they could not get up to make disturbance. 

I continued yet at London, labouring in the work and 
service of the Lord both in and out of meetings ; some- 
times visiting Friends in prison for the testimony of 
Jesus, encouraging them in their sufferings, and exhort- 
ing them to stand faithful and steadfast in the testimony 
which the Lord had committed to them to bear ; some- 
times also visiting those that were sick and weak in body 



478 "PLUCKED ME DOWN" 1683 

or troubled in mind, helping to bear up their spirits from 
sinking under their inltrmities. Somedmes our meetings 
were quiet and peaceable ; sometimes they were disturbed 
and broken up by the officers. 

One First-day it was upon me to go to the meeting at 
the Savoy, which was lai^e ; for many professors and 
sober people were there. As I was speaking in the power 
of the Lord, and the people were gready affected therewith, 
suddenly the consUbles, with the rude people, came in 
like a sea. One of the constables said to me, "Come 
down " ; and he laid hands on me. I asked him, " Art 
thou a Christian ? We are Christians." He had hold 
of my hand, and was very fierce to pluck me down ; but 
I stood still, and spoke a few words to the people ; 
desiring of the Lord that the blessings of God might 
rest upon them all. The constable still called upon me 
to come down, and at length plucked me down, and 
bid another man with a staff take me and carry me to 



A Passionate Justice 
That man led me to another officer's house who was 
more civil ; and after a while they brought in four Friends 
more whom they had taken. I was very weary and in 
a gieat perspiration ; and several Friends hearing where 
I was, came to me in the constable's house ; but I bid 
them all go their ways, lest the constables and informers 
should stop them. After a white the constables led us 
almost a mile to a justice, who was a fierce, passionate 
man ; who, after he had asked me my name, and his 
clerk had taken it in writing, upon the constable's in- 
forming him that "I preached in the meeting," said in 
an angry manner, " Do not you know that it is contrary 
to the Liturgy of the Church of England ? " 



i683 A DISAPPOINTED INFORMER 479 

There was present one Shad (a wicked informer, 

who was said to have broken jail at Coventry, and to have 
been burned in the hand at London), who hearing the 
justice speak so to me, stepped up to him and told him 
" that he had convicted them on the Act of the 2 2d of King 
Charles the Second." " What ! you convict them ? " 
said the justice. "Yes," said Shad, " I have convicted 
them, and you must convict them too upon that Act." 
With that the justice was angry with him, and feaid, 
"You teach me ! what are you ? I'll convict them of a 
riot." The informer hearing that, and seeing the justice 
angry, went away in a fret ; so he was disappointed of 
his purpose. 

**Contraify to the Liturgy^** 

I thought he would have sworn somebody against me, 
whereupon I said, " Let no man swear against me, for 
it is my principle * not to swear * ; and therefore I would 
not have any man swear against me." The justice 
thereupon asked me " if I did not preach in the meet- 
ing " ; I told him " I confessed what God and Christ 
had done for my soul, and praised God ; and I thought 
I might have done that in the streets and in all places, 
viz., praise God and confess Christ Jesus ; and this I 
was not ashamed to confess. Neither was this contrary 
to the Liturgy of the Church of England." The justice 
said " the laws were against such meetings as were con- 
trary to the Liturgy of the Church of England." I said 
" I knew no such laws against our meetings ; but if he 
meant that Act that was made against such as met to 
plot, contrive, and raise insurrections against the king, 
we were no such people, but abhorred all such actions ; 
and bore true love and. goodwill to the king and to all 
men upon the earth.'* 



480 DlSCHAkGEt) 1^83 

Judge Looks for a Law 

The justice then asked me << if I had been in orders ; " 
I told him << No." Then he took his law books and 
searched for laws against us ; bidding his clerk take the 
names of the rest in the meantime : but when he could 
find no other law against us, the clerk swore the con- 
stable against us. Some of the Friends bid the constable 
«* take heed what he swore, lest he were perjured ; for 
he took them in the entry, and not in the meeting." 
Yet the constable, being an ill man, swore " that they 
were in the meeting." 

However, the justice said, <' seeing there was but 
one witness, he would discharge the rest ; but he would 
send me to Newgate, and I might preach there. I asked 
him *<if it stood with his conscience to send me to 
Newgate for praising God and for confessing Christ 
Jesus ? " He cried, " Conscience ! conscience ! '' but 
I felt my words touched his conscience. He bid the 
constable take me away, and he would make a mittimus 
to send me to prison when he had dined. I told him 
" I desired his peace, and the good of his family, and 
that they might be kept in the fear of the Lord " ; so I 
passed away. And as we went the constable took some 
Friends' word that I should come to his house the next 
morning by eight. 

Accordingly I went with those Friends ; and then the 
constable told us that he went to the justice for the 
mittimus after he had dined, and he bid him come 
again after the evening service, which he did ; and then 
the justice told him he might let me go. " So," said 
the constable, "you are discharged." I blamed the 
constable for turning informer and swearing against us ; 
and he said he would do so no more. Next day the 



i683 TRUE GOSPEL WORSHIP ' 481 

justice meeting with Gilbert Lacey, asked him " if he 
would pay twenty pounds for George Fox's fine." He 
said, " No." " Then," said the justice, " I am dis- 
appointed ; for being but a lodger I cannot come by 
his fine, and he having been brought before me and 
being of ability himself, I cannot lay his' fine on any 
other." 

After I was discharged I went into the city. The 
same week the sessions coming on, where many Friends 
were concerned, some as prisoners and some on trials 
of appeals upon the conventicle act, I went to a Friend's 
house not far off, that I might be in readiness to assist 
them with counsel, or otherwise, as occasion should 
offer ; and I found service in it. 

Fez at Kingston 

I tarried a little in London, visiting Friends and 
meetings, and labouring in the work of the Lord there. 
And being on a First-day at the BuU-and-Mouth, where 
the meeting had long been kept out, it was that day in 
the house peaceable and large; the people were so 
affected with the truth, and refreshed with the powerful 
presence of the Lord, that when it was ended they were 
loath to go away. 

After some time, having several things upon me to 
write, I went to Kingston that I might be free from inter- 
ruptions. When I came there I understood the officers 
had been very rude at the meeting, abusing Friends and 
had driven them out of the meeting-place, and very 
abusive they continued to be for some time. Whilst I 
was there I wrote a little book (printed soon after), 
entitled, "The Saints' heavenly and spiritual worship, 
unity, and communion, &c., wherein is set forth what 
the true gospel worship is." 

2 H 



482 FOX GOES TO HOLLAND 1(584 

When I had finished the services for which I went 
thither, and had visited the Friends, I returned to 
London, and visited most of the meetings in and about 
the city. Afterwards I went to visit a Friend in Essex ; 
and returning by Dalaton, made some stay at the widow 
Slot's, where I wrote an epistle to Friends, which may be 
read amongst my other printed books. 

I came from Dalston to London, and next day was 
sent for in haste to my son Rous's at Kii^;ston, whose 
daughter, Margaret, lay very sick, and had a desire to 
see me. I tarried now at Kingston about a week, and 
then returned to London ; where I continued for the 
most part of the winter and the spring following, until 
the general meeting in 1684, save that I went once as 
far as Enfield to visit Friends thereabouts. In this time 
I ceased not to labour in the work of the Lord, being 
frequent at meetings, and visiting Friends that were 
prisoners or that were sick ; and in writing books for 
the spreading of truth, and opening the understandings 
of the people to receive it. 

To Holland Again 

1684. — The Yearly Meeting was in the 3d month. 
A blessed weighty one it was, wherein Friends were 
sweetly refreshed together ; for the Lord was with us, and 
opened his heavenly treasures amongst us. And though 
it was a time of great difficulty and danger, by reason of 
informers and persecuting magistrates, yet the Lord was 
a defence and place of safety to his people. 

Now had I drawings in Spirit to go into Holland, to 
visit the Seed of God there. And as soon as the Yearly 
Meeting was over I prepared for my journey. There 
went with me from London Alexander Parker, George 
Watts, and Nathaniel Brassey, who also had drawings 






1684 FRIENDS CAME DOUBLE-HORSED 48S 

into that country. We took coach the 31st of the 3d 
month, 1684, and got to Colchester that night. Next 
day being First-day, we went to the meeting there ; and 
though there was no notice given of my coming, yet our 
being there was presently spread over the town and in 
several places in the country at seven and ten miles dis- 
tance ; so that abundance of Friends came in double- 
horsed, which made the meeting very large. 

I had a concern and travail in my mind lest this 
great gathering should have stirred up thetown, and been 
more than the magistrates could well bear ; but it was 
very quiet and peaceable, and a glorious meeting we 
had, to the settling and stablishing of Friends both in 
town and country ; for the Lord's power was over all ; 
blessed be his name for ever ! Truly the Lord's power 
and presence was beyond words ; for I was but weak to 
go into a meeting, and my face (by reason of a cold I 
had taken) was sore ; but God manifested his strength in 
us and with us, and all was well : the Ix)rd have the glory 
for evermore for his supporting power. After the meet- 
ing, I think above a hundred Friends of the town and 
country came to see me at John Furley's, and very glad 
we were to see one another, and greatly refreshed 
together, being filled with the love and riches of the 
Lord ; blessed be his name for ever ! 

We tarried at Colchester two days more; which we 
spent in visiting Friends, both at their meetings for 
business and at their houses. Then early in the morning 
of Fourth-day we took coach for Harwich, where we met 
William Bingley and Samuel Waldenfield, who went over 
with us. About eight at night we went on board the 
packet, Richard Gray master ; but by reason of contrary 
winds it was one in the morning before we sailed. We 
had a very good passage ; and about five in the after- 



484 A GREAT BUSTLE AROSE 1685 

noon next day we landed at the Briel in Holland. This 
journey lasted six weeks. 

It was the latter end of the summer when I came to 
London, where I stayed the winter following; saving 
that once or twice, my wife being in town with me, I 
went with her to her son Rous's at Kingston. And 
though my body was very weak, yet I was in continual 
service, either in pubjic meetings, when I was able to 
bear them, or in particular business amongst Friends, 
and visitmg those that were sufferers for truth, either by 
imprisonment or loss of goods. Many things also in 
this time I wrote, some for the press, and some for par- 
ticular service ; as letters to the King of Denmark and . 
Duke of Holstein, on behalf of Friends that were suf- 
ferers in their dominions. 

Friends and Monmouth's Landing \ 

1685. — About a month after I got a little out of ^ 

London, visiting Friends at South Street, Ford Green, 
and Enfield, where I had meetings. Afterwards I went 
to Waltham Abbey, and was at the meeting there on a 
First-day, which was very large and peaceable. Then 
returning through Enfield and Edmonton Side, I came 
back to London in the 3rd Month, to advise with and 
assist Friends in laying their suflferings before the Parlia- 
ment then sitting. We drew up a short account thereof, 
which we caused to be printed and spread among the 
parliament-men. 

The Yearly Meeting coming on, I was much con- 
cerned for the Friends that came up to it out of the 
country, lest they should meet with any trouble or dis- 
turbance in their passages up or down ; and the rather 
because about that time a great bustle arose in the 
nation on the Duke of Monmouth's landing in the West. 



: V 



1685 CLOSENESS OF THE CITY 485 

But the Lord, according to his wonted goodness, was 
graciously pleased to preserve Friends in safety, gave us 
a blessed opportunity to meet together in peace and 
quietness, and accompanied our meeting with his living, 
refreshing presence; blessed for ever be his holy name ! 

After I had been some weeks at South Street and 
Enfield, in which time I had several meetings with Friends, 
I returned to London. Amongst other services I found 
there, one was to assist Friends in drawing up a 
testimony to clear our Friends from being concerned in 
the late rebellion in the West and from all plots against 
the government: which was delivered to the chief 
justice, who was then going down into the West with 
commission to try prisoners. 

I tarried some time in London, visiting meetings 
and labouring among Friends in the service of truth. 
But finding my health much impaired for want of fresh 
air, I went to Charles Bathurst's country house at 
Epping Forest, where I stayed a few days. 

Fox's m Health 

I soon returned to London, but made no long stay 
there, my body not being able to bear the closeness of the 
city long together. While I was in town, besides the 
usual services of visiting Friends and looking after their 
sufferings to get them eased^ I assisted Friends of 
the city in distributing certain sums of money, which 
our Friends of Ireland had charitably and very liberally 
raised, and sent over for the relief of their brethren, who 
suffered for the testimony of a good conscience ; which 
money was distributed amongst poor, suffering Friends 
in the several counties, in proportion as we understood 
their need* 

Before I left the city, I heard of a great doctor lately 



u 



486 OPENING PRISON DOORS 1686 

come from Poland ; whom I invited to my lodging, and 
had much discourse with him. After I had informed 
myself by him of such things as I had a desire to knoWi 
I wrote a letter to the King of Poland on behalf of 
Friends at Dantzic, who had long been imder grievious 
sufferings. 

Release of Friends 

1 586. — I came back to London in the i st month, 1686, 
and set myself with all dilligence to look after Friends' 
sufferings, from which we had now some hopes of 
getting relief. The sessions came on in the 2nd month 
at Hicks's-Hall, where many Friends had appeals to be 
tried ; with whom I was from day to day, to advise and 
see that no opportunity were slipped, nor advantage i 

lost; and they generally succeeded well. Soon after 
also the king was pleased, upon our often laying our 
sufferings before him, to give order for the " releasing of 
all prisoners for conscience' sake, that were in his 
power to discharge." Whereby the prison-doors were 
opened, and many hundreds of Friends, some of whom 
had been long in prison, were set at liberty. Some 
of them, who had for many years been restrained in 
bonds, came now up to the Yearly Meeting, which was 
in the 3rd month this year. This caused great joy 
to Friends, to see our ancient, faithful brethren again at 
liberty in the Lord's work, after their long confinemeat. 
And indeed a precious meeting we had ; the refreshing 
presence of the Lord appearing plentifully with us and 
amongst us. 

Fox in London 

I remained most part of this year in London, save thi 
sometimes I got out to Bethnal-Green for a night < 



1 68; FOX GETS INFIRM 487 

two, or as far as Enfield and thereabouts amongst 
Friends, and once or twice to Chiswick, where an ancient 
Friend had set up a school for the educating of Friends' 
children; in all which places I found service for the 
Lord. At London I spent my time amongst Friends, 
either in public meetings (as the Lord drew me) or 
visiting those that were not well, and in looking after the 
sufferings of Friends. For though many were released out 
of prisons, yet some remained prisoners still for tithes, 
&c., and sufferings of several sorts lay heavy on Friends 
in many places. Yet inasmuch as many Friends that had 
been prisoners were now set at liberty, I felt a concern 
upon me, that none might look too much at man, but 
might eye the Lord therein, from whom deliverance comes. 
1687. — ^When I had stayed about a month in 
London, I got out of town again ; for by reason of the 
many hardships I had undergone in imprisonments and 
other sufferings for truth's sake, my body was grown so 
infirm and weak that I could not bear the closeness of 
the city long together ; but was obliged to go a little into 
the country for the benefit of the fresh air. At this time 
I went with my son-in-law William Mead, to his country 
house called Gooses, in Essex, where I stayed about two 
weeks. 

A Time of Liberty 

The beginning of the 3d month I returned to London 
and continued there till after the Yearly Meeting, which 
began on the i6th of the same, and was very large, 
Friends having more freedom to come up out of the 
counties to it, by reason of the general toleration and 
liberty now granted. 

Having been more than a quarter of a year in the 
country, I returned to London, somewhat better in %* 






n:H 









488 A TIME OF LIBERTY t68S 

health than formerlr, having leceived much benefit by 
the country air. And it being now a time of general 
liberty and great openness amorist the people, I had 
mnch service for the Lord in the city ; being almost 
daily at public meetings, and frequently taken up in 
visiting Friends that were sick and in other services of 
the church. I continued at London about three 
months ; and then findii^ my strength much spent 
with continual labouring in the work of the Lord, and 
my body much stopped for want of ftesh air, I went 
down to my son Rous's, by Kingston, where I abode 
some time, and visited Friends at Kingston. While I 
was there it came upon me to write a paper concerning 
the Jews, showing " how by their disobedience and 
rebellion they lost the holy city and land." By which 
example the professed Christians may see what they are to 
expect if they continue to disobey and provoke the 
Lord. 

Fox's Strength Fails 

1688. — In the 7th month I returned to London, 
having been near three months in the country for my 
health's sake, which was very much impaired ; so that I 
was hardly able to stay in a meeting the whole time ; 
and often after a meeting had to lie down on a bed. 
Yet did not my weakness of body take me off fix)m the 
service of the Lord, but I continued to labour in and 
out of meetings in his work as he gave me opportunity 
and ability. 

About this time great exercise and weights came upon 
(iM (as had usually done before the great revolutions and 
changes of government), and my strength departed from 
me, so that I reeled and was ready to fall as I went 
along the streets. At length I could not go abroad at 



1 689 CONCERNING NEWS 489 

all, I was so weak for some time, till I felt the power of 
the Lord to spring over all, and had received an assur- 
ance from him that he would preserve his faithful people 
to himself through all. 

A Time of Talk 

1689. — It was now a time of much talk; and people 
busied their minds and spent their time too much in 
hearing and telling news. To show them the vanity 
thereof, and to draw them from it I wrote the following 
lines: 

« In the low region, in the airy life, all news is un- 
certain; there nothing is stable; but in the higher 
region, in the kingdom of Christ, there all things are 
stable and sure, and the news always good and certain. 
For Christ, who hath all power in heaven and in earth 
given unto him, ruleth in the kingdoms of men ; and he, 
who doth inherit the heathen, and possess the utmost 
parts of the earth with his divine power and light, rules 
all nations with his rod of iron, and dashes them to 
pieces like a potter's vessel, the vessels of dishonour, 
and the leaky vessels that will not hold his living water ; 
and he doth preserve his elect vessels of mercy and 
honour. His power is certain, and changes not, by 
which he removes the mountains and hills, and shakes 
the heavens and the earth. Leaky, dishonourable 
vessels, the hills and mountains, and the old heavens 
and the earth, are all to be shaken, and removed, and 
broken to pieces, though they do not see it nor him 
that doth it ; but his elect and faithful both see it and 
know him, and his power tha.t cannot be shaken, and 
which changeth not. G. F. 

*'The 5th of the ist Month, 1688-9.*' 



^ 



m 



490 FOX IN THE LOBBY 1689 

About the middle of the first month, 1688-9, I went 
to London, the parliament then sitting, and engaged 
about the bill for indulgence. Though I was weak in 
body, and not well able to stir about, yet so great a con- 
cern was upon my spirit on behalf of truth and Friends, 
that I attended continually for many days, with other 
Friends, at the parliament-house, labouring with the 
members, that the thing might be done comprehensively 
and effectually. 

Fox Weary and Spent 

Being much wearied and spent with many large meet- 
ings, and much business with Friends during the time of 
the Yearly Meeting, and finding my health much impaired 
thereby, I went out of town with my daughter Rous to 
their country house near Kingston, and tarried there 
most of the remaining part of the summer. In which 
time I sometimes visited Friends at Kingston, and wrote 
divers things for the service of truth and Friends. 

I stayed at Kingston till the beginning of the seventh 
month, where not only Friends came to visit me, but 
some considerable people of the world, with whom I 
discoursed about the things of God. Then leaving 
Kingston I went to London by water, visiting Friends as 
I went, and taking Hammersmith meeting in my way. 
Having recovered some strength by being in the country, 
when I was come to London I went from meeting to 
meeting, labouring diligently in the work of the Lord, 
and opening the divine mysteries of the heavenly things 
as God by his Spirit opened them in me. But I found 
my body would not long bear the city ; wherefore, whe*^ J 
I had travelled amongst Friends there about a montl 
I went to Tottenham High Cross, and thence t\ 
Edward Man's country house near Winchmore Hill, anf 



1690 FOX'S LAST WINTER 491 

to Enfield, spending three weeks among Friends there- 
abouts ; and had meetings at all those places. 

Then, being a little refreshed with being in the 
country, I went back to London, where I tarried, 
labouring in the work of the ministry till the middle of 
the ninth month, at which time I went down with my 
son Mead to his house in Essex, and abode there all 
the winter. During which I stirred not much abroad, 
unless it were sometimes to the meeting to which that 
family belonged, which was about half a mile from 
thence ; but I had meetings often in the house with the 
family and those Friends that came thither. Many 
things also I wrote while I was there. One was an 
epistle to the quarterly and yearly meetings of Friends 
in Pennsylvania, New England, Virginia, Maryland, the 
Jerseys, Carolina, and other plantations in America. 

Fox's Last Year 

1690. — I remained at London till the beginning of the 
ninth month, being continually exercised in the work of 
the Lord, either in public meetings, opening the way of 
truth to people, and building up and establishing 
Friends therein, or in other services relating to the 
church of God. For the parliament now sitting, and 
having a bill before them concerning oaths, and another 
concerning clandestine marriages, several Friends 
attended the house to get those bills so worded 
that they might not he hurtful to Friends. In this 
service I also assisted, attending on the parliament, and 
discoursing the matter with several of the members. 

Having stayed more than a month in London, and 
much spent myself in these services, I went to Totten- 
ham ; and some time after to Ford Green ; at which 
places I continued several weeks, visiting Friends' 



: .S 



49f A LAST LETTER 1690 

meetings round about there, at Tottenham, Enfield* and 
Winchmore Hill. 

The Last Entry 

Not long after I returned to London, and was ahnost 
daily with Friends at meetings. When I had been near 
two weeks in town, the sense of the great hardships and 
sore sufferings that Friends had been and were under in 
Ireland, coming with great weight upon me, I was 
moved to write the following epistle, as a word of 
consolation unto them : 

''Dear Friends and Brethren in the Lord Jesus 
Christ, whom the Lord by his eternal arm and power 
hath upheld through your great sufferings, exercises, 
trials and hardships (more, I believe, than can be 
uttered), up and down that nation, which I am very 
sensible of; and the rest of the faithful Friends, 
who have been partakers with you in your sufferings; 
and who cannot but suffer with the Lord's people 
that suffer. My confidence hath been in the Lord, that 
he would and will support you in all your sufferings ; 
and that he would preserve all the faithful in his wisdom, 
that they might give no just occasion to one nor other 
to make them suffer ; and if you did suffer wrongfully 
or unjustly, that the righteous God would assist and up- 
hold you; and reward them according to their works 
that oppressed or wronged you. 

" And now my desire is unto the Lord, that in the 
same holy and heavenly wisdom ye may all be preserved 
to the end of your days, to the glory of God, minding 
His supporting hand and power, who is God All- 
sufficient, to strengthen, help, and refresh in time 
of need. Let none forget the Lord's mercies and 






1690 WORDS OF COMFORT 493 

kindnesses, which endure for ever; but always live 
in the sense of them. And truly, Friends, when I 
consider the thing, it is the great mercy of the Lord 
that ye have not been all swallowed up, seeing with 
what spirits ye have been compassed about. But the 
Lord carrieth his lambs in his arms, and they are 
as tender to him as the apple of his eye; and his 
power is his hedge about his vineyard of heavenly 
plants. 

''Christ Reigns'* 

** Therefore it is good for all his children to be given 
up to the Lord with their minds and souls, hearts 
and spirits, who is a faithful keeper, that never slumbers 
nor sleeps ; but is able to preserve and keep you, and to 
save to the utmost ; and none can hurt so much as 
a hair of your heads, except he suffer it, to try you ; for 
he upholds all things in heaven and in earth by the 
Word of his power ; all things were made by Christ, and 
by Him all things consist (mark, consist), whether 
they be visible or invisible, &c. So he hath power over 
all; for all power in heaven and in earth is given to 
him ; and to you that have received him he hath given 
power to become the sons and daughters of God; 
so living members of Christ, the living head, grafted into 
Him, in whom ye have eternal life. Christ, the Seed, 
reigns, and his power is over all ; who bruises the serpent's 
head, and destroys the devil and his works, and was before 
he was. So all of you live and walk in Christ Jesus; that 
nothing may be between you and God but Christ, 
in whom ye have salvation, life, rest, and peace with 
God. 

" As for the affairs of truth in this land and abroad, I 
hear that in Holland and Germany, and thereaway, 



.4- ^ >^ 







494 THE LAST ENTRY 1690 

Friends are in love, unity, and peace; and in 
Jamaica, Barbadoes, Nevis, Antigua, Maryland, and 
New England I hear nothing but Friends are in unity 
and peace. The Lord preserve them all out of the 
world (in which there is trouble), in Christ Jesus, 
in whom there is peace, life, love, and unity. Amen. 
My love in the Lord Jesus Christ to all Friends every- 
where in your land, as though I named them. G. F. 
" LoQdon. the xoth of the nth Month, 169a" 



This is Fox's last entry in his Journal. 



Fox's Death 

The day after he had written it "he went to the 
meeting at Gracechurch Street, which was large, being 
the First-day of the week ; and the Lord enabled him to 
preach the truth fully and effectually, opening many 
deep and weighty things with great power and clearness. 
After which having prayed, and the meeting being ended, 
he went to Henry Goldney's, in White-Hart-Court, near 
the meeting-house ; and some Friends going with him 
there, he told them * he thought he felt the cold strike 
to his heart as he came out of the meeting ' ; * yet,' he 
added, * I am glad I was here : now I am clear, I am 
fully clear.' 

" As soon as the Friends withdrew he lay down upon 
a bed (as he sometimes used to do through weariness 
after meeting), but soon rose again ; and in a little time 
lay down again, complaining still of cold. And his 
strength sensibly decaying, he was soon obliged to go 
into bed j where he lay in much contentment and peace, 
and very sensible to the last. And as, in the whole 
course of his life his spirit, in the universal love of God, 



1690 FOX AT REST 4>95 

was bent upon the exalting of truth and righteousness, 
and the making known the way thereof to the nations 
and people afar ofF^ so now, in the time of his outward 
weakness his mind was intent upon, and (as it were) 
wholly taken up with that ; and some particular Friends 
he sent for, to whom he expressed his mind and desire 
for the spreading of Friends' books, and truth thereby 
in the world. 

*'AU is Well** 

" Divers Friends came to visit him in his illness ; to 
some of whom he said, * All is well ; the Seed of God 
reigns over all, and over death itself. And though,' 
said he, « I am weak in body, yet the power of God is 
over all, and the Seed reigns over all disorderly spirits.' 
Thus lying in a heavenly frame of mind, his spirit wholly 
exercised towards the Lord, he grew weaker and weaker 
in his natural strength ; and on the third day of the 
week, between the hours of nine and ten in the evening 
he quietly departed this life in peace, and sweetly fell 
asleep in the Lord, whose blessed truth he had livingly 
and powerfully preached in the meeting but two days 
before. Thus ended he his day in his faithful testimony, 
in perfect love and unity with his brethren, and in peace 
and good-will to all men, on the 13th of the nth 
Month, 1690, being in the 67th year of his age." 

Bunhill^Fields 

** On the day appointed for the interment of George 
Fox, a very great concourse of Friends and others 
assembled at the meeting-house in White-Hart-Court, 
near Gracechurch Street, about the middle of the day, 
to attend his body to the grave. The meeting held 
about two hours with great and heavenly solemnity. 



496 BUNHLL-FIELDS 1 690 

manifestly attended with the Lord's blessed presence and 
glorious power ; in which divers living testimonies were 
given, from a lively remembrance and sense of the 
blessed ministry of this dear and ancient servant of the 
Lord, his early entering into the Lord's work at the 
breaking forth of this gospel-day, his innocent life, long 
and great travels, and unwearied labours of love in the 
everlasting gospel, for the turning and gathering of many 
thousands from darkness to the light of Christ Jesus, 
the foundation of true foith; the manifold sufferings, 
afflictions, and oppositions which he met withal for his 
faithful testimony, both from his open adversaries and 
from false brethren ; and his preservations, deliverances, 
and dominion in, out of, and over them all, by the power 
of God ; to whom the glory and honour always was by 
him, and is, and always ought to be by all, ascribed. 

" After the meeting was ended, his body was borne by 
Friends, and accompanied by very great numbers, to 
Friends' burying-ground, near Bunhill-Fields ; where 
his body was committed t6 the earth ; but his memorial 
shall remain and be everlastingly blessed among the 
righteous." 



;i 




INDEX 




rr. 



V' : 



I • 



Aldam, Thomas 

' ' Friends' " oommitiiients, 

conipilatioD of, 384 
prophecy against Cromwell, 

384 
tnveb with Fox, 79, 139, 143 
warrant against, 83 
Alexandria, "Friends"* Mission 

Almsgiving, 7, 30, 85 
jK^tf/j<^ Poor Relief 

America 

"Epistle, General, to all 

Friends io America," 458 
progress of work in, 494 
Stubbs, Jm preaching. 137 
travels in, Fox's, A2t 
Amersham, "Friends meeting 

at, 463 
Amusements, denunciations on, 
33, iTO, S19, 309 
letter of warning, 330 
Anabaptists, dispute with, 340 
Anglesea's, Earl of, censure on 

Fbz, 386 
Angrona, national collection for 

persecuted Protestants in, 376 
Antigua, progress of *' Friends' " 

work in, 494 
" Apostolic succession,*' 458 
Apprenticeship of " Fnends' '* 

children, letter on, 408 
Armscott, * * Friends* " meeting at, 

441 
Army 

adherents in, 49, 157,333, 365 
protection by soldiers, 94, 116, 

262. 395, 389 
Quaker soldiers, disbandment 

of, 137 

refusal of service in, 5, 50. 54 

Amside, cure of cripple at, 113 

Arrest, Fox's, 36, 39, 43, 75, 80, 

93. n6, 137, 14s, 163, 341, 349, 

^*78, 297. 319. 340, 347, 354, 

4x3. 44ai 478 



Aahbumham, Constable, 297, 395 

Ashford, visit to, 346 

Ashlev*s, J., speeches in Fox's 

Defence, 453 
Assaults on Fox, 43, 49, 63, 163 
attempts at, 95, 97,103, uac 
165, 183 
Astrology, denunciation of 
Atheists, dispute with, 33 
Atherstone Chapel, preaching in, 

41 
Ather^on's, Oliver, sufferings, ^60 
Atkyn, Judge, appeal agamst 

tithes to, 466 
Audland, John, 335 

Badcow, visits to, 351, 353, 360 
Bagworth, preaching at, 40 
Bailey's, W., work in Barbadoes, 

430 
Baily, Charles, schism of, 338 
Baker's, Daniel, Mission to 

Smyrna. 335 
Balby 

annual meeting at, 393 
visits to, 77t 80, 8x 
Baldock, work of reconciliation 

at, 155 
Bandon Bridge, visit to, 403 
Banishnr,ent, Fox's 

Edinburgh Council, sentence 
of, 357 

Ireland, proposed exile to, 56 
Baptism, Infant, 33, 31, 156, 400 
Baptists 

adherents among, 33, xx6, 159 

disputes with, ax, X09, 1x5, 

156 
opposition from, 333, 331, 061 
swearing, principle against, 

400 
Barbadoes 

Gwin, Paul, meeting with, 

335 
progress of work In, 494 
visit to, 49|i 4S16 

fl 1 



498 



INDEX 



Barnes. W.. Yiiit to, 404 
Barnet. Tisits to. 4. 339 
Barton's, Justice, sentence on Fox 

at Derbrjr, 45 
Basingstoke, visit to, 239 
Batenian, t^es, acquaintance 

with, 85 
Bathurst. C, sUy with, 485 
"Battledore,'* contributions to, 

334. 354 . . 
Baxe, R., visit to, 417 

Beaumaris, John-ap-John*s arrest 
at, 246 
Fox's rebuke to tke magis- 
trates, 249 

Beaumont, Lord, arrest by, 340, 

346 
Bcavor, Vale of, preaching in, 

22 

Bedfordshire, travels in, 153 
Bennet, CoL, control of Launces- 

ton Jail by, z8o, 220 
Bennet, Justice, trial before, 45 
assault on Fox, 49 
Quakers' nickname, origin of, 
48 
Bennett, Priest, dispute with, 89 
Benson, Francis, visit to, 352 
Benson's, Justice, friendship, xoi, 

III, xiS, 122 
Benson^s, Mrs., visits to Fox in 

Carlisle Jail, 1x9 
Bentharo, journey under guard to, 

387 
Berkshire, travels in, 408 

Bethnal Green, visit to, 486 

Beverley Steeple-house, preaching 

in, 59 
Bickliff, Anthony, visit to, 3x1 
Billing, Edward, acquaintance 

with, 262 
Billing, Grace, visit in prison 

from, 214 
Bindlas's, Sir R., servants, attack 

by, X04 
Bingley's, W., journey to Holland, 

483 
Birkenhead, Sir J., appeal for 

Fox's release to, 392 
Birkhead's, Serjeant, meeting at, 

280 
Birth, Fox's, x 
Birth, New, doctrine of, 8 
Bishop's '* New England Judged," 

"Bishops and -Ministers," Fox's 
writings to, 458 
ndness, attacks of, 24, 4x8 



Bodmin 

oonve3ranoe to, X64, z6^ 
Sessions, appeal for justice 
to, x8i 
Bohemia, national collection for 

Protestant exiles from, 276 
Bohemia River, passage of, 432, 

435 
Bcmd's, Nicholas, discussion with 

Jesuit priest, 267 
Bonner's Creek, visit to, 436 
*' Book of the Fighting Priests/' 

281 
Books 

Fox's, 252, 334. 385. 458, 

459. 481 „ 
" Friends' books, confisca- 
tion of, x68, X85 
Bowles, Priest, address in York 

Minster to, 63 
Bowls, reproofs to players of, 219, 

22X 

Bradden, Capt. 

confiscation of " Friends' " 

books, x68 
custody of Fox, X67, X76 
Bradford, Fox's cousin, 3 
Bradford, visit to, 84 
Brassev's, Nathaniel, journey to 

Holland, 482 
Brecknock, riots at, 233 
Breda, declaration of, ^3 
Bridport, visit to, 232 
Briggs, T., friendship with, loi, 
346 
America, tour in, 422 
Barbadoes, work in, 430 
Ireland, journey to, 40X 
Bristol, visits to, 223, 398, 406 
America, return from, 438 
marriage, ^ 
Broadstreet s, Simon, execution 
of New England "Friends," 
332 
Brother, Fox's, 136 
Brown's prophecies of Fox's 

future, 18 
Buckinghamshire, travels in, 279, 

408, 462 
"Bull and Mouth," "Friends'" 

meeting at, 481 
BunhiV Fields Burying-ground, 

Fox's interment at, 496 
Bumveat, J. 

America, tour in, 43X, 434 
arrest of, 4x3 
Burrough, E. 

arguments with Fox, 85 



INDEX 



499 



Burrougb, E. 

Charles II., intercession for 

••Friends" with, 328 
Jesuit Priest, discussion with, 
267 
Burton -on-Trent, preaching at, 57 
Burying-grounds, ••Friends'" 
Fox'sfuneralatBunhill Fields, 

496 
provision of, 428 
Bushel, T., dispute with, 65 
Bushel House, meeting at, 57 
Butchers, disturbances caused by, 
127, 144 

••C-ffiSAR's due and God's due," 

459 
" Cain against Abel," 458 
Cambridgeshire, 

mobbing by Cambridge stu- 
dents, 147 
travels in, 287, 410 
Camping in American forests, 

431. 432, 43S» 436 
Cannons, R., request for Foz*s 

release, 447 
Canoes, travelling in, 432 
Canterbury, visit to, 417 
Carlisle 

imprisonment at, Z17, 124 
preaching at, 115 
Carolina 

letter to " Friends*' in, 491 
progress of work in, 436 
Cartmel 

•' Friends' " meeting at, 352 
prosecution for tithes at, 466 
Cartwright, J. 

America, tour in, 422, 430, 434 
warrant against, 420 
Ceely, Major, arrest by, 161, 172, 

175, 181, 302 
Certificates of Fox's innocence, 

collection of, 459 
Chamberlain, Col., acquaintance 

with, 427 
Chapels, preaching in, 41 

seecUso Steeple-houses 
Charing Cross 

burning of judge's remains at, 

312 
Fox's detention at the "Mer- 
maid," T39, 142, 145 
Charles II. 

Fox's, Mrs. , release from Lan- 
caster jail, 421 
mission to China, warrant for, 

335 



Charles II. 

persecution, religious 
Conventicle Act, 411 
declarations against, 363 
Fell*s, Margaret, inter- 
cession for •* Friends," 
308, 321 
laws against Dissenters, 
proclamation for en- 
forcement of, 471 
relations with. Fox's 
letters, 309, 459 
loyalty, assurances of, 

303 
pardon, King's ofifers of, 

454, 455 

plot in Kivour of, sus- 
picion of complicity 
in, 172 

premonition of Charles's 
. return, 282 

release from imprison- 
ment by Royal order, 

Cheshire 

Sale'simprisonment in • * Little 
Ease," 325 

travels in, 249, 311, 404 
Chester River, North America, 

43i» 435 
Chesterfield, arrest at, 43 

Chetham's, Sherifif, charges against 

Fox, 315 

Chiswick, "Friends'" school at, 

487 

Christmas charities, Fox's, 7 

" Church Faith, "publication of, 279 

Fox's reply, 385 

Churches and^ Church worship, 

views on, 9, 22, 30, 69, 72, 87, 

91. "3 
see also Steeple-bouses 

Clawson, Visit to, 26 

Claypole, J., cure of, 475 

Clay pole, Lady, letter to, 272 

Cobb, Sir F., acquaintance with, 

389. 391 
Cockan, narrow escapes at, 95, 9$ 

Cockermouth, meeting near, 112 

Colchester, visits to, 144, 461, 483 

Collumpton, journey to, 350 

•' Common Prayer," reply to, 558 

Common-prayer men, discussion 

with, 21 

Communion, Holy 

Fox*s view of, 227 

transubstantiation, discussion 
on, 269 



'i4 



500 



INDEX 



Confiscation of " Friends* " goods, 
letter on, 476 

Contempt of Court, imprison' 
ment of "Friends'* for, 230 

Conventicle Act, Fox's declara- 
tion against, 411 

Corbet's, Counsellor, defence of 
Fox, 155 

Cork's, Mayor of, warrants against 
Fox, 403 

Cornwall 

increase of " Friends '* in, ao6 
wreckers, address to, 996 

Costrop's, R., mission to Smyrna, 

335 
Coventry, visits to, ^, 8, 155 

Cradock, Dr., religious discus- 
sion with, 7 
Cranbrook, "Friends'" meeting 

at, 346 
Crantsick, visits to, 60, 74 
Craven, R., friendship with, 142 
Criminals, treatment of, 53 
Cromwell, Oliver 

collection for relief of foreign 
Protestants, proclamation 
of, 276 
death of, 279 

disbandment of Quaker sol- 
diers, X27 
election as king rumoured, 

272 
Fasts, [National, proclama- 
tion of, 2J5, 276 
Hambleton's, Lady Margaret, 

warning to, 252 
Instrument of Government, 

154. 218, 250 
lying in state, Fox*s letter on, 

284 
relations with Fox 

interviews, 140, 142, 225, 

226, 272, 278 
Launceston Jail, appeal 

from, 181 
letters, 139, 150, 181, 272, 

459 
plots, suspicion of Fox*s 
complicity in, 137, 302, 



, 344. 347. 355 
I, Ricfc 



Cromwell, Richard 
letters to, 459 

proclamation as Protector, 
279 
Crook, followers at, 86 
Crook, J. 

arrest at Warwick, 154 

friendship with, 147 



Crossland*s, Sir J., visit to Scar- 
borough Prison, 389 

Cubban's, R., appeal to the Coun- 
tess of Derby, 361 

Cummins, T., friendship with, 301 

Cures effected by Fox, 42, 112, 

475 
Curtis, Ann, friendship with, 222, 

308 
Curtis, T., work with, 222, 233, 
296 

Dalston, stay at, 482 
Dantzig, persecution of "Friends" 
at 
" Magistrates oi Dantzig, To 



the,'* 458 
Poland, King of, 
486 



appeal to. 



I 



Darcy, Lady Abigail, visit to, 397 
Davenport, Captain, acquaiint- 

ance with, 265 
Davis's, R., recommendation of 

counsel, 455 
Deal, "Friends'" meeting near, 

417 
Death, Fox's, 495 
Delaware river, passage of, 43a 
Denmark, King of, letter to, 484 
Dennis's, Col.," Friends'" meeting 

at, 287 
Derby 

arrest and imprisonment at, 43 
lamentation over, 55 
Derby's, Countess of, persecution 

of " Friends," 360 
Derbyshire, travels in, 11, 21, 23, 

43. 129. 410 

Desborougb, Major-Gen., meet- 
ings with, 165, 218 

Devonshire, spread of Fox's teach- 
ing in, 206 

Devonshire House, "Friends'" 
meeting at, 473 

Dewes, Col,, acquaintance with, 
436 

Dewsbury, W., visit in prison to, 

139 
" Directory, The," reply to, 385 
"Discerning of Spirits," Fox's 

claim to, 114, 418 
Dissenters, sympathy with, 12 
Divinity, Fox's *' Openings " con- 
cerning, 26 
Dixon's, Alex., " Friends' " meet- 
ing at, 109 
Doctrines, Fox's 

fonns, outward, vanity of, 31 



INDEX 



501 



Doctrines, Fox's 

ministry, unpaid, 35, 7a, loi, 

ao6. 247, 434 
non-resistance to evil, see that 

title 
schismatics, j«« Schism among 

"Friends" 
sin, present freedom from, sS, 

44, 46, 14s, 280 
Spirit of God in men, 66, 70, 
78, 80, loo, 113. 178, 224, 
261,405,434 
Dodgson, Constable, 394 
Doily, Bray, visit to, 442 
Doncaster, mobbing at, 80 
Dorchester, visits to, 156, 289 
Dorsetshire, spread of Fox's teach- 
ing in, 206 
Douglas, visit to, 251 
Downer's, Ann, kindness, 180 
Drayton-in-the-Clay 
birth at, i 
Stevens, Nathaniel, see that 

tide 
visit to relations in, 130 
Dreams, theory on, 10 
Dress, Fox's, 68, 76, i^ 
Drunkenness, denunciations on, 

155. 221. 309 
Drury's, Capt., custody of Fox, 

138 
Dry, Widow, stay with, 419 

Dublin, visit to, 402 
Dumfries, journey to, 251 
Dunbar, preaching at, 266 
Duncan, K., friendship with, 144 
Dungeons, confinement in 

Carlisle, 118 

Derby, 51 

Launceston, 179 

East India Company's opposition 

to China Mission, 335 
Easton*s, Nicholas, hospitality, 

433 
Ecdes's, Solomon, American tour, 

422, 430 
Edinburgh, visits to, 264, 266 
council, arrest and banish- 
ment by, 255 
Edmonton Side, visit to, 484 
Edmundson's, W., American tour, 

422,430 
Education 
" Concerning the Ordering of 
Families," 459 
teachings on, 34 
Edwards's, E., preaching, 244 



Egypt, Quaker missionaries in, 

ia7» 335 
Election 

Fox's views on, 71 
Scotch priests' teaching, 252 
EUwood's, T., meeting with schis- 
matics at, 462 
Enfield, visits to, 419, 482, 484, 485, 

487, 491, 492 
Epping, stay at, 485 
Essex, travels in, 279, 285,410, 4A2, 

487, 491 
Eton, preaching at, 23 
Excise men, warning to, 42 
Execution, threats of, 120 
Exeter 

imprisonment of "Friends* 

at, 207, 222 
visit to, 222 

Falmouth, preaching at, 163 
" Families, The Ordering of,'* 459 
Family, Fox's, 3, 5, 11. 49, 51, 131 

(for particular persons, see their 

names) 
Farnham, letter to magistrates at, 

^amsworth, R., friendship with, 

84» 89* 131 
Fasting 

Fox's fasts, zi, loi, iii 

" Friends' '* disregard of fast 

days, 441 
National fasts, Cromwell's 
proclamations of, 235, 276 
Fell, Judge 

friendshipwith, 86, 90, 98, 100, 

III 
son, mob attack on, 92 
son-in-law, 214 
warrant against Walney 
rioters, 97 
Fell, Henry 

assault on, 318 
mission to Egypt; 535 
Fell, Leonard, companionship of, 

346 
Fell, Margaret (afterwards Mrs. G. 

Fox) 
Charles II. 

appeal for Fox's libera- 
tion to, 306, 308, 455 
intercession for ** Friends " 

with, ^20 
release from prison by, 
421 
family, 439, 441, 442, 487, 
491 



' 



SOi IN 

Fd, Uamcel 

fticDcbhip with Fm, 86, 97, 

loa, »97, aoB, «4. 357 
Hacker, Col., mlernev in 

prison witb, 138 
impruonnKDt. 366, 3B4, 410 
letter to magiitrata, 304 
marriage to Fox, 406 

America, Fox ■ departure 

Cor, 433,433 
enate, tdtlcmeDt ol, 467 
IWlers, 4'o. 4"?, 439. 44a 
readeace with Fox, 40S, 
_^ ^439.441.484 
tithe diipote, 465 
Pel)'*, Saiah, appeal lo Cbailes II. 

for Mrs. Fox a release, 410 
FifUi Mooarcbf men 

inniirection oF, 317, 330 
oMhi, scTvples against. 400 
Fits of Loodon, 385, 393, 395 

" Friends,' " propbecy of, 394 
Fisher's, M., app^ to Charles H. 

for Mis. Fox's release, 421 
Fleetwood. Charles, L^dj Ham- 

Uetm's wanting to, 353 
Flemingi Francis, persecution oF 



Flemme, Judge 
F^ Margai 



erf, 3W 
Fox's letta- to, 370 
' ' Friends' " iraralrtg lo^ 366 
mlsfoRiines, 394 
otter of reward FM Fox's ap- 
pcehensioa, 353, 358 
Flushing, N. America, visit to, 

433.43s. ^ , 
Food in prison, Fox s, 390 
Ford Gteart. visits to, 4S4, 491 
Fotstall, R., stay with, 436 
Fonter's, T., ship, voyage to 



Foster, Chief Just 
bef<a«, 313, 313 
Foster, Lieut., acquaintance with, 



Fox, Christopher, i, 135 

Fox, John, 405 

Fox, Mrs. C, I 

Fox, Mrs. G„ set Fell, Margaret 

Fraud, protests against, 33 



peiseeuiion of " Friends," stt 

that title 
preaching, 33, 43.78,137. ^x, 
344, 346. 354, 360.435. 4^. 
473 
catalogue of preachers, 
4^ 
prcspenty, 115, lao 



Furljr s, Benj., contriuition to the 



GaihsborouGH, Pleaching at, 7B 
Gandy, W., friendship wiUi, 311, 

404 
Garshore, ndt lo. 353 
Germany 

joutne]' to, 460 
progress of work in, 493 
Gerrard^ Lord, protection, 319 



Goh&ejr's, H., hoitse, Fox's death 
in, 494 

Goldsmith s, R. , mission to Gover- 
nor Endicott, 339 

Giaceohnich Street, "Friends'" 
meeting at, 413, 469, 471, 474, 
- 476. 494" 

Giavesand, visit to, 433 

Gravesend 

illness at, 418 

voyage lo America from, 423 

Gray's, R,, ship, passage to Hoi 
land in, 4S3 

Graytigg, " bends' " meeting at, 
109 

Grazier, apprenticeship ta 3 

Green, T., friendship with, 301 

Green's, Widow, schemes against 
Fox, 84 



INDEX 



503 



Gregory, Judge, appeal against 

tithes to, 465 
Guildford, visit to, 474 
Gwin, Paul, dispute with, 223 

Hacker, CoL 

arrest of Fox, 137, 278, 344, 
347, 355 

execution of, 138, 32a 
Hacker, Mrs., adoption of Fox's 

doctrines by, 153 
Hacker, N^ enmity of, 137 
Hapfget, Mrs., discipleshipof, 206 
Hains, R., enmity of, 442 
Hair, Fox's, 162, 248 
Hale, Chief Justice, trial before, 

456 
Halford's, J., Fox's arrest at, 441 
Halifax, ** Friends' " meeting near, 

127 
Hambery, R., visit to, 399 
Hambleton, Lady M., disciple- 
ship of, 252 
Hambley, Mrs., friendship with, 

214, 221 
Hammersley, T. , visit to, X30 
Hammersmith, ** Friends' " meet- 
ing at, 490 
Hampton Court, interview with 

Cromwell at, 278 
Harborough, journey through, 

139 
Hartshorn, H. and R., 433 

Harvey's attendance on Crom- 
well, 140, 279 
Harwich, journeys to, 461, 483 
Harwood, R., visit to, 436 
Hastings's, Lord, protection, 346 
Hat honour, refused of, 31, 32, 33, 
76, 126, 146, 166, 167, 171, 177, 
178, 188, 189, 190, 197, 213, 230, 
241, 265, 282, 289, 312, 323, 358, 

362, 365. 415 
Scripture proofs in favour of, 
182 
Haverfordwest, preaching at, 242 
Hawking, condemnation, of, 221 
Heads, visits to, 251, 252, 260 
Hedgdey, " Friends' " meeting at, 

46^ 
Helston, journey through, 159 
Hendon, visit to, 441 
Herefordshire, travels in, 396 
Hertfordshire, travels in, 399, 410 
Hewes's, Priest, intolerance, 326 
High-Town, narrow escape at, 83 
" Higher Power, The,*' 459 
Highlands, travels in, 252, 261 



Hilton's information against Fox, 

470 
Holder's, C, work in Amenca, 

435 
Holes, Sergeant, attempted im- 
pressment by, 54 
Holker Hall, meeting of justices 
„at, 353 
Holland 

journeys to, 460, 482 

** Friends' " work in, 127, 335, 

493 
war with England, 336, 385 

Holmes, T., companionship of, 233 

Holstein, Duke of, letter to, 484 

Holy-days, "Friends'" disregard 

of. 31. 33. 441 
Hookes's, £., appeal for Fox's 

release, 392 
Hooton, Elizabeth, 11 
America, tour in, 422 
death, 430 
Homchurch, visit to, 418 
Horses, affection for, 245, 298 
Hotham, Justice, friendship with, 

60, 62, 74, 88 
House of Correction, Derby, con- 
finement in, 44 
House of Lords, ** Friends,' " 

pleading before, 317, 348 
Howgill, F., compajiionship of, 

296 
Hubbersty, M. and S., 86 
Hubberthom, R. 

Charles H., appeals against 

persecution to, 317, 337 
travelswith Fox, 104, 287, 3x1, 
313, 320 
Hull, preaching at, 77 
Hull's, J., American tour, 422 
Hull. Priest, rebuke to, 292 
Hunger Hill, "Friends'" meeting 

at, 462 
Hunter's, Jailer, inhumanity, 387, 

395 
Hunting, condemnation of, 221 

Huntingdon's, R., prophecies at 
Carlisle, 325 

Huntingdonshire, travels in, 287, 
4x0 

Hutton, T., friendship with, 96 

Hyde Park, interview with Crom- 
well in, 225 

Illness, Fox's, 7, 281, 385, 387, 
388, 389, 390.395»4i8, 419.421, 
426, 454, 458, 460, 484, 485, 487, 
488 



''Cvliila, 117 

Lwiauter, joo, 311 

LauiKCSton, 166 

Leiceiler, 138, 341 

Nociioghiun, 36 

Scarboro', 3B9 

V/ottxsta, 443 
iDCome, Foi's, S 
Independent Churcbea of Scot- 
land, aS3 
litdepaidents 

dtaetmiiuu with. 31, 145 

followen unong, 69, 83, 253 

opposition from, i43.iS3p "43 
Indlaat, North Americaui, mcel- 

Ings with, 43a. 43S 
" Industrr," i.t., voyage in, 433 
Infdrmen agunst "Ftieodi, 413, 

4*0, 468, 470. 479 
Inns, retuial of bospitauty al, 63, 

" Inspiration, ntevelation, anil 

Prophecj," 458 
Initrument of government, 154, 



318, ajo 
Insurrectiona, Hi 






baoisbment to, propo«ed, 56 

conlribullons for n^ef of 

"Friends" from, 4BJ 

tonniey to, 401 
etter to " Friends " in, 403 
penixnitioa of " Friends in, 

373 
Stubbs'i. J., preaching in, 1*7 

LCKUS, Priest, oppodtioo of. 100, 



condition, unsanitary, iiS, 

179- »77, 374. 381 
pnaching in. 49, 343 



immals. 53 

inhumanitj of, 45, 46, 166, 
179, 1B3. 184. 317, 301, 
34". 349. 387 
Jam^ca 

"Fr)«nds"iil. 494 
viail to, ^19 
Jenkln,W., frtendship with. 154, 



Jenn, E. and W. 

faomejr throngh. 413. 433 
letter to " Friends' in, 491 

IP transubslantia- 



Sl.1l,,™,,, 



igol 

iobUn, Jailer, enmity of, 3 
ohQ-ap-John 



Jones's, Atlomej, defence of Fox, 

445 
Jordan*, " Fnends' meeting at. 



Judges and Uaf^strates 
elocution of "--"-- 

judges, 333 

Foi'i relations with 

adherents am. 

17&, 206, 331 

appearances t 

39. *3. 49. 76. 80, ^, 



356. "99. 313' 344. 347. 

354. 358,36". 365-37'. 

374. 38'. 415. 443. 444. 

447. 448. 450. 456. 467. 

478 
letters to, 105, lai 

"49. 4«. 459. 468, 

474 
warnings to, 34, 33. 53. 

JudgnNnI, Spiritual, 459 

Keat, CapL, ill treatment by, 

163, 165, i8[ 
Keith, G., 461 

Kellelt. Priest, warnings to. 31 
Kendal, challenge to discussion 

Kent, travels in, 331, 417 
Kidsey Park, visits to, 43, lag 
Kilam's, John, orchard, annual 



King's Bench, i ^ 

308, 444. 455 
Kingsbridge, preaching at, 15a 
Kingston, visits to, 335, 378, 079, 

440. 46a, 475, 481 



i 



INDEX 



505 



Kingston 

Rous*s, J., honse at, 432, 482, 
484. 488, 490 
Kirby, CoL 

enmity of, 352. 360, 373, 381, 

386, 394, 420 
Fell's, Margaret, imprison- 
ment, 366 
Knipe, informer, 354, 395 

Lago, Mary, see Fox, Mrs. C. 

Lampitt, Priest, opposition of, 86, 
89, 91, 92, 94, 108 

Lancashire, travels in, 91, zii, 404 

Lancaster, visits to, 102, 250, 311 
imprisonment at, 298, 359 

Lancaster, J. 

America, tour in, 422, 430, 435 
friendship with, 95, 112, 113, 

, 439 

Ireland, visit to, 401 

Johnstons, banishment from, 
262 

Land's End 

address to parishes at, 160 
wreckers, appeal to. 290 

Land's End, Ireland, visit to, 403 

Laughter, disapproval of, 157 

Launceston 

imprisonment at, 164, 165, 166 
mayor's persecution of 

"Friends," 207 
visit to, 222 

Law 

criminal law, severity of, 53 
Fox's appeals to, 164, 173, 
185. 198, 299, 340, 345, 

374. 38a. 4SP. 453. 4^7 
" Openmgs, ' concerning, 26 

Lawrence's, Capt., "Friends'" 
meeting at, 144, 145 

Lawson, Priest, convictions of, 96 

Lawson, W., persecution by, 117 

Leather garments. Fox's, 68 

Leek, J. , visit to, 59 

Legacies for charitable purposes, 
advice on, 428 

Leicestershire 
birthplace, i 
imprisonment in, 341 
travels, 11, 21, 42, 57, 130, 

137. 153. 339. 410 
Leitb, visit to, 264 
Leominster 

preaching at, 238 
Presbvterian meeting at, 396 
Leper's, T., house, seanm for Fox 
in, 103 



Letters, Fox's, 33, 48, 105, zo8, 
109, 121, 147, 150, 208, 209, 
214, 257, 309, 463, 476, 482, 
484, 491, 492 

Lichfield, proclamation of '* woe " 

to. 57 
Lincolnshire, travels in, 77 

Linlithgow, visit to, 255 
Liverpool, passage to Ireland 

from, 401, 404 
Lodge, R., tour in Ireland with, 

401 
London 

arrest in, 278, 279 

fire of, 385, 393, 394, 395 

Jesuit challenge to Quakers, 

267 
Mayor's, Lord, persecution 

of " Friends," 417 
plague, 385 

visits to, 4, 139, 153, 155, 225, 
227, 285, 288, 395, 398, 400, 
413, 440, 460, 463, 467,475, 
482, 484, 486, 487, 490, 491, 
492 
Long Island, journeys to, 433, 

435 
Love's, J., imprisonment at Rome, 

327 
Lower, H., friendship with, 177, 

221 
Lower's, Mary, appeal to Chas. II. 

for Mrs. Fox's release, 4x0 
Lower, T., friendship with, 214, 

439, 442, 443 
Lucerne, national collection for 

persecuted Protestants in, 276 
Lutterworth, residence at, 4 

Macham, Priest, visit to, 7 

Magistrates, see Judges and Magis- 
trates 

Magna Charta, Pyot's appeal to, 
186 

Mallet, Judge, trial before, 312, 
316 

Malton, *' Friends' " meetings at, 
68, 69, 389 

Man, E., friendship with, 446, 490 

Mancetter, visits to, 6 

Manchester, summons before 
magistrate at, 249 

Mansfield, visits to, 17, 20 

Mansfield-Woodhouse, mobbing 

at, 39 
Market-Bosworth, stoning at, 42 
Market-Jew, attempted arrest at, 

159 



506 



INDEX 



MarriajR 

Bui, Parliamentaiy, against 
dandestine mainages* 491 
Fox's marriage, 407 
regulations for marriages of 
*' Friends,** 398. 428 
Marsh, Esq , friendship with, 313, 

3»8, 391. 3^. 400, 401 
Marshall's, Priest, slandersagainst 

Fox, 83, 98 
Marshalsea Prison, Leicester, con- 
finement in, '139 
Maryland 

letter to *' Friends," 491 
progress of work in, 494 
visits to, 431, 436 
" Mass, The," reply to, 385 
May-Games, denunciation of, 33, 
309 

Mayors, support of, 147, aaa, 241, 

325 
Mead, W., friendship with, 465. 

467, 471, 487, 491 
Medicine, proposed study of, ag 
Meetings, " Fnends' " 

America, arrangements in, 

431. 436 
apprenticeship of poor 

children at, 408 

institution of, 396, 399 

Jamaica, arrangements in, 430 

notice of marriages, 399 

prohibition of, 347, 396, 411 

Skipton business meeting, 295 

women's meeting, 396, 440 

jrearly meetings, 433, 449, 

460, 461, 463* 46s. 476, 
482, 484, 486, 487, 490 
Mendelsham, visit to, 144 
" Mermaid, The," Charing Cross, 

detention at, 139, 142, 145 
Middleton, Sir G., enmity of, 355 
Middletown, visit to, 433 
Miers's, Elizabeth, journey to 

America, 42a 
Miles River, 431, 436 
Millom-in-Bootle, visit to, 113 
Milner's, J., schism, iii 
Mission, Fox's, 90, 337, 330 
Missions, foreign; 137, 396, 327, 

338,459 , 
Mot)6, attacks by, 39, 43, 80, 83, 

92, 95, 116, 134, 135, 147, 154, 
349 
Money, refusal of offers of, 73, 314 
Monk, Gen., 288 

order against molestation of 
*' Friends," 393 



Monmoath's, Duke of. Rebellion, 
484 

Monmouthshure, travels m, ygi^ 

Montague, Judge, appeal against 
tithes to, 466 

Montgomeryshire, travels in, 237 

Moor^, T. , appeal against perse- 
cution to Charles IL , 321 

Morrioe, Paul, 404 

Mounce's. T. , orchard, "Friends' " 
meeting in, 221 

Mount, Constable, 01 -treatment 

l3y. 397. 395 
Music, dls:^>proval of, 33 

Myer*s, R., schism, izi 

Nailsworth, reports against Fox 
at, 404 

Nancemum, visit to, 436 

Narraganset, "Friends"* meet- 
ing at, 434 

Naylor, J. 

friendship with, 82, 89, 95, 

schism of, 333 
Negro slaves, treatment of, 428 
Nevis 

progress of work in, 494 
•• Watching," 458 
New England 

letter to "Friends" in, 491 
' persecution in, 376, 328 

' ' Cain against Abel, " 458 
progress of work in, 494 
visit to, 431 
Newcastle, North America, visit 

to, 433 
Newport*s, Earl of, house, debate 

at, 267 
Newport Pagnell, stay at, 4 
Nicholson, J., visit to, X12 
Non-resistance to evil, '* Friends'** 
principle of, 128, 163, 181, 298, 
316, 323, 327, ^7. 391, 413, 4SK 
Norfolk, travels m, 144, 285, 287 
Northamptonshire 

Major-General of, 226 
travels in, 4, 153 
Northumberland, persecution in, 

351 
Norwichi warrant against Fox at, 

285 

Nottmghamshire, travels in, ii 

17, 19, 32, 23, 77 

imprisonment at Nottingham, 

35 
Nun-Eaton, '* Friends'" meetin 
at, 311 



\ 



INDEX 



507 



Oakhampton, see Okington 
Oaths, "Friends"* scruples 
against, 24, 231, 309, 400 
abjuration, oath of, 149, 162, 

174. ^77 
allegiance and supremacy, 
oath of, 341, 344, 359, 
362, 371, 444 
Charles II., letter of 
appeal to, 338 
Bill, Parliamentary, modifica- 
tion of, 491 
House of Lords, pleading 

before, 317 
letters to magistrates, Fox's, 

162, 169, 336, 458 
publication of "Friends"* 
defence, 336 
Okington, visit to, 222 
Oldstone, visit to, 408 
Osbum, Col. W., friendship with, 

251, 252, 260, 261 
Otway's, Sir J., order fw Mrs. 

Fox*s release, 410 
Owen, Dr., meeting with, 226 
Oxfordshire, travels in, 408, 442 
Oyster Bay, " Friends' " meeting 
at, 433. 435 

Pachyn, T., arrest of, 320 
Papists, see Catholics, Roman 
Parker, Alex. , friendship with, 137, 
142, 398, 417 
Holland, joum^ to, 482 
Scotland, tour in, 262, 263, 264 
Parker, Justice, imprisonment by,' 

441. 447. 455 
Parliament 

appeals against persecution 

, to, 460, 463, 484 

Bill for indulgence, 490 

letters to, Fox's, 277, 459 

Little Parliament's address 

to the Carlisle magistrates, 

121 
Long Parliament, dissolution 

of. III 

Pamell, J., friendship with, 133 
Patrington, seizure at, 75 
Pattison, G., travels with, 422, 

430. 433 
Patuxent, *' Friends " meetmg at, 

436, 437 
Peak district, travels in, 11, 129 
Pearson's, A., compilation of 

"Friends'" commitments, 284 
Pearson's, Justice, friendship, 118, 

122 



"Peel, The," "Friends'" meet- 
ings at, 471, 472 
Pembrokeshire, travels in, 242 
Pendennis Castle, conveyance to, 

164 
Penn, W., friendship with, 439, 
441, 470 
Holland, journey to, 461 
Pennington, I., visit to, 27^ 
Pennsylvania, letter to " Friends ** 

in, 491 
Penryn, journey through, 159 ' 
Perrot's, J., disdpleship, 327, 328 
Persecution of "Friends, 6, 33, 
81, 82, 94, 104, 119, 121, 
128, 149, 153, 206, 280, 327, 
420, 460, 463, 467, 476 
Charles II. 

letters of protest to, 309, 

,337 . 

release of pnsoners, 317, 

486 

Cromwell, appeals to, 225, 
226, 279 

Fifth Monarchy men, sus- 
picion of "Friends'" con- 
spiracy with, 320 

Fox's persecutors, fate of, 108, 

395. 453. 467 
Imprisonment, 182, 207, 213, 

230, 277, 281, 341, 350, 445, 
446, 449, 480 
laws against Dissenters, en- 
forcement of, 471 
money awards for appre- 
hension of " Friends, ' 352 
Parliament, appeals to, 484 
records of persecution. Fox's, 

252, 322, 333, 371 
Skipton meetmg for aiding 

sufferers, 296 
see also Names of " Friends" 
Peter's, H., comment on Fox's 

imprisonment, 182 
Physic, study of, 25, 26 
Pickering, Fox's Uncle, 5 
Pickering, visit to, 71 
Pitway's, £., appeal for Fox's re- 
lease, 454 
Plague, outbreak of, 385 
Plots and insurrections 

accusations against Fox, 172, 

301, 304^ 355 

Fifth Monarchy men, insurrec- 
tion of, 317 

"Friends'" declarations 
against, 318,' 320, 321, 464, 

485 



\ 



508 



INDEX 



Plots and iosaneetiMis 

Monmouth's rebdtton. 484 
Popish plot, 463 
Plymouth, '* FHends *' iii« 221 
P&oock*s hypocrisx, rebuke to, 

Pcdand 

King of, letter to, 486 
national collection for Protes- 
tant exiles from, 976 
PoUtics, ■' Friends'" views on, 

98a 
PoUexfen's, H., imprisonment, 

ao7 
Poor relief 

Fox's charity, 7, 31, 85 
'* Friends," provision for re- 
lief of, 996, 403 
apprentioeship, Fox's 

letter on, 408 
Ireland, contributions 

from, 481; 
le£pu:ies, disposal of, 410 
Skipton meeting, arrange- 
ments at, 995 
"Pope's Strength Broken, The," 

336 
Porter's, Major, imprisonment of 

Fox, 297, 299, 307. 394 
"Possession is above Profession, 

Spiritual," 458 
Prsemunire, sentence of 

Fell's, M., imprisonment, 384 
Fox, sentence passed on, 455 
Preaching 

address to "Friends"* min- 
istry, 2x4 
Fox's preaching 
impression of, 60 
jail, preaching in, 344 
mission. Fox's, 99, 30 
three hours' sermons, 237, 
938 
Premonitions, Fox's, 78, iii, 246, 

278, 288, 384, 441. 442 
Presbyterians 

discussions with, 21, 118 
opposition from. 153, 290, 396 
reports of Fox's conversion to 
Presbyterianism, 404 
Preston, visits to, 250, 311 
Preston, Judge 
death of, ^94 

Fell's, Margaret, imprison- 
ment, 366 

Pr-Ki JSITS* **^^i?^' ^P"^' 353. 354 
raston, Mrs., abuse from, 301 

Price's, P., disdpleship. 154 



tnesis 

apostolic siicoessian,:book on, 

458 
''Book of the Fighting 

Priests," 38z 
dispute with, 67, 69, 89, 90, 

118, 131, 133, 238, 286 
education as priest, proposed, 

2 
followers among, 64, 65, 67, 

71. 72* 73 

** Hireling" priests, denuncia- 
tions on, 21, 6z, 70, 72, 
loi, 122, 131, 132, 134, I4O1 
947 

persecution instigated by, 121, 

259 
"Scotch priests' prindpks, " 

3^^353 
University training for, 8, 147 
Prisons, i«» Jails 
Prophecies 

Brown's foiesight of Fox's 

career, z8 
** Friends'" prophecies, 283, 

324, 394 
premonitions, Fox*s, see that 
tide 
Protestants, foreign, national col- 
lection for, 276 
Public-house keepers, warning to, 

Puritans 

execution of, 339 
letter to, 988 

prophecies against, 284, 293, 
323, 324 
Pursbe, Capt., friendship with, 

59, 60, 6i, 74 
Pyot, £. , association with, 157, 159, 
x6z, 162, 168 
arrest at St. Ives, 161 
Cromwell, visit to, 296 
illness, 158 
letter to Judge Glynne, 185 

Quakers 

nickname given to Fox's fol- 
lowers, 48, 81, 148 
"Quakers are not a Sect," 

303 
" shaking of hearts," 20 
see fl/w "Friends" 

Radnorshire, great meeting in, 

237 
Ranters, discussions with, 40, 64, 

651 139, 130, 286 






iNDlax 



509 



Rawlinson, Judge 
death, ^94 

opposition from, 354, 358 
Rawlinson, T. 

, persecution of, 207 
tour in Scotland, 264 
Reading, visit to, 282 
Redruth, journey to, 162 
Registration of births, marriages, 

and burials, •* Friends*," 428 
Reprobation 

Fox's views on, 71 
Scotch priests' teaching, 252 
Revelations, book of, Fox's views 

on, 10 
Rhode Island, visit to, 433 
Richardson, R., acquaintance 

with, 297 
Rickmansworth, Penn's house at, 

441 
Ripan, Major, discipleship of, 

zoi 
Roberts, G., friendship with, 416, 
419, 429, 447 
arrest at Warwick, 154 
Robinson, A., discipleship of, 254 
Robinson, Col., persecution of 

*• Friends " by, 348 
Robinson, Justice, acquaintance 

with, 71, 7^, 88 
Rochester, visit to, 418 
Rome 

Church of, departure from 

primitive doctrine, 268 
imprisonment of *' Friends *' 
at, 327 
Rotterdam, visit to, 461 
Rous, J., 410, 417, 422, 439, 442, 
484, 488, 490 
America, voyage to, 422, 427, 

430 
Rous, M. , illness of, 482 

Rouse's, Col., friendship, 178 

Rye, N. America, "Friends"* 

work at, 435 

Ryegate, visit to, 156 

Sacraments 

Baptism, Infant, 22, 31, 156, 

400 
Communion, Holy, see that 
title 
St. Ives, arrest at, i6z 
"Saints' Heavenly and Spiritual 

Worship," 481 
Sale*s, R., sufferings, 325 
/Sallee warship, threatened attack 
by, 423, 425 



Salmon, J., recantation of Ran- 
ters* doctrines by, 41 
Salt's, W., imprisonment, 173 
Sanders, Mary, discipleship of, 

225 
Sands, Adam, letter to, xo8 
Sands, Capt., interview with, 88 
"Savoy,*' the, "Friends'" meet- 
mg at, 477, 478 
Fox's arrest, 478 
Savoy's, Duke of, persecution of 

Protestants, 276 
Sawrey, Justice, antagonism of, 
87, 88, 89, 92, 97, 98, 100, 108 
letter to, 105 
Saxifrax River, passage of, 432, 

^435 

Scafe, Philip, adherence of, 64, 65, 
66 

Scarborough 

imprisonment at, 389 
work in, 68 

Schism among "Friends," in, 
221, 328, 462 

Schools 

address to schoolmasters, 34 
"Friends*'* school at Chis- 
wick, 487 

Scotland 

banishment of Fox, 257 

" Friends' " preaching in, 127, 

143. 254 
"priests' curses," 253 
travels in, 251 
Selby, visit to, 59 
Servants, app^ to justices on 

behalf of, 24 
Shad's information against Fox, 

479 
Shaking of hearts, 20 

see also Quakers 

Sbarman's, T., discipleship, 338 

Shattock's, S., banishment from 

New England, ^9 

Shelter Island, visit to, 434 

Sheppy, Isle of, visit to, 417 

Shirehampton, landing at, 439 

Shoemaking, apprenticeship to, 2 

Sight, loss of, 24, 418 

Simpson, Justice, enmity of, 444, 

453 
Skipton, "Friends'" business 

meeting at, 295 
Slanders against Fox and his fol- 
lowers, 52, 78, 79, 83, 105, 
109, 142, 153, 194, 404 
certificates from justices, Fox's 
collection of, 459 



510 



INDEX 



Slanders against Fox, ftc— 

see also Witchcraft, accusa- 
tions of 
Slattenford,:Oppo8ition to women's 

nieetin||;s at, 440 
Slaves, '* Friends' " treatment of, 

438 
Smethick, see Falmouth 
Smith, W., friendship with, 340, 

34a 
Somerset House, proposed pur- 
chase of, 383 
Somersetshire 

increase of " Friends " in, ao6 
travels in, Fox's, 290 
South Street, visit to, 484, 485 
Spencer. Justice, trial before, 358 
Spitaiaelds, "Friends'" meeting 

**' 475 . 
Staffordshire, travels in, 311 

Stage, denunciation of, 33, 34 

Star-gnzing, censure on, 34 

Starling, S., treatment of 

** Friends* "bjr, 417 
Stath, preaching at, 63 

Steeple-houses 

^ Fox's preaching in, 22, 36, 
40. 43. 59.61,64,70, 77.79- 
80, 81, 83, 85, 87, 89. 9a, 
113, 115, 266 
House of Lords, "Friends*" 
pleading against Church 
attendance before, 317 
protests of*' Friends " against, 
23, 182, 230, 241, 260 

Stevens, N., persecution by, 6, 41, 

131 

Stoclcs, punishment in the, 39, 83 

Stoddart, Amor, 20 

arrest at Warwick, 154 
death, 419 

mobbing by students at Cam- 
bridge, 147 

Stoning by mobs, 80, 81, 82, 96, 

155. 249 
Storr's, M. , imprisonment, 139 

Stot, Widow, stay with, 482 

Stratford, illness at, 418 

Street, Justice, trial before, 449, 

453 
Stroude's, G., defence of Fox, 446 

Stubbs,J., 418 

" Battledore, '^contribution to, 

334 
impnsonment, 367 

Ireland, tour in, 401 
missionary work, 127, 335, 
422, 430 



Suffolk, travels in, 144, 285 

Suicide's burial, 79 

Surrey, travels in, 156, 231, 474 

Sussex, travels in, 231. 417, 474 

SwanningtOQ, 346 
BmstRt, 339 

Swarthmore 
arrest at, 297 
books written at, 458 
erection of meeting-house at, 

89 
tithe dispute, 464 

visits to, 86, 88, 89, 94, 97, 

105, III, 190, 250, 296, 311, 

352.462 

Swearing, see Oaths, *' Frioids' " 

scruples against 

Sympscm's, W., profdiecies, 325 

Talk, Fox*s paper on, 489 
Tamworth, visit to, 6 
Taylor, J. , friendship with, 352 
Taylor, T., discipleship of, 90, 

127. 133. 238. 240 
Temptations, Fox's, 17, 19, 23 
Tenby, visit to, 240 
Tentotlen, arrest at, ^7 
"Testimony ooncermng Christ/* 

458 
Tewkesbury, visits to, 154, 293 

Thieves, meeting with, 261 
Thompson's, Justice, warrant 

against Fox, 97, 98, 100 
"T£ou and Thee,** "Friends"* 
usage of, 32, 62, 76, 126, 166, 
232,265.282,289, 323 
" Battledore. The,'* publica- 
tion of, 334 
Tickhill. mobbing at, 81 
Tithes. ' • Friends* " refusal of, 64, 
72, 121, 124, 131, 152, 153, 
230, 240 
Fox, Mrs. , prosecution of, 464 
House of Lords, " Friends' ** 

pleading before, 317 ~ 
letter on, Fox*s, 385 
Tobacco, dislike to, 6 
Toleration, religious, declarations 
of 
Breda, declaration of, 363 
Instrument of government, 
250 
Tombs, Priest, dispute with, 238 
Topsham, visit to, 157 
Totness, Pyot's illness at, 158 
Tottenham, visits to, 490, 491, 49.. 
Townsend, Priest, dispute with 
98<S 



INDEX 



511 



Transportation, Fox threatened 

with, 387 
Transubstantiation, discussion on, 
> 269 
Travels, Fox's, 4, 11, 227, 249, 

ue also Names of Places 
Tredington, "Friends'" meeting 

at, 448 
Trelawny's, Eliz., discipleship, 

213 
Tripe, N., visit to, 158 
Turks, defeat of, 384 
Tu